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JournalISSN: 0021-9118

The Journal of Asian Studies 

Cambridge University Press
About: The Journal of Asian Studies is an academic journal published by Cambridge University Press. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): China & Politics. It has an ISSN identifier of 0021-9118. Over the lifetime, 8049 publications have been published receiving 129534 citations. The journal is also known as: Journal of Asian Studies.
Topics: China, Politics, Communism, Colonialism, Nationalism

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TL;DR: This book discusses the construction of Illness Experience and Behavior in Chinese Culture in the context of Health Care Systems, Culture, Health Care systems, and Clinical Reality and its consequences.
Abstract: List of Figures Preface 1. Orientations 1: The Problem, the Setting, and the Approach 2. Orientations 2: Culture, Health Care Systems, and Clinical Reality 3. Orientations 3: Core Clinical Functions and Explanatory Models 4. The Cultural Construction of Illness Experience and Behavior, 1: Affects and Symptoms in Chinese Culture 5. The Cultural Construction of Illness Experience and Behavior, 2: A Model of Somatization of Dysphoric Affects and Affective Disorders 6. Family-Based Popular Health Care 7. Patients and Healers: Transactions Between Explanatory Models and Clinical Realities. Part 1. Sacred Folk Healer-Client Relationships 8. Patients and Healers: Transactions Between Explanatory Models and Clinical Realities. Part 2: Professional Practitioner-Patient and Family-Patient Relationships 9. The Healing Process 10. Epilogue: Implications Glossary Bibliography Index

