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Showing papers in "The Missouri Review in 2008"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that trust in government, but not trust in technology, is positively related to trust in e-government Web sites, and this result suggests that the DeLone and McLean model can be further extended by examining the nature of IS use.
Abstract: Electronic government is being increasingly recognized as a means for transforming public governance. Despite this increasing interest, information systems (IS) literature is mostly silent on what really contributes to the success of e-government Web sites. To fill this gap, this study examines the role of trust in e-government success using the updated DeLone and McLean IS success model as the theoretical framework. The model is tested via a survey of 214 Singapore e-government Web site users. The results show that trust in government, but not trust in technology, is positively related to trust in e-government Web sites. Further, trust in e-government Web sites is positively related to information quality, system quality, and service quality. The quality constructs have different effects on "intention to continue" using the Web site and "satisfaction" with the Web site. Post hoc analysis indicates that the nature of usage (active versus passive users) may help us better understand the interrelationships among success variables examined in this study. This result suggests that the DeLone and McLean model can be further extended by examining the nature of IS use. In addition, it is important to consider the role of trust as well as various Web site quality attributes in understanding e-government success.

988 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Differences are determined for separate country samples concerning whether navigation design, visual design, and information design result in trust, satisfaction, and ultimately loyalty-suggesting design characteristics should be a central consideration in Web site design across cultures.
Abstract: Despite rapidly increasing numbers of diverse online shoppers, the relationship of Web site design to trust, satisfaction, and loyalty has not previously been modeled across cultures. In the current investigation, three components of Web site design (information design, navigation design, and visual design) are considered for their impact on trust and satisfaction. In turn, relationships of trust and satisfaction to online loyalty are evaluated. Utilizing data collected from 571 participants in Canada, Germany, and China, various relationships in the research model are tested using partial least squares analysis for each country separately. In addition, the overall model is tested for all countries combined as a control and verification of earlier research findings, although this time with a mixed country sample. All paths in the overall model are confirmed. Differences are determined for separate country samples concerning whether navigation design, visual design, and information design result in trust, satisfaction, and ultimately loyalty-suggesting design characteristics should be a central consideration in Web site design across cultures.

693 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that the effect of trust on intention to shop online is stronger for women than for men, and that online word-of-mouth quality affects online trust differently across genders.
Abstract: This paper focuses on the cultural effect of gender on the relationship of online word of mouth and trust in e-commerce. To encourage online commerce, many online retailers use online word-of-mouth systems, where consumers can rate products offered for sale. To date, how such ratings affect trust and adoption of e-commerce across genders has been relatively unexplored. We assess whether the effect of online trust on intention to shop online is moderated by gender. Our results show that the effect of trust on intention to shop online is stronger for women than for men. In addition, we find that men value their ability to post content online, whereas women value the responsive participation of other consumers to the content they have posted. Finally, we find that online word-of-mouth quality affects online trust differently across genders.

620 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors empirically tested a model of trust in IT artifacts and found that navigational structure and visual appeal significantly predict the extent to which users place trust in mobile commerce technologies.
Abstract: The topic of trust in information technology (IT) artifacts has piqued interest among researchers, but studies of this form of trust are not definitive regarding which factors contribute to it the most. Our study empirically tests a model of trust in IT artifacts that increases our understanding in two ways. First, it sets forth two previously unexamined system quality constructs-navigational structure and visual appeal. We found that both of these system quality constructs significantly predict the extent to which users place trust in mobile commerce technologies. Second, our study considers the effect of culture by comparing the trust of French and American potential users in m-commerce technologies. We found that not only does culture directly affect user trust in IT artifacts but it also moderates the extent to which navigational structure affects this form of trust. These findings show that system quality and culture significantly affect trust in the IT artifact and point to rich possibilities for future research in these areas.

488 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an agenda for the future research that has the potential to extend the conceptual foundations of trust in online environments and to improve the practice in the domain.
Abstract: We present an agenda for the future research that has the potential to extend the conceptual foundations of trust in online environments and to improve the practice in the domain. The agenda draws on the previous work on trust, the papers included in this Special Issue, and our perspective on the state of the literature. This agenda is structured into four components-nature and role of trust, moderators of trust, antecedents of trust, and empirical methods for examining trust.

