Showing papers in "Theoretical and Applied Genetics in 1993"
TL;DR: Sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) were derived from eight random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to disease resistance genes in lettuce, providing information on the molecular basis of RAPD markers.
Abstract: Sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs) were derived from eight random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to disease resistance genes in lettuce. SCARs are PCR-based markers that represent single, genetically defined loci that are identified by PCR amplification of genomic DNA with pairs of specific oligonucleotide primers; they may contain high-copy, dispersed genomic sequences within the amplified region. Amplified RAPD products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence was used to design 24-mer oligonucleotide primers for each end. All pairs of SCAR primers resulted in the amplification of single major bands the same size as the RAPD fragment cloned. Polymorphism was either retained as the presence or absence of amplification of the band or appeared as length polymorphisms that converted dominant RAPD loci into codominant SCAR markers. This study provided information on the molecular basis of RAPD markers. The amplified fragment contained no obvious repeated sequences beyond the primer sequence. Five out of eight pairs of SCAR primers amplified an alternate allele from both parents of the mapping population; therefore, the original RAPD polymorphism was likely due to mismatch at the primer sites.
TL;DR: These patterns of genetic variation were very different from those reported for inbred species and provide important baseline data for cultivar identification and continuing studies of the evolution of polyploid races in this species.
Abstract: RAPD markers provide a powerful tool for the investigation of genetic variation in natural and domesticated populations. Recent studies of strain/cultivar identification have shown extensive RAPD divergence among, but little variation within, inbred species or cultivars. In contrast, little is known about the pattern and extent of RAPD variation in heterogeneous, outcrossing species. We describe the population genetic variation of RAPD markers in natural, diploid sources of dioecious buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.]. Buffalograss is native to the semi-arid regions of the Great Plains of North America, where it is important for rangeland forage, soil conservation, and as turfgrass. Most sources of buffalograss germplasm are polyploid; diploid populations are previously known only from semi-arid Central Mexico. This is the first report of diploids from humid Gulf Coastal Texas. These two diploid sources represent divergent adaptive ecotypes. Seven 10-mer primers produced 98 polymorphic banding sites. Based on the presence/ absence of bands, a genetic distance matrix was calculated. The new Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) technique was used to apportion the variation among individuals within populations, among populations within adaptive regions, and among regions. There was considerable variation within each of the four populations, and every individual was genetically distinct. Even so, genetic divergence was found among local populations. Within-population variation was larger and among-population variation smaller in Mexico than in Texas. The largest observed genetic differences were those between the two regional ecotypes. These patterns of genetic variation were very different from those reported for inbred species and provide important baseline data for cultivar identification and continuing studies of the evolution of polyploid races in this species.
TL;DR: Microsatellite repeat sequences were investigated as sequenced-tagged site (STS) DNA markers to determine the potential for genetic analysis of the grapevine genome, finding high heterozygosity within individual grapevine cultivars and high genetic variation between cultivars, making it a useful marker type for plant genome mapping and genome typing.
Abstract: Microsatellite repeat sequences were investigated as sequenced-tagged site (STS) DNA markers to determine the potential for genetic analysis of the grapevine genome. The PCR-generated markers detect codominant alleles at a single locus or site in the genome. The marker type is very informative detecting high heterozygosity (69%-88%) within individual grapevine cultivars and high genetic variation between cultivars, making it a useful marker type for plant genome mapping and genome typing. For five loci a screening of 26 V. vinifera cultivars found 13, 12, 8, 5, and 4 different length alleles respectively with some alleles more common than others. The genomic DNA sequences surrounding microsatellite sequences were conserved within the genus permitting STS primers to amplify STSs from other Vitis species. These Vitis species were found to have some unique alleles not present in V. vinifera.
