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Showing papers in "The Library Quarterly in 2017"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This essay will address the renewed phenomenon of fake news and its related concepts and will discuss how knowledge of information behavior and critical information evaluation skills can aid in combating the effects offake news and promote more savvy information consumption.
Abstract: Fabricated news is expressly disseminated for the sake of earning money from clicks and views, and it is also used to mislead and derail. With lightening speed, fake news goes viral without being vetted or confirmed. If such information is ever retracted or disproved, the damage has been done and the evidence remains digitally archived. This scenario played out repeatedly, and in epic proportions, in the months leading up to the 2016 presidential election. Now, postelection, increasing attention is being paid to fake news. But fake news is not new, nor are its relatives: hoaxes, satire, algorithmic biases, and propaganda. It just has an alarming new patina. This essay will address the renewed phenomenon of fake news and its related concepts and will discuss how knowledge of information behavior and critical information evaluation skills can aid in combating the effects of fake news and promote more savvy information consumption.

148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors developed an exercise to enable students to identify the ways in which white privilege is embedded in archival institutions and to collectively strategize concretized concretizing concretization.
Abstract: This article reflects on an exercise I developed to enable students to identify the ways in which white privilege is embedded in archival institutions and to collectively strategize concret...

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a user and use-based model is proposed to represent the information context and perspectives of small businesses in the state of Tennessee as a case study in order to apply the lessons and insights to other parts of the United States.
Abstract: People living in the Appalachian region, including its rural areas, face challenging economic, social, and cultural conditions with limited financial opportunities, information poverty and unemployment, and low levels of information literacy and educational attainment. The roles played by rural public libraries in small business economic development in this region require exploratory study of representative small businesses to refocus library services and resources on their information needs and information-seeking experiences. This article proposes a user- and use-based model to represent the information context and perspectives of such businesses in the state of Tennessee as a case study in order to apply the lessons and insights to other parts of the United States. It concludes with suggestions for the blueprint design of a public library small business tool kit, an ideal resource that Tennessee’s rural public libraries can develop for small businesses in the future.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on how publics now approach libraries and how they respond to library responses within our current neoliberal environment. But their focus is on the research agenda of the library in the life of the user.
Abstract: Wayne Wiegand consistently put forward the research agenda of the library in the life of the user. A focus on libraries’ publics is a useful variation: What, now, is the library in the life of its public(s)? In order to undertake this analysis, some practical definition of libraries’ public(s) must be clarified, and how they might have changed in recent (neoliberal) times. With this background in place, an analysis of how publics now approach libraries is possible—and clarifies library responses within our current neoliberal environment.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This workshop is presented as a case study on how librarians can creatively engage with students to collaborate, learn, and build information literacy skills using Trump as the teaching subject.
Abstract: How can librarians teach information literacy in such a politicized atmosphere? In spring 2017, the library at Fresno State held a series of workshops that introduced first-year students to information literacy in a “gamification” setting, an escape room, to encourage community learning. The theme of the workshop focused on President Donald Trump. In this one-shot workshop, students were “locked” in the escape room in the library and had to solve a series of information-literacy puzzles and research tasks, including hacking into Donald Trump’s Wikipedia page, fact-checking Trump’s tweets, and comparing and analyzing fake news with online databases. The article presents this workshop as a case study on how librarians can creatively engage with students to collaborate, learn, and build information literacy skills using Trump as the teaching subject.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The engagement of the US federal government with libraries has been disjointed as mentioned in this paper, and many policy decisions have dire consequences for the future of libraries in the United States, including the defunding of libraries.
Abstract: The engagement of the US federal government with libraries has been disjointed. Financial support for libraries has been controversial and inconsistent, and many policy decisions have direc...

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzed the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings, the Library of Congress Subject Heads, and the Dewey Decimal Classification to reveal some of the processes and practices by which materials are relegated to the margins on the shelves and in the catalog.
Abstract: Libraries have historically organized materials about people with disabilities according to conventions created by medical and social scientific communities, thereby reproducing dominant, often pathologizing and marginalizing discourses about disabilities. This paper focuses on libraries’ treatment of subjects related to physical disabilities by analyzing the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings, Library of Congress Subject Headings, the Library of Congress Classification, and the Dewey Decimal Classification. We use the lens of stigma as first theorized by Erving Goffman to reveal some of the processes and practices by which materials are relegated to the margins on the shelves and in the catalog.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The 2016 presidential election in the United States was unprecedented in the extent of bitter divisiveness between the candidates' campaigns, the complex factors attributed to the unexpected results, and the difficult years in which the nation will reel from the short and long-term effects.