450 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore how less-familiar e-commerce Web sites can use branding alliances and Web site quality to increase the likelihood of initial consumer trust, using the associative network model of memory to explain brand knowledge and to show how the mere exposure effect can be leveraged to improve a web site's brand image.
Abstract: Trust is a crucial factor in e-commerce However, consumers are less likely to trust unknown Web sites This study explores how less-familiar e-commerce Web sites can use branding alliances and Web site quality to increase the likelihood of initial consumer trust We use the associative network model of memory to explain brand knowledge and to show how the mere exposure effect can be leveraged to improve a Web site's brand image We also extend information integration theory to explain how branding alliances are able to increase initial trust and transfer positive effects to Web sites Testing of our model shows that the most important constructs for increasing initial trust in our experimental context are branding and Web site quality Finally, we discuss future research ideas, limitations, implications, and ideas for practitioners

272 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results show that transference-based trust determinants are more positively related to consumer trust in e-vendors in a Type II (i.e., collectivist-strong uncertainty avoidance-high long-term orientation-high context) culture than in a Types I and Type II culture.
Abstract: This study examines the impact of culture on trust determinants in computer-mediated commerce transactions. Adopting trust-building foundations from cross-culture literature and focusing on a set of well-established cultural constructs as groups of culture (Type I and Type II), this study develops a theoretical model of self-perception-based versus transference-based consumer trust in e-vendors, and empirically tests the model using cross-cultural data. The results show that transference-based trust determinants (i.e., "perceived importance of third-party seal" and "perceived importance of positive referral") are more positively related to consumer trust in e-vendors in a Type II (i.e., collectivist-strong uncertainty avoidance-high long-term orientation-high context) culture than in a Type I (i.e., individualistic-weak uncertainty avoidance-low long-term orientation-low context) culture. Unlike the initial hypothesized expectations, self-perception-based trust determinants (i.e., perceived security protection, perceived privacy concern, and perceived system reliability) do not show stronger roles to consumer trust in e-vendors in a Type I culture than in a Type II culture, although the stronger negative effect of perceived privacy concerns is observed on consumer trust in e-vendors in a Type I culture than in a Type II culture. Theoretical contributions for e-commerce cross-culture literature and implications for multinational online business managers are discussed.

244 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study identifies six reasons users trust (or do not trust) a technology in the early stages of its use by extending the theories of trust formation in interpersonal and organizational contexts to that of decision support technologies.
Abstract: As organizations increasingly utilize Web-based technologies to support customers better, trust in decision support technologies has emerged as an important issue in online environments. In this study, we identify six reasons users trust (or do not trust) a technology in the early stages of its use by extending the theories of trust formation in interpersonal and organizational contexts to that of decision support technologies. We study the particular context of decision support technologies for e-commerce: online recommendation agents (RAs), which facilitate users' decision making by providing advice on what to buy based on user-specified needs and preferences. A laboratory experiment is conducted using a multimethod approach to collect data. Both quantitative data about participants' trust in RAs and written protocols that explain the reasons for their levels of trust are collected. A content analysis of the written protocols identifies both positive and negative trust attributions that are then mapped to six trust reasons. A structural equation modeling analysis is employed to test the causal strengths of the trust reasons in explaining participants' trust in RAs. The results reveal that in the early stages of trust formation, four positive reasons (i.e., knowledge-based, interactive, calculative, and dispositional) are associated with higher trust in RAs and two negative reasons (i.e., calculative and interactive) are associated with lower trust in RAs. The results also demonstrate some distinctive features of trust formation with respect to decision support technologies. We discuss the research and practical implications of the findings and describe opportunities for future research.

225 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that user participation alone may not be sufficient to achieve significantly improved ISD outcomes, and that different strategies should be employed based on the specific goals of ISD projects.
