The Qualitative Report
About: The Qualitative Report is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Qualitative research & Grounded theory. It has an ISSN identifier of 1052-0147. Over the lifetime, 2354 publication(s) have been published receiving 77265 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
14 Jan 2015-The Qualitative Report
TL;DR: An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the “case” under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation.
Abstract: Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing and implementing qualitative case study research projects. An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the “case” under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation. To facilitate application of these principles, clear examples of research questions, study propositions and the different types of case study designs
23 Jan 2015-The Qualitative Report
TL;DR: The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm as discussed by the authors, which can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study.
Abstract: The use of reliability and validity are common in quantitative research and now it is reconsidered in the qualitative research paradigm. Since reliability and validity are rooted in positivist perspective then they should be redefined for their use in a naturalistic approach. Like reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are providing springboard to examine what these two terms mean in the qualitative research paradigm, triangulation as used in quantitative research to test the reliability and validity can also illuminate some ways to test or maximize the validity and reliability of a qualitative study. Therefore, reliability, validity and triangulation, if they are relevant research concepts, particularly from a qualitative point of view, have to be redefined in order to reflect the multiple ways of establishing truth. Key words: Reliability, Validity, Triangulation, Construct, Qualitative, and Quantitative This article discusses the use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm. First, the meanings of quantitative and qualitative research are discussed. Secondly, reliability and validity as used in quantitative research are discussed as a way of providing a springboard to examining what these two terms mean and how they can be tested in the qualitative research paradigm. This paper concludes by drawing upon the use of triangulation in the two paradigms (quantitative and qualitative) to show how the changes have influenced our understanding of reliability, validity and triangulation in qualitative studies.
08 Sep 2015-The Qualitative Report
TL;DR: Data saturation is reached when there is enough information to replicate the study when the ability to obtain additional new information has been attained, and when further coding is no longer feasible as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Failure to reach data saturation has an impact on the quality of the research conducted and hampers content validity. The aim of a study should include what determines when data saturation is achieved, for a small study will reach saturation more rapidly than a larger study. Data saturation is reached when there is enough information to replicate the study when the ability to obtain additional new information has been attained, and when further coding is no longer feasible. The following article critiques two qualitative studies for data saturation: Wolcott (2004) and Landau and Drori (2008). Failure to reach data saturation has a negative impact on the validity on one’s research. The intended audience is novice student researchers. Keywords: Data Saturation, Triangulation, Interviews, Personal Lens, Bias.
01 Jan 1995-The Qualitative Report
TL;DR: Aronson et al. as mentioned in this paper presented a pragmatic view of the thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, focusing on identifying identifiable themes and patterns of living and/or behavior in the interviews.
Abstract: Ethnographic interviews have become a commonly used qualitat ive methodology for collecting data (Aronson, 1992). Once the information is gathered, res earchers are faced with the decision on how to analyze the data. There are many ways to anal yze informants' talk about their experiences (Mahrer, 1988; Spradley, 1979; Taylor & Bogdan, 1984), a nd thematic analysis is one such way. Although thematic analysis has been described (Benner, 1985; Leininger, 1985; Taylor & Board, 1984), there is insufficient literature that outlines the pragmatic process of thematic analysis. This article attempts to outline the procedure for perform ing a thematic analysis. Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License. This article is available in The Qualitative Report: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol2/iss1/3 A Pragmatic View of Thematic Analysis by Jodi Aronson The Qualitative Report, Volume 2, Number 1, Spring, 1994 Ethnographic interviews have become a commonly used qualitative methodology for collecting data (Aronson, 1992). Once the information is gathered, researchers are faced with the decision on how to analyze the data. There are many ways to analyze informants' talk about their experiences (Mahrer, 1988; Spradley, 1979; Taylor & Bogdan, 1984), and thematic analysis is one such way. Although thematic analysis has been described (Benner, 1985; Leininger, 1985; Taylor & Board, 1984), there is insufficient literature that outlines the pragmatic process of thematic analysis. This article attempts to outline the procedure for performing a thematic analysis. Performing a Thematic Analysis The ethnographic interview is a commonly used interviewing process employed by researchclinicians (Kuehl & Newfield, 1991; Kuehl, Newfield & Joanning, 1990; Newfield, Joanning, Kuehl, & Quinn, 1990; Newfield, Kuehl, Joanning & Quinn, 1991; William, 1992). From the conversations that take place in a therapy session or those that are encouraged for the sake of researching a process, ideas emerge that can be better understood under the control of a thematic analysis. Thematic analysis focuses on identifiable themes and patterns of living and/or behavior. The first step is to collect the data. Audiotapes should be collected to study the talk of a session or of an enthnographic interview (Spradley, 1979). From the transcribed conversations, patterns of experiences can be listed. This can come from direct quotes or paraphrasing common ideas. The following is an example. A family was interviewed to get a better understanding of their experience with a juvenile justice system. The entire interview was transcribed. The