TL;DR: A map of the barley genome consisting of 295 loci was constructed, which includes 152 cDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 114 genomic DNA RFLP, 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), five isozyme, two morphological, one disease resistance and seven specific amplicon polymorphism
Abstract: A map of the barley genome consisting of 295 loci was constructed. These loci include 152 cDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), 114 genomic DNA RFLP, 14 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), five isozyme, two morphological, one disease resistance and seven specific amplicon polymorphism (SAP) markers. The RFLP-identified loci include 63 that were detected using cloned known function genes as probes. The map covers 1,250 centiMorgans (cM) with a 4.2 cM average distance between markers. The genetic lengths of the chromosomes range from 124 to 223 cM and are in approximate agreement with their physical lengths. The centromeres were localized to within a few markers on all of the barley chromosomes except chromosome 5. Telomeric regions were mapped for the short (plus) arms of chromosomes 1, 2 and 3 and the long (minus) arm of chromosomes 7.
TL;DR: An RFLP-based genetic map of Secale Cereale has provided evidence for multiple evolutionary translocations in the rye genome relative to that of hexaploid wheat, which has relevance for strategies designed to transfer useful genes from rye, and probably other related species, to wheat.
Abstract: An RFLP-based genetic map of Secale Cereale has provided evidence for multiple evolutionary translocations in the rye genome relative to that of hexaploid wheat. DNA clones which have previously been mapped in wheat indicated that chromosome arms 2RS, 3RL, 4RL, 5RL, 6RS, 6RL, 7RS and 7RL have all been involved in at least one translocation. A possible evolutionary pathway, which accounts for the present day R genome relative to the A, B and D genomes of wheat, is presented. The relevance of these results for strategies designed to transfer useful genes from rye, and probably other related species, to wheat is discussed.
TL;DR: Quantitative trait locus (QTL) and QTL x environment (E) interaction effects for agronomic and malting quality traits were measured using a 123-point linkage map and multi-environment phenotype data from an F1-derived doubled haploid population of barley.
Abstract: Quantitative trait locus (QTL) and QTL x environment (E) interaction effects for agronomic and malting quality traits were measured using a 123-point linkage map and multi-environment phenotype data from an F1-derived doubled haploid population of barley (Hordeum vulgare). The QTL × E interactions were due to differences in magnitude of QTL effects. Highly significant QTL effects were found for all traits at multiple sites in the genome. Yield QTL peaks and support intervals often coincided with plant height and lodging QTL peaks and support intervals. QTL were detected in the vicinity of a previously mapped Mendelian maturity locus and known function probes forα- andβ-amylase genes. The average map density (9.6 cM) should be adequate for molecular marker-assisted selection, particularly since there were few cases of alternative favorable alleles for different traits mapping to the same or adjacent intervals.
TL;DR: Segregating allozyme and DNA polymorphisms were used to construct a preliminary linkage map for faba bean, suggesting that it may share some homology with chromosome 4 of garden pea on which three similar markers are syntenic.
Abstract: Segregating allozyme and DNA polymorphisms were used to construct a preliminary linkage map for faba bean. Two F2 populations were analyzed, the most informative of which was segregating for 66 markers. Eleven independently assorting linkage groups were identified in this population. One of the groups contained the 45s ribosomal array and could be assigned to the large metacentric chromosome I on which the nucleolar organizer region is located. This linkage group also contained two isozyme loci, Est and Tpi-p, suggesting that it may share some homology with chromosome 4 of garden pea on which three similar markers are syntenic. Additional aspects of the map and the extent of coverage of the total nuclear genome are discussed.
TL;DR: The relative abundance of microsatellite and minisatellite DNA in the genome varied with the repeat sequence and determined their usefulness in detecting RFLPs, indicating a moderate to high level of heterozygosity in grapevine cultivars.
Abstract: Repetitive DNA sequences present in the grapevine genome were investigated as probes for distinguishing species and cultivars. Microsatellite sequences, minisatellite sequences, tandemly arrayed genes and highly repetitive grapevine sequences were studied. The relative abundance of microsatellite and minisatellite DNA in the genome varied with the repeat sequence and determined their usefulness in detecting RFLPs. Cloned Vitis ribosomal repeat units were characterised and showed length heterogeneity (9.14–12.15 kb) between and within species. A highly repetitive DNA sequence isolated from V. vinifera was found to be specific only to those species classified as Euvitis. DNA polymorphisms were found between Vitis species and between cultivars of V. vinifera with all classes of repeat DNA sequences studied. DNA sequences suitable for DNA fingerprinting gave genotype-specific patterns for all of the cultivars and species examined. The DNA polymorphisms detected indicates a moderate to high level of heterozygosity in grapevine cultivars.
