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Showing papers in "The Modern Language Journal in 1942"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the difficulties in mastering natural languages and devise many schemes for artificial languages, of which Volapuk and Esperanto are the best known; however, nationalistic aspirations, racial prejudices, and practical difficulties have interfered, and it is still a moot question whether any artificial language can be a success.
Abstract: Author's summary.— Difficulties in mastering natural languages have caused scientists and others usually not linguists, to devise many schemes for artificial languages, of which Volapuk and Esperanto are the best known; however, nationalistic aspirations, racial prejudices, and practical difficulties have interfered, and it is still a moot question whether any artificial language can be a success.)

11 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluate the cultural content of a few of the more recent German grammar texts and compare them with older texts, and survey the response being given to the new cultural objectives by the state courses of study by the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges.
Abstract: O NLY since 1924 has serious consideration been given to the cultural objective in foreign language study. Although it was first hinted at in 1914 in the study of foreign languages made by the National Education Association it was not until the Modern Language Investigation was launched in 1924 that the cultural objective was finally listed as a definite objective of foreign language study and then only as an ultimate objective. An analysis of the work of the National Survey of Secondary Education in 1932 showed that at that time there seemed to be a general agreement within the profession on two cultural objectives, namely-(1) knowledge of the foreign country and its people, and (2) increased knowledge of English words, English grammar, and relationships between the foreign language and English. During the last six years, several studies have been made to determine the cultural content of textbooks used in various language courses, or, to determine the response of courses of study to the new objectives. Only two of these studies were concerned with the field of German and they both were studies of German reading texts. The purpose of the study here being reported was threefold, namely-(1) to evaluate the cultural content of a few of the more recent German grammar texts and compare them with older texts, (2) to determine the reliability of the method being used in the cultural count of texts, and (3) to survey the response being given to the new cultural objectives by the state courses of study of the states comprising the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges. To determine the cultural content of the texts considered, an adaptation of the technique employed by Gertrude Gilman in her study of French readers was used.' This method was designed for modern language texts by Miss Gilman and Mr. Coleman in cooperation with educational experts of the University of Chicago. The cultural-informational items were classified both as to type of material and as to relative length or importance. The various cultural materials were classified according to the subject headings used at the Congressional Library. Whenever more than one heading was applicable to a given reference, the reference was listed under the heading which best fitted its principal interest. As to relative importance the cultural material in Miss Gil-

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state certification codes must be directed by the colleges as discussed by the authors and colleges prescribe a minor which colleges must not cheapen. Colleges control minor definition, hence the quality and quantity of teachers.
Abstract: The state certification codes must be directed by the colleges. Codes prescribe a minor which colleges must not cheapen. Colleges control minor definition, hence the quality and quantity of teachers. Code hour-requirements must be raised to meet the minors. Should languages be classified as “special” subjects, demanding certain skills?

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Spanish has a long history of being a poor third among the Modern Languages and was only taught in a few of our schools and colleges as discussed by the authors, but it has been a hot topic in the last few decades.
Abstract: THOSE of us who can remember back twenty years or more receive the news of a possible "boom" in Spanish with mixed emotions. We are glad that the language is once more receiving the attention which we believe that it should have had right along, but we can not help worrying as we recall previous mistakes and wonder if they are going to be made again. Everyone knows the history of Spanish as a subject. Prior to 1914 it stood a poor third among the Modern Languages and was taught in only a few of our schools and colleges. By 1920 it had run far ahead of German and was even giving French a hard battle for its hitherto undisputed position at the head of the list. About 1927 the recession began, the ebb continuing with ever increasing rapidity until, somewhere in the mid 1930's, the low water mark was reached. Now, it would seem that the pendulum has begun to swing in the other direction. The tide is again coming in. And the question now confronting us is-Can we this time arrange things so as to assure Spanish a constant depth of water, or is the language again to be left stranded high and dry after another five or ten years of popularity? Or, to use another familiar figure, can we provide Spanish with a sort of "ever normal granary" of popularity and thus avoid both famine and surplus? The answers to such questions lie in the future conduct of the teaching profession. If we seek to control the boom by the use of common sense we can secure for Spanish a permanent "place in the sun." If we again follow the "apres moi le deluge" type of philosophy, history will simply repeat itself. Merchandise is sold by means of propaganda calculated to attract the attention of the public and to create a demand. The wise merchant, with an eye cast far into the future, makes no claim for his wares which can not easily be substantiated, and thereby assures for himself a modest (perhaps) but continuous business for a long time to come. The dishonest, and therefore not so wise, dealer thinks only of making a "killing" in the shortest possible time. With that end in view he makes sensational claims for his product and extravagant promises which he knows can not be fulfilled. For a short time business is good, but the demand vanishes as soon as the public discovers that it has been duped. The latter was the case with Spanish twenty years