first pattern of experience listed, was the process of the juvenile being arrested, and the different explanations from the various family members. The second pattern of experience listed was the attitude that each family member had toward the process (Aronson, 1992). The next step to a thematic analysis is to identify all data that relate to the already classified patterns. To continue the above example, the identified patterns are then expounded on. All of the talk that fits under the specific pattern is identified and placed with the corresponding pattern. For example, each family member somehow named their "attitude" while they were speaking. The father stated that he is "anti-statist," the mother said that she is "protective," and the son stated that "felt bad for what he had done" (Aronson, 1992). The next step to a thematic analysis is to combine and catalogue related patterns into sub-themes. Themes are defined as units derived from patterns such as "conversation topics, vocabulary, recurring activities, meanings, feelings, or folk sayings and proverbs" (Taylor & Bogdan, 1989, p.131). Themes are identified by "bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone" (Leininger, 1985, p. 60). Themes that emerge from the informants' stories are pieced together to form a comprehensive picture of their collective experience. The "coherence of ideas rests with the analyst who has rigorously studied how different ideas or components fit together in a meaningful way when linked together" (Leininger, 1985, p. 60). Constas (1992) reiterates this point and states that the "interpretative approach should be considered as a distinct point of origination" (p. 258). When gathering sub-themes to obtain a comprehensive view of the information, it is easy to see a pattern emerging. When patterns emerge it is best to obtain feedback from the informants about them. This can be done as the interview is taking place or by asking the informants to give feedback from the transcribed conversations. In the former, the interviewer uses the informants' feedback to establish the next questions in the interview. In the latter, the interviewer transcribes the interview or the session, and asks the informants to provide feedback that is then incorporated in the theme analysis. The next step is to build a valid argument for choosing the themes. This is done by reading the related literature. By referring back to the literature, the interviewer gains information that allows him or herself to make inferences from the interview or therapy session. Once the themes have been collected and the literature has been studied, the researcher is ready to formulate theme statements to develop a story line. When the literature is interwoven with the findings, the story that the interviewer constructs is one that stands with merit. A developed story line helps the reader to comprehend the process, understanding, and motivation of the interviewer. References Aronson, J. (1992). The interface of family therapy and a juvenile arbitration and mediation program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Benner, P. (1985). Quality of life: A phenomenological perspective on explanation, prediction, and understanding in nursing science. Advances in Nursing Science, 8(1), 1-14. Constas, M. A. (1992). Qualitative analysis as a public event: The documentation of category development procedures. American Educational Research Journal, 29(2), 253-266. Kuehl, B. P., & Newfield, N. A. (1991). Family listeners among the Nacirema: Their curative ceremonies and how the natives view them. Family Therapy Case Studies, 6(1), 55-66. Kuehl, B. P., Newfield, N. A., & Joanning, H. (1990). Toward a client-based description of family therapy. Journal of Family Psychology, 3(3), 310-321. Leininger, M. M. (1985). Ethnography and ethnonursing: Models and modes of qualitative data analysis. In M. M. Leininger (Ed.), Qualitative research methods in nursing (pp. 33-72). Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton. Mahrer, A. R. (1988). Discovery-oriented psychotherapy research. American Psychologist, 43(9), 694-702. Newfield, N. A., Kuehl, B. P., Joanning, H., & Quinn, W. H. (1990). A mini-ethnography of the family therapy of adolescent drug abuse: The ambiguous experience. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 7(2), 57-80. Newfield, N. A., Kuehl, B. P., Joanning, H., & Quinn, W. H. (1991). We can tell you about psychos and shrinks: An ethnography of the family therapy of adolescent substance abuse. In T. C. Todd & M. D. Selekman (Eds.), Family therapy approaches with adolescent substance abusers (pp. 277-310). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Spradley, J. (1979). The ethnographic interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1984). Introduction to qualitative research methods: The search for meanings. New York: John Wiley & Sons. William, J. L. (1992). Don't discuss it: Reconciling illness, dying, and death in a medical school anatomy laboratory. Family Systems Medicine, 10(1), 65-78. Jodi Aronson, Ph.D., LMFT is the Clinical Director of MCC Behavioral Care, 3313 West Commercial Boulevard, Suite 112, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309.
19 Nov 2014-The Qualitative Report
TL;DR: In this article, the effective ways to conduct in-depth, qualitative interviews for novice investigators by employing a step-by-step process for implementation is discussed. But, the authors focus on the qualitative research design of the interview protocol, which can be complicated depending upon the level of experience a researcher may have with a particular type of methodology.
Abstract: Qualitative research design can be complicated depending upon the level of experience a researcher may have with a particular type of methodology. As researchers, many aspire to grow and expand their knowledge and experiences with qualitative design in order to better utilize diversified research paradigms for future investigations. One of the more popular areas of interest in qualitative research design is that of the interview protocol. Interviews provide in-depth information pertaining to participants’ experiences and viewpoints of a particular topic. Often times, interviews are coupled with other forms of data collection in order to provide the researcher with a well-rounded collection of information for analyses. This paper explores the effective ways to conduct in-depth, qualitative interviews for novice investigators by employing a step-by-step process for implementation. Key Words: Informal Conversational Interview, General Interview Guide, OpenEnded Interviews
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