Abstract: This study synthesizes the research findings of 82 empirical studies on user participation in information systems development (ISD). Various ISD outcomes are addressed using a classification scheme involving two broad categories-attitudinal/behavioral outcomes and productivity outcomes. The results demonstrate that user participation is minimally-to-moderately beneficial to ISD; its effects are comparatively stronger on attitudinal/behavioral outcomes than on productivity outcomes. This attitudinal/behavioral impact may largely be the result of the emphasis that has been placed on user participation by academics and consultants. The results of this analysis are compared to those of a meta-analysis in the broader management context of participation. The results are similar in terms of attitudinal outcomes, but different, and lesser, in terms of productivity outcomes. Since the current status of research in the broad area of participation is that the effects of participation are considered to be problematic, that status and the results of this study suggest that user participation alone may not be sufficient to achieve significantly improved ISD outcomes, and that different strategies should be employed based on the specific goals of ISD projects. If system acceptance is the ultimate goal, user participation should be designed to induce more psychological involvement among potential users. If productivity benefits are the focus, user participation should be designed to provide developers the needed domain knowledge. In sum, user participation should be treated as one of a number of means for ISD projects to be more successful.

216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the sequential game results in the maximum payoff to the firm, but requires that the firm move first before the hacker, except when the firm's estimate of the hacker effort in the decision theory approach is sufficiently close to the actual hacker effort.
Abstract: Firms have been increasing their information technology (IT) security budgets significantly to deal with increased security threats. An examination of current practices reveals that managers view security investment as any other and use traditional decision-theoretic risk management techniques to determine security investments. We argue in this paper that this method is incomplete because of the problem's strategic nature-hackers alter their hacking strategies in response to a firm's investment strategies. We propose game theory for determining IT security investment levels and compare game theory and decision theory approaches on several dimensions such as the investment levels, vulnerability, and payoff from investments. We show that the sequential game results in the maximum payoff to the firm, but requires that the firm move first before the hacker. Even if a simultaneous game is played, the firm enjoys a higher payoff than that in the decision theory approach, except when the firm's estimate of the hacker effort in the decision theory approach is sufficiently close to the actual hacker effort. We also show that if the firm learns from prior observations of hacker effort and uses these to estimate future hacker effort in the decision theory approach, then the gap between the results of decision theory and game theory approaches diminishes over time. The rate of convergence and the extent of loss the firm suffers before convergence depend on the learning model employed by the firm to estimate hacker effort.

212 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of the evolution of trust using the case of health infomediaries shows that the structure of trust changes over time and information quality becomes the single most important antecedent in infomediary trust building in the later stages of use.
Abstract: This study explores the process by which trust evolves over time. There have been a number of studies underscoring the importance of trust in the online environment. However, most trust studies have concentrated on the initial trust, and there is little known about how trust beliefs evolve over time. The dynamics of trust are of particular importance in the use of infomediaries (online information providers), among which health infomediaries are the most important for Web consumers in dealing with their wellness and health issues. We investigate the evolution of trust using the case of health infomediaries. The examination of the temporal changes in trust was carried out through two approaches-comparative statics and dynamic analyses. The research method was laboratory experiment and the data were collected for two episodes of encounters. Two comparative statics models and one dynamic model were estimated in order to examine the parameter changes from one episode of encounter to the next as well as the dynamics of belief changes. The results of analysis show that the structure of trust changes over time and information quality becomes the single most important antecedent in infomediary trust building in the later stages of use. Furthermore, our study also indicates that satisfaction plays an important role in changing Web customers' trust beliefs. Contributions as well as research and managerial implications are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model that characterizes the intermediary's pricing in two-sided networks, the value created by these networks, and the allocation of that value across the two sides is developed, extending the two- sided networks literature by endogenizing the level of network effects as the result of relevant investments by the intermediary.
Abstract: Many Internet intermediaries operate two-sided networks, that is, they provide platforms to bring together two types of participants, or "sides," such as buyers and sellers. This paper develops a model that characterizes the intermediary's pricing in two-sided networks, the value created by these networks, and the allocation of that value across the two sides. It extends the two-sided networks literature by endogenizing the level of network effects as the result of relevant investments by the intermediary, which determine the design of the network. It shows that under certain assumptions about the available technologies, the design of the two-sided network is highly asymmetric independent of its ownership structure. The paper provides insight into design strategies for Internet platforms, and it discusses their welfare implications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research examines how endogenous psychological feelings of autonomy, freedom, conflict, and external pressure can predict and explain user intentions and proposes that some desired behaviors may be thwarted or impeded by a conflict between perceived external influences and personal volition.
