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JournalISSN: 0022-3751

The Journal of Physiology

About: The Journal of Physiology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Depolarization & Membrane potential. It has an ISSN identifier of 0022-3751. Over the lifetime, 39735 publication(s) have been published receiving 2405767 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Journal of Physiology. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/JPHYSIOL.1952.SP004764
A. L. Hodgkin1, A. F. Huxley1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article concludes a series of papers concerned with the flow of electric current through the surface membrane of a giant nerve fibre (Hodgkinet al, 1952,J Physiol116, 424–448; Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952,J Physiol116, 449–566) Its general object is to discuss the results of the preceding papers (Section 1), to put them into mathematical form (Section 2) and to show that they will account for conduction and excitation in quantitative terms (Sections 3–6) more

Topics: Giant axon (55%)

18,530 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/JPHYSIOL.1962.SP006837
David H. Hubel1, Torsten N. WieselInstitutions (1)
Abstract: What chiefly distinguishes cerebral cortex from other parts of the central nervous system is the great diversity of its cell types and interconnexions. It would be astonishing if such a structure did not profoundly modify the response patterns of fibres coming into it. In the cat's visual cortex, the receptive field arrangements of single cells suggest that there is indeed a degree of complexity far exceeding anything yet seen at lower levels in the visual system. In a previous paper we described receptive fields of single cortical cells, observing responses to spots of light shone on one or both retinas (Hubel & Wiesel, 1959). In the present work this method is used to examine receptive fields of a more complex type (Part I) and to make additional observations on binocular interaction (Part II). This approach is necessary in order to understand the behaviour of individual cells, but it fails to deal with the problem of the relationship of one cell to its neighbours. In the past, the technique of recording evoked slow waves has been used with great success in studies of functional anatomy. It was employed by Talbot & Marshall (1941) and by Thompson, Woolsey & Talbot (1950) for mapping out the visual cortex in the rabbit, cat, and monkey. Daniel & Whitteiidge (1959) have recently extended this work in the primate. Most of our present knowledge of retinotopic projections, binocular overlap, and the second visual area is based on these investigations. Yet the method of evoked potentials is valuable mainly for detecting behaviour common to large populations of neighbouring cells; it cannot differentiate functionally between areas of cortex smaller than about 1 mm2. To overcome this difficulty a method has in recent years been developed for studying cells separately or in small groups during long micro-electrode penetrations through nervous tissue. Responses are correlated with cell location by reconstructing the electrode tracks from histological material. These techniques have been applied to more

Topics: Binocular neurons (65%), Visual cortex (63%), Receptive field (61%) more

12,146 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/JPHYSIOL.1973.SP010273
Abstract: 1. The after-effects of repetitive stimulation of the perforant path fibres to the dentate area of the hippocampal formation have been examined with extracellular micro-electrodes in rabbits anaesthetized with urethane.2. In fifteen out of eighteen rabbits the population response recorded from granule cells in the dentate area to single perforant path volleys was potentiated for periods ranging from 30 min to 10 hr after one or more conditioning trains at 10-20/sec for 10-15 sec, or 100/sec for 3-4 sec.3. The population response was analysed in terms of three parameters: the amplitude of the population excitatory post-synaptic potential (e.p.s.p.), signalling the depolarization of the granule cells, and the amplitude and latency of the population spike, signalling the discharge of the granule cells.4. All three parameters were potentiated in 29% of the experiments; in other experiments in which long term changes occurred, potentiation was confined to one or two of the three parameters. A reduction in the latency of the population spike was the commonest sign of potentiation, occurring in 57% of all experiments. The amplitude of the population e.p.s.p. was increased in 43%, and of the population spike in 40%, of all experiments.5. During conditioning at 10-20/sec there was massive potentiation of the population spike (;frequency potentiation'). The spike was suppressed during stimulation at 100/sec. Both frequencies produced long-term potentiation.6. The results suggest that two independent mechanisms are responsible for long-lasting potentiation: (a) an increase in the efficiency of synaptic transmission at the perforant path synapses; (b) an increase in the excitability of the granule cell population. more

Topics: Long-term synaptic potentiation (63%), Perforant path (61%), Perforant Pathway (60%) more

6,705 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/JPHYSIOL.1968.SP008455
Abstract: 1. The striate cortex was studied in lightly anaesthetized macaque and spider monkeys by recording extracellularly from single units and stimulating the retinas with spots or patterns of light. Most cells can be categorized as simple, complex, or hypercomplex, with response properties very similar to those previously described in the cat. On the average, however, receptive fields are smaller, and there is a greater sensitivity to changes in stimulus orientation. A small proportion of the cells are colour coded. 2. Evidence is presented for at least two independent systems of columns extending vertically from surface to white matter. Columns of the first type contain cells with common receptive-field orientations. They are similar to the orientation columns described in the cat, but are probably smaller in cross-sectional area. In the second system cells are aggregated into columns according to eye preference. The ocular dominance columns are larger than the orientation columns, and the two sets of boundaries seem to be independent. 3. There is a tendency for cells to be grouped according to symmetry of responses to movement; in some regions the cells respond equally well to the two opposite directions of movement of a line, but other regions contain a mixture of cells favouring one direction and cells favouring the other. 4. A horizontal organization corresponding to the cortical layering can also be discerned. The upper layers (II and the upper two-thirds of III) contain complex and hypercomplex cells, but simple cells are virtually absent. The cells are mostly binocularly driven. Simple cells are found deep in layer III, and in IV A and IV B. In layer IV B they form a large proportion of the population, whereas complex cells are rare. In layers IV A and IV B one finds units lacking orientation specificity; it is not clear whether these are cell bodies or axons of geniculate cells. In layer IV most cells are driven by one eye only; this layer consists of a mosaic with cells of some regions responding to one eye only, those of other regions responding to the other eye. Layers V and VI contain mostly complex and hypercomplex cells, binocularly driven. 5. The cortex is seen as a system organized vertically and horizontally in entirely different ways. In the vertical system (in which cells lying along a vertical line in the cortex have common features) stimulus dimensions such as retinal position, line orientation, ocular dominance, and perhaps directionality of movement, are mapped in sets of superimposed but independent mosaics. The horizontal system segregates cells in layers by hierarchical orders, the lowest orders (simple cells monocularly driven) located in and near layer IV, the higher orders in the upper and lower layers. more

Topics: Orientation column (63%), Ocular dominance column (59%), Binocular neurons (58%) more

6,033 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1113/JPHYSIOL.1949.SP004363
Abstract: A curious fact in the estimation of metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry is that the normal 'exact' method of calculation is so cumbersome that the effect of protein metabolism is commonly ignored. Moreover, the total respiratory quotient is used to assign to the oxygen consumed a calorie value which is appropriate only to the non-protein respiratory quotient. This paper describes several ways in which the calculation can be simplified and shows how the effect of protein metabolism can be included with a minimum of trouble. The derivation of the calorie value of 1 litre of oxygen is the first step. more

4,730 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Simon C. Gandevia

120 papers, 12.3K citations

Kenton M. Sanders

73 papers, 4.9K citations

Michael J. Joyner

70 papers, 3.6K citations

David A. Eisner

55 papers, 3.1K citations

Elzbieta Jankowska

52 papers, 5.1K citations

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