Abstract: The 2016 presidential election in the United States was unprecedented in the extent of bitter divisiveness between the candidates’ campaigns, the complex factors attributed to the unexpected results, and the difficult years in which the nation will reel from the short- and long-term effects. In its aftermath, an aggravated, broken nation extends rural libraries an extraordinary charge to help mend the splinters and move forward in their local environments. They have an opening to take ownership of a compelling responsibility as agents of democracy toward political, economic, and civic recovery. This think piece analyzes the implications of the 2016 presidential election for rural libraries primarily as information service providers that can aggressively further political information literacy, fluency, and advocacy and economic development as tools to nurture a more refined, responsive, respectful, and relevant form of democracy in the twenty-first century than what we have seen recently.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article introduced the concept of diversity by design in library and information science (LIS) education, professional environments, and partnership-based community engagements, and demonstrated that diversity, broadly conceived, is foundational to LIS and that discounting or underappreciating its pivotal function may have a disintegrating effect on our practice, scholarship, and education.
Abstract: In this article, we introduce the concept of diversity by design. This concept is relevant to library and information science (LIS) education, professional environments, and partnership-based community engagements. Building on our experience as educators and researchers, we illustrate this concept in the context of LIS graduate education and invite readers to contemplate whether this concept makes sense to them and, if yes, how it works in their respective workplaces and communities. We interrogate the term “diversity,” bringing to light the multiplicity of contexts that give diversity meaning and life in our complex field. By so doing, we demonstrate that diversity, broadly conceived, is foundational to LIS and that discounting or underappreciating its pivotal function may have a disintegrating effect on our practice, scholarship, and education.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the roles that libraries have taken across the nation in providing information to immigrants, but contrast that with the limited role of libraries as information sources for Latin American immigrants.
Abstract: Since the 1920s, Latin American immigrants to the United States have frequently settled in established communities in border states and large urban areas. Since the 1990s, however, Latin American immigrants, documented and undocumented, have been settling in the rural Midwest. We begin this article by considering Trump-era rhetoric and actions affecting Latin American immigrants and the historical context for that immigration. Next, we present information sources and locations (i.e., information grounds) used by the rural midwestern immigrants we interviewed. Finally, we discuss the roles that libraries have taken across the nation in providing information to immigrants, but we contrast that with the limited role of libraries as information sources for Latin American immigrants.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the role of LIS faculty and researchers in the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, and draw parallels between social oppression, as demonstrated in campaign rhetoric and presidential policy, and institutional oppression within library spaces.
Abstract: This article focuses on the role of LIS faculty and researchers in the aftermath of the 2016 presidential election. Key points include our responsibility to educate ourselves about marginalization and silencing; to help our students build theoretical, practical, and ethical foundations for engaging with communities in ways that prioritize their needs and uphold the values of the profession; to amplify the voices of people systematically targeted by the presidential administration’s policies and actions; and to engage in public discourse about the implications of current administrative policies as related to the core values of LIS, such as the right to privacy, access, freedom of speech, and intellectual freedom. The article draws parallels between social oppression, as demonstrated in campaign rhetoric and presidential policy, and institutional oppression within library spaces.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the digital age, libraries must turn outward and actively engage citizens by bringing them together and involving them in democratic discourse as discussed by the authors, which can help rekindle civic engagement, promote greater citizen participation, and foster community problem solving.
Abstract: To fulfill their civic mission in today’s polarized America, libraries must turn outward and actively engage citizens by bringing them together and involving them in democratic discourse. In the digital age, this means moving beyond libraries as book warehouses—breaking through their “edifice complexes” by reimagining their roles from collection-focused to engagement-centered services. Working closely with a diversity of partners, libraries can help rekindle civic engagement, promote greater citizen participation, and foster community problem solving. But listening to communities, curating local information, and convening deliberative conversations necessitates the adoption of new competencies by librarians and citizens alike. As the nation’s great experiment in democracy comes under increasing threat, librarians must shift from a mission that not only informs but also engages constituents. In this role, libraries will be repositioned as the cornerstone of strong democracy, bringing people togethe...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The issue of whether commercial publishers overcharge libraries for scholarly journal subscriptions has been an important practical concern for researchers and practicing librarians for decades as discussed by the authors. But recent studies of the issue have not been able to move the research literature toward a consensus but rather have created more controversy.