TL;DR: RAPD technology provides a new alternative for cultivar identification and classification in celery and is basically consistent with the known lineage of the cultivars and the previous study using stem protein and isozyme markers.
Abstract: Twenty-one celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce) cultivars, one celeriac (var. rapaceum) and one annual smallage (var. secalinum) cultivar were screened for polymorphic RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers with 28 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Among a total of 309 bands observed, 29 (9.3%) were polymorphic in the 23 cultivars screened, but only 19 (6.1%) markers were polymorphic within the 21 type dulce cultivars. These markers were sufficient to distinguish each of the cultivars used. The average marker difference was 6.4 between two celery cultivars, 16.7 between celery and annual smallage, 14.7 between celery and celeriac, and 12.0 between annual smallage and celeriac. The celery cultivars surveyed were classified into three groups based on the marker differences. The relationship among the dulce-type cultivars concluded from this research is basically consistent with the known lineage of the cultivars and the previous study using stem protein and isozyme markers. RAPD technology provides a new alternative for cultivar identification and classification in celery.
TL;DR: Overall, gene orders are highly conserved in the genomes of wheat, barley and rye, except for the distal ends of chromosome arms 2BS and 2RS, which are involved in interchromosomal, probably evolutionary, translocations.
Abstract: Genetic maps of the homoeologous group-2 chromosomes were constructed, comprising 114 loci in wheat and 34 loci in rye. These include the genes coding for sucrose synthase, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, a bZIP protein (EmBP-1), a peroxidase and an abscisic acid-induced protein (#7). Overall, gene orders are highly conserved in the genomes of wheat, barley and rye, except for the distal ends of chromosome arms 2BS and 2RS, which are involved in interchromosomal, probably evolutionary, translocations. Clustering of loci in the centromeric regions of the maps, resulting from the concentration of recombination events in the distal chromosomal regions, is observed in wheat and rye, but not in barley. Furthermore, loci for which homoeoloci can be detected in rye and barley tend to lie in the centromeric regions of the maps, while non-homoeologous and wheat-specific loci tend to be more evenly distributed over the genetic maps. Mapping of the group-2 chromosomes in the intervarietal ‘Timgalen’ x ‘RL4137’ cross revealed that the T. timopheevi chromosome segment introgressed into chromosome 2B in ‘Timgalen’ is preferentially transmitted. Recombination is also greatly reduced in that segment.
TL;DR: Cluster analysis showed that groups of inbred lines based on r were similar to those based on d with some notable exceptions, and RAPD markers can be used to gain information about genetic similarities or differences that are not evident from pedigree information.
Abstract: We investigated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 27 inbred barley lines with varying amounts of common ancestry and in 20 doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a biparental cross. Of 33 arbitrary 10 base primers that were tested, 19 distinguished a total of 31 polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were scored as dominant genetic markers except for 1, where Southern analysis indicated the presence of two codominant amplification products. The inheritance of 19 RAPD polymorphisms and one morphological trait was studied in the DH lines. There was no evidence for segregation distortion, but a group of four tightly linked loci was detected. The frequencies of RAPD polymorphism in pairs of inbred lines were used to compute values of genetic distance (d), which were compared to kinship coefficients (r) between the same pairs of lines. A linear relationship between r and d was evident, but low values of r gave poor predictions of d. Cluster analysis showed that groups of inbred lines based on r were similar to those based on d with some notable exceptions. RAPD markers can be used to gain information about genetic similarities or differences that are not evident from pedigree information.
TL;DR: Several transgenic potato lines harboring either the cytosolic or the chl SOD genes of tomato showed elevated tolerance to the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat (methyl viologen), and root cultures from transgenic lines that harbored the additional cyt Cu,Zn SOD gene of tomato were tolerant to methyl viOLOGen.