Abstract: Information technology (IT) adoption research recognizes theoretical limitations in discerning if and when user behavior results from perceived external influences or from personal volition. A clear understanding of this issue requires a precise distinction between mandatory and volitional behaviors. Consistent with organismic integration theory (OIT), this study situates the locus of user motivations inside the user. Drawing upon an endogenous view of behaviors, this research makes three key contributions. First, it develops the theoretical basis for clearly discerning if and when behavior results from perceived external influences or from personal volition. Specifically, it examines how endogenous psychological feelings of autonomy, freedom, conflict, and external pressure can predict and explain user intentions. Second, it proposes that behavior may result from combinations of perceived external influences and personal volition. Recognizing how such "collections of motivations" together influence behavior advances our understanding beyond the "dichotomy" of extrinsic versus intrinsic motivations often adopted in prior research. Third, it proposes that some desired behaviors may be thwarted or impeded by a conflict between perceived external influences and personal volition. The theoretically grounded research model was empirically validated in a field study on Blackboard, a Web-based education platform at a large university. Data collected from a sample of 211 users were tested using structural equation models of initial system adoption and experienced use. Empirical support was found for the proposed model and related hypotheses. The results of this study advance our understanding about user motivations for adopting IT.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study examines how justice and trust affect user acceptance of e-customer services by conducting an online experiment involving 380 participants and suggests that trust in the e-Customer service fully mediates the effects of Trust in the service representative and procedural justice on intentions to reuse the e.customer service.
Abstract: High-quality customer service is an integral part of any successful enterprise, but providing it can be a challenge for online merchants, especially when customers are complaining about each other. This study examines how justice and trust affect user acceptance of e-customer services by conducting an online experiment involving 380 participants. The results suggest that trust in the e-customer service fully mediates the effects of trust in the service representative and procedural justice on intentions to reuse the e-customer service. Furthermore, the effect of distributive justice on trust in the e-customer service was fully mediated by trust in the e-service representative. Finally, the effect of informational justice on user intentions to reuse the e-customer service was partially mediated by trust in the service representative and trust in the e-customer service. Theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work traces the impact of hyperdifferentiation and resonance marketing on strategy, with a clear progression from a limited number of fat spots, through reliance on line extensions, and ultimately to fully differentiated market sweet spots.
Abstract: Information availability has increased consumers' informedness, the degree to which they know what is available in the marketplace, with precisely which attributes and at precisely what price. This informedness has altered the demand side of market behavior: customers now discount more heavily when comparable products are available from competitors and when products do not meet their wants, needs, cravings, and longings, but they no longer discount as heavily when purchasing unfamiliar products. Changes in the demand side are producing comparable changes in the supply side: firms earn less than their expectations when competing in traditional mass-market fat spots, while earning far more than previously when entering newly created resonance marketing sweet spots. We trace the impact of hyperdifferentiation and resonance marketing on strategy, with a clear progression from a limited number of fat spots, through reliance on line extensions, and ultimately to fully differentiated market sweet spots.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed analytic models of hidden information to analyze the effectiveness of these regimes to build trust and their efficiency in terms of social welfare, and found that firms' ability to influence consumer beliefs about trust depends on whether firms can send unambiguous signals to consumers regarding their intention of protecting privacy.
Abstract: Trust is particularly important in online markets to facilitate the transfer of sensitive consumer information to online retailers. In electronic markets, various proposals have been made to facilitate these information transfers. We develop analytic models of hidden information to analyze the effectiveness of these regimes to build trust and their efficiency in terms of social welfare. We find that firms' ability to influence consumer beliefs about trust depends on whether firms can send unambiguous signals to consumers regarding their intention of protecting privacy. Ambiguous signals can lead to a breakdown of consumer trust, while the clarity and credibility of the signal under industry self-regulation can lead to enhanced trust and improved social welfare. Our results also indicate that although overarching government regulations can enhance consumer trust, regulation may not be socially optimal in all environments because of lower profit margins for firms and higher prices for consumers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An in-depth case study of a hospital's operating room practices is presented to understand challenges associated with multiple group coordination and how information technology may help.
