Theoretical and Applied Genetics
Springer Science+Business Media
About: Theoretical and Applied Genetics is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Quantitative trait locus. It has an ISSN identifier of 0040-5752. Over the lifetime, 12372 publications have been published receiving 704688 citations. The journal is also known as: Theoretische und angewandte Genetik & TAG (Print).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A low but significant level of linkage disequilibrium was found for unlinked markers and only for very tigthly linked (<3 cM) markers was this level substantially higher, implying that little is gained in utilising the map position of the markers in fingerprinting applications.
Abstract: It has been suggested that map information for molecular markers can be used to strengthen finterprinting analyses. The success of this strategy depends on the distribution of linkage disequilibrium over the genome. Using 451 mapped AFLP markers, we investigated the occurrence of linkage disequilibrium in nine sugar beet breeding lines. A low but significant level of linkage disequilibrium was found for unlinked markers. Only for very tigthly linked (<3 cM) markers was this level substantially higher. This implies that little is gained in utilising the map position of the markers in fingerprinting applications.
TL;DR: It is argued that this variation in plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation) that may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species.
Abstract: It is concluded from a review of the literature that plant cell culture itself generates genetic variability (somaclonal variation). Extensive examples are discussed of such variation in culture subclones and in regenerated plants (somaclones). A number of possible mechanisms for the origin of this phenomenon are considered. It is argued that this variation already is proving to be of significance for plant improvement. In particular the phenomenon may be employed to enhance the exchange required in sexual hybrids for the introgression of desirable alien genes into a crop species. It may also be used to generate variants of a commercial cultivar in high frequency without hybridizing to other genotypes.
TL;DR: Results show that with the software tool developed, EST databases can be efficiently exploited for the development of cDNA-SSRs, EST-derived SSRs are significantly less polymorphic than those derived from genomic regions, a considerable portion of the developed SSRs can be transferred to related species, and compared to RFLP-markers, c DNA- SSRs yield similar patterns of genetic diversity.
Abstract: A software tool was developed for the identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) EST (expressed sequence tag) database comprising 24,595 sequences. In total, 1,856 SSR-containing sequences were identified. Trimeric SSR repeat motifs appeared to be the most abundant type. A subset of 311 primer pairs flanking SSR loci have been used for screening polymorphisms among six barley cultivars, being parents of three mapping populations. As a result, 76 EST-derived SSR-markers were integrated into a barley genetic consensus map. A correlation between polymorphism and the number of repeats was observed for SSRs built of dimeric up to tetrameric units. 3′-ESTs yielded a higher portion of polymorphic SSRs (64%) than 5′-ESTs did. The estimated PIC (polymorphic information content) value was 0.45 ± 0.03. Approximately 80% of the SSR-markers amplified DNA fragments in Hordeum bulbosum, followed by rye, wheat (both about 60%) and rice (40%). A subset of 38 EST-derived SSR-markers comprising 114 alleles were used to investigate genetic diversity among 54 barley cultivars. In accordance with a previous, RFLP-based, study, spring and winter cultivars, as well as two- and six-rowed barleys, formed separate clades upon PCoA analysis. The results show that: (1) with the software tool developed, EST databases can be efficiently exploited for the development of cDNA-SSRs, (2) EST-derived SSRs are significantly less polymorphic than those derived from genomic regions, (3) a considerable portion of the developed SSRs can be transferred to related species, and (4) compared to RFLP-markers, cDNA-SSRs yield similar patterns of genetic diversity.
TL;DR: A theoretical investigation has been made of the influence of population size and recombination fraction on linkage disequilibrium between a pair of loci and it was found that the mean value ofr2 was determined almost entirely byN c and time, measured proportional toN.
Abstract: A theoretical investigation has been made of the influence of population size (N) and recombination fraction (c) on linkage disequilibrium (D) between a pair of loci. Two situations were studied: (i) where both loci had no effect on fitness and (ii) where they showed heterozygote superiority, but no epistacy. If the populations are initially in linkage equilibrium, then the mean value ofD remains zero with inbreeding, but the mean ofD 2 increases to a maximum value and decreases until fixation is reached at both loci. The tighter the linkage and the greater the selection, then the later is the maximum in the mean ofD 2 reached, and the larger its value. The correlation of gene frequencies,r, in the population of gametes within segregating lines was also studied. It was found that, for a range of selection intensities and initial gene frequencies, the mean value ofr 2 was determined almost entirely byN c and time, measured proportional toN. The implication of these results on observations of linkage disequilibrium in natural populations is discussed.
TL;DR: The objectives of this study were to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber and lignin in the maize stalk and compare them with QTLs from other populations, and to useful to breeding efforts aimed at improving the quality of maize silage.
Abstract: Maize silage is a significant energy source for animal production operations, and the efficiency of the conversion of forage into animal mass is an important consideration when selecting cultivars for use as feed. Fiber and lignin are negatively correlated with digestibility of feed, so the development of forage with reduced levels of these cell-wall components (CWCs) is desirable. While variability for fiber and lignin is present in maize germplasm, traditional selection has focused on the yield of the ear rather than the forage quality of the whole plant, and little information is available concerning the genetics of fiber and lignin. The objectives of this study were to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fiber and lignin in the maize stalk and compare them with QTLs from other populations. Stalk samples were harvested from 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of B73 (an inbred line with low-to-intermediate levels of CWCs) x De811 (an inbred line with high levels of CWCs) at two locations in 1998 and one in 1999 and assayed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL). The QTLs were detected on nine chromosomes, mostly clustered in concordance with the high genetic correlations between NDF and ADF. Adjustment of NDF for ADF and ADF for ADL revealed that most of the variability for CWCs in this population is in ADF. Many of the QTLs detected in this study have also been detected in other populations, and several are linked to candidate genes for cellulose or starch biosynthesis. The genetic information obtained in this study should be useful to breeding efforts aimed at improving the quality of maize silage.