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article summarized the address, papers, and discussion at the foreign language meeting during the San Francisco session of the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) conference in 1970.
Abstract: Author's summary.— Present-day popular interest in the immediately useful subjects of instruction makes it necessary that foreign language teachers give emphasis to the importance of languages in the present emergency. The basic practical and potential values of foreign languages have been restated by a noted authority on vocational education, and the contribution which foreign language teachers may make by collaboration with their colleagues in other departments has been demonstrated by teachers conducting such projects. This article summarizes the address, papers, and discussion at the foreign language meeting during the San Francisco session of the American Association of School Administrators.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a list of some 500 words which deal with the war is presented, which falls into four classes, general, land, sea and air terms, i.e.
Abstract: Author's summary.— This is a list of some 500 words which deal with the war. The material falls into four classes, general, land, sea and air terms.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed description of procedure in a 3-hour elementary college class in French, with suggested implications for the 2-year high school course is given, including types of text used, content of the course, methods employed (especially for the development of silent reading), results judged by national norms, and the purpose of such a course.
Abstract: Author's summary.— A detailed description of procedure in a 3-hour elementary college class in French, with suggested implications for the 2-year high school course. Discussion of types of text used, content of the course, methods employed (especially for the development of silent reading), results judged by national norms, and the purpose of such a course.)

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated the correlation of comparable recall and recognition tests in French grammar and concluded that both types test approximately the same knowledge, regardless of passive or active forms of French grammar, and also concluded that the two types test the same content regardless of the form of the test.
Abstract: Author's summary.— An investigation of the correlation of comparable recall and recognition tests in French grammar. Selection and construction of tests, administration, scoring, tabulation, and correlation of results. Concluding that both types test approximately the same knowledge, regardless of “passive” or “active” form.)

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the devices listed are suggested as ways of varying classroom routine, of bringing the foreign language work close to the students' daily life, and of correlating it with other academic subjects.
Abstract: Author's summary.— The devices listed are suggested as ways of varying classroom routine, of bringing the foreign language work close to the students' daily life, and of correlating it with other academic subjects.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a report covering a fractional area, intended as an exemplary fragment of the mosaic which a national map of foreign language study must resemble instead of presenting a composite generalization.
Abstract: Author's summary.— A report covering a fractional area, intended as an exemplary fragment of the mosaic which a national map of foreign language study must resemble instead of presenting a composite generalization. Its purpose is not to identify a trend, but to divide the trend into its elements in order to influence it by indicating the probable direction in which efficiency lies. If the foreign language curriculum is in need of change, this need is to be determined neither by trends figured on the basis of the per cent of the sum total of school populations to which the sum total of enrollments in foreign language courses is equivalent, nor by trends figured on the basis of the curriculum found in the numerical majority of schools. This need is rather to be determined, with certain exceptions, solely by school size.)