Abstract: Collaboration in complex and dynamic environments such as hospitals, airlines, and disaster response teams is challenging. High performance requires smooth coordination across multiple groups whose incentives, cultures, and routines can conflict. In this paper, we present an in-depth case study of a hospital's operating room practices to understand challenges associated with multiple group coordination and how information technology may help. We use the concept of trajectory to focus our observations and interviews on workflow across groups and critical events when coordination breaks down. A careful examination of the sources, coping mechanisms, and consequences of coordination breakdowns suggests three factors whose absence may impede effective responses to unexpected interruptions: (1) trajectory awareness of what is going on beyond a person's immediate workspace, (2) information systems integration, and (3) information pooling and learning at the organizational level. We conclude with technological recommendations to promote trajectory awareness and to automate information gathering and monitoring, so as to facilitate multiple group coordination in complex and dynamic task environments.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using survey data from 371 employees working in 133 different branches of the organization, it is found that several aspects of the social networks relate to quality of employees' adaptation to the new technology as assessed by the company's departmental directors.
Abstract: In order to better understand the sociopsychological factors involved in employees' adaptation to new technology in organizations, we examine the role that two types of social networks-supportive and informational-play in individual adaptation to IT-induced change in a large financial company. Using survey data from 371 employees working in 133 different branches of the organization, we find that several aspects of the social networks relate to quality of employees' adaptation to the new technology as assessed by the company's departmental directors. Specifically, the size of the support network as well as the strength and density of the information network significantly predict employees' adaptation to the new system. We conclude the paper by discussing theoretical implications for the relevance of social network research for members' adaptation to organizational changes as well as outlining specific implications for practice.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The positive relationship between number of suppliers and electronic procurement for custom goods is negatively moderated by deeper buyer-supplier system integration, which implies that such integration can help buyers obtain better "fit" for their customized requirements, an alternative to increasing fit by employing more suppliers as proposed in the extant literature.
Abstract: This research investigates the relationship between a manufacturer's use of information technology (IT) (particularly electronic procurement) and the number of suppliers in its supply chain. Will a manufacturer use more or fewer suppliers due to the increasing use of IT? Based on data from a sample of 150 U. S. manufacturers, we find no direct relationship between e-procurement and number of suppliers at the aggregate level. However, when we distinguish the type of goods purchased, we find that the use of electronic procurement is associated with buying from more suppliers for custom goods but from fewer suppliers for standard (or commodity) goods. It is possible that for commodity goods, an efficiently functioning transparent market ensures that a few suppliers are sufficient, whereas for custom goods the need for protection from opportunistic vendor holdup leads to the use of more suppliers. Further, the positive relationship between number of suppliers and electronic procurement for custom goods is negatively moderated by deeper buyer-supplier system integration. This implies that such integration can help buyers obtain better "fit" for their customized requirements, an alternative to increasing fit by employing more suppliers as proposed in the extant literature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that OSS managers who want to attract a limited number of highly skilled programmers to their open source project should choose a restrictive OSS license, and managers of software projects for social programs could attract more developers by choosing a restrictiveOSS license.
Abstract: In this paper, we examine how the motivations and attitudes of open source software (OSS) developers affect their preference among the three common OSS license types-Strong-Copyleft, Weak-Copyleft, and Non-Copyleft Despite the importance of the license type and developers to OSS projects, there is little understanding in open source literature of the license choice from a developer's perspective The results from our empirical study of OSS developers reveal that the intrinsic motivation of challenge (problem solving) is associated with the developers' preference for licenses with moderate restrictions, while the extrinsic motivation of status (through peer recognition) is associated with developers' preference for licenses with least restrictions We also find that when choosing an OSS license, a developer's attitude toward the software redistribution rights conflicts with his or her attitude toward preserving the social benefits of open source A major implication of our findings is that OSS managers who want to attract a limited number of highly skilled programmers to their open source project should choose a restrictive OSS license Similarly, managers of software projects for social programs could attract more developers by choosing a restrictive OSS license

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper develops an integrated real options model for information security investments using Bayesian statistics that incorporates learning and postauditing in the analysis and demonstrates that ROA with Bayesian post auditing offers a systematic valuation and risk management framework for evaluating information security spending by firms.