Abstract: The issue of whether commercial publishers overcharge libraries for scholarly journal subscriptions has been an important practical concern for researchers and practicing librarians for decades. Recent studies of the issue have not been able to move the research literature toward a consensus but rather have created more controversy. This study addresses this debate in the fields of science, technology, and medicine. More important, an appropriate research methodology is used, including an effective econometric model, a large sample size, and regression analyses by subject area. The study conclusively shows that commercial publishers indeed overcharge libraries by a large margin. Researchers and librarians are urged to move beyond the debate and to focus their research efforts on more open and innovative ways of improving scholarly communication.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The core values of librarianship are being fundamentally challenged and have been for some time as mentioned in this paper, and it is a time for reflection on and clarification of them because how they are understood, communicated and accomplished in light of November 8, 2016, calls for it.
Abstract: Core values of librarianship are being fundamentally challenged and have been for some time. It is a time for reflection on and clarification of them because how they are understood, communicated, and accomplished in light of November 8, 2016, calls for it. The recent election is just a manifestation of political, social, economic, and cultural shifts under way for some time that brought the disjunctures of how we approach and understand our core values to the surface. Essentially, we are playing out very old tropes in the profession by casting our values as neutral, instrumental, and technocratic—playing directly to the impulses of our neoliberal age and distorting core values.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the role and value of the public library in community information provision seem unclear, and they find an analogy to design theorist Christopher Alexander's conceptualization of planned versus natural cities, and bring this to bear on an ongoing study of public library service provision to the urban poor.
Abstract: Community information is indispensable for modern life, but access to it remains challenging for many people. Historically, public libraries have been central in providing formal community information, but today such information provision is accomplished largely by informal networks of community service agencies. Thus, the role and the value of the public library in community information provision seem unclear. We find an analogy to this situation in design theorist Christopher Alexander’s conceptualization of planned versus natural cities, and we bring this to bear on an ongoing study of public library service provision to the urban poor. This work reveals implications and recommendations for the public library’s unfolding role in community information provision: public libraries may no longer be needed to provide formal community information, but they can engage as information shepherds with local community service agencies in informal community information provision.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors presented an overview of the poverty and dispossession of the white working class in the twenty-first century and explored the manner in which librarians' diminished connection to labor and denigration of Trump voters are combining to erode the library mission of service to all.
Abstract: The following article presents an overview of the poverty and dispossession of the white working class in the twenty-first century. It explores the manner in which librarians’ diminished connection to labor and denigration of Trump voters are combining to erode the library mission of service to all. It concludes with suggestions for reconnection and renewal.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses the definition of intellectual freedom, why diverse perspectives are important, and how intellectual freedom can bolster diverse voices, which can improve our relationships with one another, increasing empathy and respect.
Abstract: Many of the most challenged books, year after year, feature voices from diverse communities (including those of women, racial or ethnic minorities, and LGBT people). Intellectual freedom protects these voices and protects our right to hear these voices. This essay discusses the definition of intellectual freedom, why diverse perspectives are important, and how intellectual freedom can bolster diverse voices. In turn, this can improve our relationships with one another, increasing empathy and respect, which can be reflected in numerous ways and is particularly important in a divisive political climate.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the understanding and perspectives of faculty in US library and information science (LIS) programs about teaching web accessibility and found that despite the seeming consensus, discussion of incorporating web accessibility into curricula was rare.
Abstract: This qualitative study explores the understanding and perspectives of faculty in US library and information science (LIS) programs about teaching web accessibility. “Web accessibility” can be defined simply as making websites accessible for all, including people with disabilities. Eight LIS professors and two graduate LIS students or recent alumni with interests in accessibility were interviewed for the study. Results showed that, although some faculty were novices, most interviewees thought it would be beneficial to teach web accessibility in a variety of LIS courses. However, despite the seeming consensus, discussion of incorporating web accessibility into curricula was rare. This study explores possible reasons for the marginalization of web accessibility in LIS. The authors contend that greater support for initiatives to integrate web accessibility into LIS curricula is essential for enabling LIS practitioners to comply with legal standards and with LIS values of inclusion.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors used a standardized scale to measure civic-mindedness among academic librarians and examined characteristics and activities, including service learning, related to variation in its scores. But they found that although most respondents made financial or service contributions, the group mean on the civicmindedness scale was only moderate.