Journal ArticleDOI
Boyd G. Carter1
TL;DR: The need to re-define and clarify the aims and purposes of instruction in the liberal arts colleges has been imposed by a number of developments which, for the purposes of this paper, merit only passing mention.
Abstract: F OR a number of years faculties of liberal arts colleges have been devoting much time to an analysis of the objectives of their institutions. The need to re-define and clarify the aims and purposes of instruction in the liberal arts colleges has been imposed by a number of developments which, for the purposes of this paper, merit only passing mention. For example, the student body of the last few years lacks the uniformity of preparation and certainty of purpose which it formerly had. The state universities have inaugurated programs of guidance and individual attention which threaten to invalidate some of the advantages traditionally associated with modest sized liberal arts colleges. Also, teachers' colleges which formerly functioned only as specialized services for teacher training programs are expanding their curriculum offering in directions overlapping that of colleges. The sensitivity of the colleges to this new and evolving situation has, then, promoted in many cases a healthy and vigorous attempt to set up a definite set of objectives. The next step has been to scrutinize the current program in an effort to determine how well the objectives decided upon are already being realized. A third consideration has been the discussion of ways and means of overcoming deficiencies in the actual curriculum offering. Perhaps in the majority of colleges these discussions have served, and will continue to serve, merely as forums at which argumentative faculty members sharpen their wits and the efficiency-plus get bored. But in some instances, a genuinely new program, or at least an old program with new emphasis, has been or is in the process of being evolved. Although the wording of the objectives vary, there seems to be general agreement to some degree at least on most of the following: (1) Proficiency in written and oral English. (2) An understanding of the significance of the social sciences. (3) An understanding of the significance of science and the scientific method. (4) An appreciation for esthetic values. (5) An appreciation for idealistic and ethical values. (6) Interpretation of vocational and professional values and potentialities involved in the liberal arts program. (7) A working reading knowledge of a foreign language.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that students of French using an extensive reading approach made greater progress in the acquisition of reading skill and vocabulary content than students of Spanish using an intensive reading approach, compared to students of English using intensive reading.
Abstract: Author's summary.— Evidence is presented to show that students of French using an extensive reading approach made greater progress in the acquisition of reading skill and vocabulary content than students of Spanish using an intensive reading approach.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that foreign language teachers should freely employ informational and illustrative items connected with the peoples whose languages are studied to stimulate interest in their courses, widen the pupils' mental horizons, and correlate their work with other branches of the curriculum, besides aiding defense.
Abstract: Author's summary.— Foreign language teachers should freely employ informational and illustrative items connected with the peoples whose languages are studied. By so doing, they can stimulate interest in their courses, widen the pupils' mental horizons, and correlate their work with other branches of the curriculum, besides aiding defense.)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Frontispiece Preface 1 Pascal in debate 2 Pascal as moralist 3.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors pointed out that in some cases the English "to" is not translated at all in French, Italian, or Spanish; in others, it is translated by "4," "a", "a," and "de", "di," "de,", respectively.
Abstract: APOINT of Romance grammar that offers noticeable difficulty to American pupils is the use of the various prepositions that in French, Italian, or Spanish replace the uniform English "to" before an infinitive, or the present participle. The first step that might be taken is that of making the pupils conscious of the complexity of the Romance use of prepositions in terms of the simplicity and uniformity of the English use. The teacher may call to the pupils' attention that in certain cases the English "to" is not translated at all in French, Italian, or Spanish; in others, it is translated by "4," "a," "a," respectively; and in others, by "de," "di," "de,", respectively. These three cases may be stated thus:

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that modern language instruction can be seen as a kind of natural recreational activity in the present institutional care of the feeble-minded and some interesting and perhaps significant observations on modern language methodology can be made in language learning and teaching among the elderly.
Abstract: Author's summary.— (1) It is possible to include modern language instruction as a kind of natural recreational activity in the present institutional care of the feeble-minded. (2) Some interesting and, perhaps, significant observations on modern language methodology can be made in language learning and teaching among the feeble-minded.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of Latin American literature available in English translation for those North Americans who cannot read Spanish or Portuguese can be found in this paper, where the present bibliography partially fills this need.
Abstract: Author's summary.— The present widespread interest in the Latin-American countries has created the need for a survey of their literature available in English translation for those North Americans who cannot read Spanish or Portuguese. The present bibliography partially fills this need.)




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a test of French composition for the lower and intermediate levels, which can be scored objectively, and which yields comparable results from year to year at the institution where it was developed.
Abstract: Author's summary.— Description of a test of French composition, designed for the lower and intermediate levels, which can be scored objectively, and which, at the institution where it was developed, yields comparable results from year to year.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a plan for reorganization, on a life-centered rather than on a college-centered basis, is offered, based on an analysis of the present language situation, the conclusion is reached that the traditional French course is out of step with the high school of today.
Abstract: Author's summary.— After an analysis of the present language situation, the conclusion is reached that the traditional “classic” French course is out of step with the high school of today. A plan for reorganization, on a “life-centered” rather than on a “college-centered” basis, is offered.)


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the available texts and the methods of teaching in Portuguese can be found in this paper, where the authors also present a survey of teaching methods in Portuguese language courses and resources.
Abstract: Author's summary.— A review of the available texts and the methods of teaching in Portuguese.