Abstract: The application of real options techniques to information security is significantly different than in the case of general information technology investments due to characteristics unique to information security. Emerging research in the economics of information security has suggested real options analysis (ROA) as a potential technique for assessing the value of information security assets, but has focused primarily on the most effective level of investment and the configuration of intrusion prevention/detection systems. In this paper, we attempt to address significant gaps in the literature by developing an integrated real options model for information security investments using Bayesian statistics that incorporates learning and postauditing in the analysis. By using the proposed model with actual data on e-mail and spam, we demonstrate that ROA with Bayesian postauditing offers a systematic valuation and risk management framework for evaluating information security spending by firms. We also discuss the managerial implications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The risk analysis and disaster recovery perspectives are combined to build an integrated simulation model of ISSC portfolio value that includes the type of attack, frequency of attacks, possible damage, and the extent and time of recovery from damage.
Abstract: Organizations are faced with a variety of information security threats and implement several information system security countermeasures (ISSCs) to mitigate possible damage due to security attacks. These security countermeasures vary in their ability to deal with different types of security attacks and, hence, are implemented as a portfolio of ISSCs. A key challenge for organizations is to understand the economic consequences of security attacks relative to the ISSC portfolio implemented. This paper combines the risk analysis and disaster recovery perspectives to build an integrated simulation model of ISSC portfolio value. The model incorporates the characteristics of an ISSC portfolio relative to the threat and business environments and includes the type of attack, frequency of attacks, possible damage, and the extent and time of recovery from damage. The simulation experiments provide interesting insights into the interactions between ISSC portfolio components and characteristics of business and threat environments in determining portfolio value.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Trust in Online Environments Special Issue is a celebration of the 10th anniversary of the publication of the first trust report published in the Journal of Management Information Systems.
Abstract: (2008). Special Issue: Trust in Online Environments. Journal of Management Information Systems: Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 5-11.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that competition in strangers networks, where market encounters are one-shot and reputation information is communicated through outside parties, improves trust, trustworthiness, and market efficiency.
Abstract: We investigate whether greater market competition improves or inhibits the ability of feedback systems in Internet markets to deliver trust and trustworthiness to the marketplace. Our investigation is grounded in the theory of signaling from information economics. Using methods from experimental economics, we create a laboratory online market where sellers face a moral hazard. We manipulate the level of market competition and the nature of the social network behind the feedback system and study the affect on trust, trustworthiness, and market efficiency. We find that competition in strangers networks, where market encounters are one-shot and reputation information is communicated through outside parties, improves trust, trustworthiness, and market efficiency. The efficiency advantage that partners networks, where a buyer can maintain a repeated relationship with a seller, have over strangers networks largely vanishes with the introduction of competition. This is because the difference in the pattern of social networking largely disappears. Overall, encouraging competition leads to more effective feedback systems in Internet markets. We discuss implications for trader strategy and Internet market design.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data collected from 538 organizations in the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, Norway, and Switzerland are aggregated and analyzed to explore assimilation patterns and the influence of decision-making pattern, functional integration, promotion of collaboration, organization size, and IT function size on the assimilation of CITs.
Abstract: The diffusion of innovation theory is deployed to investigate the global assimilation of collaborative information technologies (CITs). Based on the concepts of IT acquisition and utilization, an assimilation framework is presented to highlight four states (limited, focused, lagging, and pervasive) that capture the assimilation of conferencing and groupware CITs. Data collected from 538 organizations in the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, Norway, and Switzerland are aggregated and analyzed to explore assimilation patterns and the influence of decision-making pattern, functional integration, promotion of collaboration, organization size, and IT function size on the assimilation of CITs. Although most of these factors influence assimilation of CITs from nonadoption to a state of limited assimilation, and from limited assimilation to a state of pervasive assimilation, they may not be critical when assimilation of CITs deviates from the expected path. The implications of our findings are discussed for practice and research on assimilation of CITs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors adapt the event study methodology from research in financial economics to study the impact of government enforcement and economic opportunities on information security attacks, and they found limited evidence that domestic enforcement deters attacks within the country.