Abstract: Although discourse on the civic engagement of libraries as institutions is plentiful, there has been little discussion of librarians as individuals. Librarianship is more than being a trustee of information. It includes responsibility for the common good. Libraries provide tools for education on social and political issues, but they can also collaborate in activities that improve well-being in their communities. Participating in service learning is one way that librarians on academic campuses can get involved. This study used a standardized scale to measure civic-mindedness among academic librarians and examine characteristics and activities, including service learning, related to variation in its scores. Results indicated that although most respondents made financial or service contributions, the group mean on the civic-mindedness scale was only moderate. Librarians who volunteered, had interest in service learning, or participated in community activities were more civic-minded than professionals...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors draw on examples from Canada, the United States, and beyond to test librarians resolve and to redefine how we view ourselves and engage with communities.
Abstract: Recent developments in Canada, the United States, and beyond continue to test librarians’ resolve and to redefine how we view ourselves and engage with communities. Drawing on examples from...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that librarians and other information professionals must recommit to supporting the principles of intellectual freedom, the code of ethics, and the values of librarianhip; review policies; and know their communities.
Abstract: What does it mean to support intellectual freedom under the new administration? How do we uphold our values when many will disagree with the information provided in our institutions? In this short essay I offer a summary of my research on book challengers to better understand why people attempt to censor information. I then argue that, to move forward, librarians and other information professionals must recommit to supporting the principles of intellectual freedom, the code of ethics, and the values of librarianship; review policies; and know their communities—local, state, and national.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CHI model envisions change as a process and delineates adaptive versus innovative change while allowing room to discuss impact and perceptions as mentioned in this paper, and the findings showed that the model could be applied effectively to the subject.
Abstract: Change is a concept that is widely discussed, but operational definitions are rarely agreed upon, particularly in historical research. This study drew from administrative documents created by the Harlem Public Library as the basis for testing the Change in Historic Institutions (CHI) model. The CHI model envisions change as a process and delineates adaptive versus innovative change while allowing room to discuss impact and perceptions. The Harlem Public Library, a dynamic, user-focused institution, served as a useful focal point for testing this contextually focused theory, and the findings showed that the model could be applied effectively to the subject.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss librarianship, politics and neutrality, and funding for public libraries, and suggest that public libraries contribute to civic education by fostering communication and dialogue and participating in actions that foster truth and democracy.
Abstract: Public libraries depend on public support for their existence. This essay asks, What can and should public librarians do to contribute to civic education? It discusses librarianship, politics and neutrality, and funding. It looks to public statements of librarians in the immediate aftermath of the election, then turns back to what librarians were doing in the realm of civic participation and education immediately prior to the election. Evidence comes from popular articles, tweets focusing on libraries and the election, and an unscientific, post hoc survey of library event calendars. Recommendations include fostering communication and dialogue and participating in actions that foster truth and democracy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Jaeger et al. as mentioned in this paper pointed out that the discourse surrounding the 2016 presidential campaign was a strike at the essence of our institutions and that if so many of the people who rely on our institutions, who have often been at the forefront of advocating for their rights, are not valued, then most assuredly our institution is not valued either.