3,130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relationship between thought and action is, to put it very mildly, a complicated issue as mentioned in this paper, and it is possible and common for human actors to conceive of a line of action that is, at the moment, either impractical or impossible.
Abstract: s on income, caloric intake, newspaper circulation, or radio ownership. I seek, then, not only to uncover and describe the patterns of everyday resistance as a distinctive behavior with far-reaching implications, but to ground that description in an analysis of the conflicts of meaning and value in which these patterns arise and to which they contribute. The relationship between thought and action is, to put it very mildly, a complicated issue. Here I wish to emphasize only two fairly straightforward points. First, neither intentions nor acts are \"unmoved movers.\" Acts born of intentions circle back, as it were, to influence consciousness and hence subsequent intentions and acts. Thus acts of resistance and thoughts about (or the meaning of) resistance are in constant communication-in constant dialogue. Second, intentions and consciousness are not tied in quite the same way to the material world as behavior is. It is possible and common for human actors to conceive of a line of action that is, at the moment, either impractical or impossible. Thus a person may dream of a revenge or a millennia! kingdom of justice that may never occur. On the other hand, as circumstances change, it may become possible to act on those dreams. The realm of consciousness gives us a kind of privileged access to lines of action that may-just may-become plausible at some future date. How, for example, can we give an adequate account of any peasant rebellion without some knowledge of the shared values, the \"offstage\" talk, the consciousness of the peasantry prior to rebellion?23 How, finally, can we understand everyday forms of resistance without reference to the intentions, ideas, and language of those human beings who practice it? The study of the social consciousness of subordinate classes is important for yet another reason. It may allow us to clarify a major debate in both the Marxist and non-Marxist literature--a debate that centers on the extent to which elites 23. Lest this seem implicitly and one-sidedly to treat consciousness as prior to and in some sense causing behavior, one could just as easily recoil one step and inquire about the construction of this consciousness. Such an inquiry would necessarily begin with the social givens of the actor's position in society. Social being conditions social consciousness. NORMAL EXPLOITATION, NORMAL RESISTANCE • 39 are able to impose their own image of a just social order, not simply on the behavior of non-elites, but on their consciousness as well. The problem can be stated simply. Let us assume that we can establish that a given group is exploited and that, further, this exploitation takes place in a context in which the coercive fOrce at the disposal of the elites and/or the state makes any open expression of discontent virtually impossible. Assuming, fur the sake of argument, that the only behavior observable is apparently acquiescent, at least two divergent interpretations of this state of affairs are possible. One may claim that the exploited group, because of a hegemonic religious or social ideology, actually accepts its situation as a normal, even justifiable part of the social order. This explanation of passivity assumes at least a fatalistic acceptance of that social order and perhaps even an active complicity-both of which Marxists might call \"mystification\" or \"false-consciousness.\" 24 It typically rests on the assumption that elites dominate not only the physical means of production but the symbolic means of production as welP5-and that this symbolic hegemony allows them to control the very standards by which their rule is evaluated. 26 As Gramsci argued, elites control the \"ideological sectors\" of society-culture, religion, education, and media-and can thereby engineer conser•t fur their rule. By creating and disseminating a universe of discourse and the concepts to go with it, by defining the standards of what is true, beautiful, moral, fair, and legitimate, they build a symbolic climate that prevents subordinate classes from thinking their way free. In fact, fur Gramsci, the proletariat is more enslaved at the level of ideas than at the level of behavior. The historic task of \"the party\" is therefOre less to lead a revolution than to break the symbolic miasma that blocks revolutionary thought. Such interpretations have been invoked to account fur lower-class quiescence, particularly in rural societies such as India, where a 24. See the argument along these lines by Richard Haggart, The Uses of Literacy (London: Chatto & Windus, 1954): 77-78. 25. In the Marxist tradition one might cite especially Antonio Gram~ci, Selections from the Priion Notebooks, ··ed. and trans. Quinten Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1971), 123-209, and Georg Lukacs, History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics, trans. Rodney Livingston (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1971). Marx, to my knowledge, never used the term \"falseconsciousness,\"\" although \"the fetishism of commodities\" may be read this way. But the fetishism of commodities mystifies especially the bourgeoisie, not merely subordinate classes. For a critical view of \"hegemony\" as it might apply to the peasantry, see James C. Scott, \"Hegemony and the Peasantry,\" Politics and Society 7, no. 3 (1977): 267-96, and chap. 7 below. 26. For other explanations of the same phenomenon, see, fur example, Frank Parkin, \"Class Inequality and Meaning Systems,\" in his Class Inequality and Political Order (New York: Praeger, 1971), 79-102, and Louis Dumont, Homo Hierarchicus (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1970). 40 • NORMAL EXPLOITATION, NORMAL RESISTANCE venerable system of rigid caste stratification is reinforced by religious sanctions. Lower castes are said to accept their fate in the Hindu hierarchy in the hope of being rewarded in the next life. 27 An alternative interpretation of such quiescence might be that it is to be explained by the relationships of fOrce in the countryside and not by peasant values and beliefs. 28 Agrarian peace, in this view, may well be the peace of repression (remembered and/or anticipated) rather than the peace of consent or complicity. The issues posed by these divergent interpretations are central to the analysis of peasant politics and, beyond that, to the study of class relationships in general. Much of the debate on these issues has taken place as if the choice of interpretation were more a matter of the ideological preferences of the analyst than of actual research. Without underestimating the problems involved, I believe there are a number of ways in which the question can be empirically addressed. It is possible, in other words, to say something meaningful about the relative weight of consciousness, on the one hand, and repression (in fact, memory, or potential) on the other, in restraining acts of resistance. The argument fur false-consciousness, after all, depends on the symbolic alignment of elite and subordinate class values-that is, on the assumption that the peasantry (proletariat) actually accepts most of the elite vision of the social order. What does mystification mean, if not a group's assent to the social ideology that justifies its exploitation? To the extent that an exploited group's outlook is in substantial symbolic alignment with elite values, the case fur mystification is strengthened; to the extent that it holds deviant or contradictory values, the case is weakened. A close study of the subculture of a subordinate group and its relation to dominant elite values should thus give us part of the answer we seek. The evidence will seldom be cut and dried, fur any group's social outlook will contain a number of diverse and even contradictory currents. It is not the mere existence of deviant subcultural themes that is notable, for they are well-nigh universal, but rather the forms they may take, the values they embody, and the emotional attachment they inspire. Thus, even in the absence of resistance, we are not without resources to address the question of false-consciousness. To relieve the somewhat abstract nature of the argument thus far, it may be helpful to illustrate the kind of evidence that might bear directly on this issue. Suppose, fur example, that the \"onstage\" linguistic term fur sharecropping or fur tenancy is one that emphasizes its fairness and justice. Suppose, further, that the term used by tenants behind the backs of landlords to describe this rela27. But note the effOrts of lower castes to raise their ritual status and, more recently, the tendency fur harijans to leave Hinduism altogether and convert to Islam, which makes no caste distinctions among believers. 28. See, for example, Gerrit Huizer, Peasant Mobilization and Land Reform in Indonesia (The Hague: Institute of Social Studies, 1972). NORMAL EXPLOITATION, NORMAL RESISTANCE • 41 tionship is quite different-cynical and mocking. 29 Is this not plausible evidence that the tenant's view of the relationship is largely demystified-that he does not accept the elite's definition of tenancy at face value? When Haji Ayub and Haji Kadir are called Haji \"Broom,\" Haji Kedikut, or Pak Ceti behind their backs, is it not plausible evidence that their claim to land, to interest, to rents, and to respect is at least contested at the level of consciousness, if not at the level of \"onstage\" acts? What are we to make of lower-class religious sects (the Quakers in seventeenth-century England, Saminists in twentieth-century Java, to name only two of many) that abandon the use of honorifics to address their social betters and insist instead on low furms of address or on using words like \"friend\" or \"brother\" to describe everyone, Is this not telling evidence that the elite's libretto fur the hierarchy of nobility and respect is, at the very least, not sung word fur word by its subjects? By reference to the culture that peasants fashion from their experience-their \"offstage\" comments and conversation, their

1,024 citations

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