Abstract: We adapt the event study methodology from research in financial economics to study the impact of government enforcement and economic opportunities on information security attacks. We found limited evidence that domestic enforcement deters attacks within the country. However, we found compelling evidence of a displacement effect: U. S. enforcement substantially increases attacks originating from other countries. We also found strong evidence that attackers are economically motivated in that the number of attacks is increasing in the U. S. unemployment rate. Our findings were robust to differences in the effective time window of enforcement and the measurement of vulnerabilities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of stylometric analysis to help identify online traders based on the writing style traces inherent in their posted feedback comments found it to significantly outperform benchmark stylometric techniques.
Abstract: Online reputation systems are intended to facilitate the propagation of word of mouth as a credibility scoring mechanism for improved trust in electronic marketplaces. However, they experience two problems attributable to anonymity abuse-easy identity changes and reputation manipulation. In this study, we propose the use of stylometric analysis to help identify online traders based on the writing style traces inherent in their posted feedback comments. We incorporated a rich stylistic feature set and developed the Writeprint technique for detection of anonymous trader identities. The technique and extended feature set were evaluated on a test bed encompassing thousands of feedback comments posted by 200 eBay traders. Experiments conducted to assess the scalability (number of traders) and robustness (against intentional obfuscation) of the proposed approach found it to significantly outperform benchmark stylometric techniques. The results indicate that the proposed method may help militate against easy identity changes and reputation manipulation in electronic markets.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study provides a preliminary theoretical framework for studying change management in IOS for the public and aims to guide practitioners in implementing such systems.
Abstract: It is recognized that change management is necessary for information technology implementation success. While there are a growing number of interorganizational systems (IOS) designed for the public, there is little study of and lack of clear guidelines on managing change related to their implementation. This research explores the phenomenon through the case study of a country-wide farecard system implemented in Singapore's public transportation system that involved several organizations and the public. Through the case analysis, we identified critical success factors (CSFs) for change management in IOS for the public and interrelated them using a causal loop diagram (CLD). These factors included refinements of existing CSFs identified from the literature as well as new CSFs from our case study. Our case analysis showed that communication through senior management and cooperation of affected organizations in the system implementation was able to overcome resistance to change in these organizations. We also found that while comprehensive publicity could initiate change in the public, a critical mass had to be built up for managing public change by coopting public opinion leaders as well. By interrelating CSFs identified in the case via a CLD, this study provides a preliminary theoretical framework for studying change management in IOS for the public and aims to guide practitioners in implementing such systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Johnson1
TL;DR: This work characterize the extent of the security risk for a group of large financial institutions using a direct analysis of leaked documents and finds a statistically significant link between leakage and leak sources including the firm employment base and the number of retail accounts.
Abstract: Firms face many different types of information security risk. Inadvertent disclosure of sensitive business information represents one of the largest classes of recent security breaches. We examine a specific instance of this problem-inadvertent disclosures through peer-to-peer file-sharing networks. We characterize the extent of the security risk for a group of large financial institutions using a direct analysis of leaked documents. We also characterize the threat of loss by examining search patterns in peer-to-peer networks. Our analysis demonstrates both a substantial threat and vulnerability for large financial firms. We find a statistically significant link between leakage and leak sources including the firm employment base and the number of retail accounts. We also find a link between firm visibility and threat activity. Finally, we find that firms with more leaks also experience increased threat.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work builds theory in support of a new construct, profit-at-risk, for evaluating the trade-offs between contract profitability and service-level risk, stemming from financial economics theory and models, and aligns IT service management with best practices in financial management.
Abstract: Information technology (IT) services providers are exposed to exogenous risks faced by the industry as a whole, and endogenous risks from their current portfolio of IT contracts. This exposure may lead to cost overruns or legal responsibility for service-level breeches. Providers can leverage information about their risk positions implied by their IT services contract portfolios to gain strategic advantage over their competitors. We build theory in support of a new construct, profit-at-risk, for evaluating the trade-offs between contract profitability and service-level risk, stemming from financial economics theory and models. We simulate an IT services contract portfolio, and show how managers can reduce organizational risk by forgoing profit-maximizing contracts in lieu of more conservative service-level agreements, yet still achieve high returns. Our approach provides decision support for ex ante contract evaluation and negotiation, and a means to conduct ex post efficiency evaluation. It also aligns IT service management with best practices in financial management.