Abstract: he 2016 presidential campaign in the United States, the outcome of that campaign, T and the policies that have been implemented since the 2017 inauguration pose so many challenges for the roles and activities of libraries and archives that an excoriation of these challenges could begin in many different places. For example, one could focus on the “othering” and dehumanizing of so many populations—racial, ethnic, and religious minorities; people with disabilities; immigrants and refugees; people living in poverty; the “nasty women”—who have long struggled for equity and inclusion in society. The institutions of our field have long devoted efforts to promoting the inclusion of each of these populations (Jaeger, Taylor, and Gorham 2015; Gorham, Taylor, and Jaeger 2016; Jaeger and Sarin 2016a, 2016b). As such, the discourse surrounding the 2016 presidential campaign was a strike at the essence of our institutions. If so many of the people who rely on our institutions—populations whose rights our institutions have often been at the forefront of advocating—are not valued, then most assuredly our institutions are not valued either. A razor-sharp example of these contrasting values about inclusion can be found in the inclusion of persons with disabilities. Libraries were the first societal institution to regularly treat people with disabilities as people and to include them in the mission of the institutions; some libraries have continually had special collections and services for people with disabilities since the mid-1800s (Bertot and Jaeger 2015; Wentz, Jaeger, and Bertot 2015). However, in the 2016 presidential campaign—despite 2015 being the twenty-fifth anniversary of the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act—the eventual winner of the presidency only referred to disability when blaming people with disabilities for violence, mocking people with disabilities, and claiming that he never mocked people with disabilities despite video clearly showing him doing so (Cork et al. 2016). Perhaps more pragmatically, one could focus instead on the financial challenges facing the institutions of our field. Such challenges are not new, as demonstrated by the ongoing erosion

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The second special issue of Library Quarterly has devoted to the political events of the 2016 presidential campaign in the United States, the outcome of the election, and the subsequent policy and political events for libraries and other cultural heritage institutions as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: his is the second of two special issues that Library Quarterly has devoted to the imT plications of the political events of the 2016 presidential campaign in the United States, the outcome of the election, and the subsequent policy and political events for libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. Much of what falls into these categories, of course, is bad news for libraries, librarians, and those who rely on libraries. The national and local political scene over the past 2 years has been extremely disheartening for many people in the library profession. This is not really news, but it is something that we have to articulate clearly to start mapping out what we do in response. From the perspective of our profession and institutions, the negative pressures are found in interrelated and concurrent strands in the political discourse. First, the 2016 presidential campaign was defined by language that ostracized and dehumanized many of the disadvantaged or marginalized populations—racial, ethnic, and religious minorities; LGBTQ folks; immigrants and refugees; people with disabilities; non-English speakers; people living in poverty—that libraries have long sought to include in their local communities and in society as a whole. And as a profession with a distinguished history of providing career opportunities to women long before most other fields did, the prominent antifeminist, antiwoman (or at least anti-“nasty woman”) rhetoric of the campaign provides an especially powerful sting. Second, such language has been turned into action by the new presidential administration and resulted in, among other things, a spike in hate crimes against many of these groups that we work to better integrate into the communities that we serve and the president’s proposed budget, which slashes funding for many social services and institutions central to the lives of many library patrons, including education and literacy programs, scientific research, and even health care and disease prevention (Achenbach and Sun 2017; Davidson 2017; Snell, Paletta, and DeBonis 2017; Strauss 2017a, 2017b). Third, many key principles around which we have built our field—freedom of expression, equitable access to information, the provision of reliable resources—have been equally battered

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the author shares the author's personal perspectives and reactions to the 2016 election and strategies that librarians might implement to provide inclusive and effective services to children and young adults.
Abstract: Librarians who work with children and young adults must be especially vigilant in their commitment to helping their young patrons find and use accurate information. They must also seize opportunities to move children and young adults toward realizing their ability to be agents of change. This essay shares the author’s personal perspectives and reactions to the 2016 election and strategies that librarians might implement to provide inclusive and effective services to children and young adults.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a phenomenon that was surprising to many, given the racially charged nature of the 2016 presidential election, black voter turnout was significantly lower than the previous two elections as discussed by the authors, which was attributed to many factors, one of which was the lower participation of black voters in several swing states.
Abstract: In a phenomenon that was surprising to many, given the racially charged nature of the 2016 presidential election, black voter turnout was significantly lower than the previous two elections. Donald Trump’s victory is attributable to many factors, one of which was the lower participation of black voters in several swing states. To a lesser extent, black support for third-party candidates also aided Trump’s victory. The lower black turnout itself is attributable to several factors, but one factor specifically in the LIS realm was the prevalence of low-quality information and rhetoric and a susceptibility that some black voters had to this low-quality information and rhetoric. Librarians have a stake and a role in black voter participation. This article will present two specific tactics and other general methods for how librarians can better inform black voters and help motivate them to participate in the process.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines emerging federal policy and budget priorities through the lens of modern political philosophies to discuss how public, school, and academic library communities should anticipate and react to developments in public and tax policy decisions.
Abstract: In a time when funding for the sole federal library program is under threat and state and local library funding are under intense revenue pressure, it is important to understand the role that the governmental philosophy of political actors will play in public and tax policy decisions. From the Trump administration to Congress, a coherent and cohesive set of federalist and libertarian approaches will frame the policy and funding debates about the role, scope, and funding of government. This article examines emerging federal policy and budget priorities through the lens of modern political philosophies to discuss how public, school, and academic library communities should anticipate and react to developments.