Abstract: The two cDNAs coding for the cytosolic (cyt) and the chloroplast-located (chl) Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) of tomato (Perl-Treves et al. 1988) were cloned into respective binary vectors and mobilized into Agrobacterium strains. Potato tuber discs were infected with either of the two agrobacterial strains and cultured on selective medium containing kanaymcin. The integration of either of the cyt or the chl SOD transgenes was verified by Southern-blot hybridization. The enzymatic activity of the additional tomato chl Cu,Zn SOD could be distinguished from endogenous SOD activity since the latter isozyme migrated faster on SOD-activity gels. Several transgenic potato lines harboring either the cyt or the chl SOD genes of tomato showed elevated tolerance to the superoxide-generating herbicide paraquat (methyl viologen). After exposure of shoots to paraquat, tolerance was recorded either by scoring symptoms visually or by measurements of photosynthesis using the photoacoustic method. Root cultures from transgenic lines that harbored the additional cyt Cu,Zn SOD gene of tomato were tolerant to methyl viologen up to 10-5 M; a lower tolerance was recorded in roots of transgenic lines that expressed the additional chl Cu,Zn SOD of tomato.
TL;DR: Quantitative trait loci were mapped in segregating progeny from a cross between two soybean cultivars: ‘Minsoy’ and ‘Noir 1’ to discuss heritability and genetic correlation of the traits.
Abstract: Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in segregating progeny from a cross between two soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars: ‘Minsoy’ (PI 27.890) and ‘Noir 1’ (PI 290.136). The 15 traits analyzed included reproductive, morphological, and seed traits, seed yield and carbon isotope discrimination ratios (13C/12C). Genetic variation was detected for all of the traits, and transgressive segregation was a common phenomenon. One hundred and thirty-two linked genetic markers and 24 additional unlinked markers were used to locate QTL by interval mapping and one-way analysis of variance, respectively. Quantitative trait loci controlling 11 of the 15 traits studied were localized to intervals in 6 linkage groups. Quantitative trait loci for developmental and morphological traits (R1, R5, R8, plant height, canopy height, leaf area, etc.) tended to be clustered in three intervals, two of which were also associated with seed yield. Quantitative trait loci for seed oil were separated from all the other QTL. Major QTL for maturity and plant height were linked to RFLP markers R79 (31% variation) and G173 (53% variation). Quantitative trait loci associated with unlinked markers included possible loci for seed protein and weight. Linkage between QTL is discussed in relation to the heritability and genetic correlation of the traits.
TL;DR: It is concluded that cytoplasmic genomes are well suited for the reconstruction of past migrational routes of such a complex of species.
Abstract: Chloroplast DNA polymorphisms have been detected by the conventional Southern-blotting hybridization method in four species of European oaks (Quercus petraea, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. pyrenaica). Three polymorphisms, shared by at least three of these species, can be scored directly in ethidium bromidestained gels and were used in a broad survey of the level of differentiation of the oak species and of their pattern of genetic structure in western Europe. The highly significant geographic variation and the high genetic differentiation (Gst=0.895, SGst=0.025) indicate a low level of cytoplasmic gene flow. We conclude that cytoplasmic genomes are well suited for the reconstruction of past migrational routes of such a complex of species.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that when breeding for salt tolerance, selection must be done in a later generation and under controlled conditions in order to minimize environmental effects.
Abstract: The genetics of salinity tolerance in rice was investigated by a nine-parent complete diallel including reciprocals. Test materials involved susceptible (IR28, IR29, and MI-48), moderately tolerant (IR4595-4-1-13, IR9884-54-3-1E-P1, and IR10206-29-2-1), and tolerant (“Nona Bokra”, “Pokkali”, and SR26B) parents. Twoweek-old seedlings were grown in a salinized (EC = 12 dS/m) culture solution for 19 days under controlled conditions in the IRRI phytotron. Typical characteristics of salinity tolerance in rice were found to be Na+ exclusion and an increased absorption of K+ to maintain a good Na-K balance in the shoot. Genetic component analysis (GCA) revealed that a low Na-K ratio is governed by both additive and dominance gene effects. The trait exhibited overdominance, and two groups of genes were detected. Environmental effects were large, and the heritability of the trait was low. Our findings suggest that when breeding for salt tolerance, selection must be done in a later generation and under controlled conditions in order to minimize environmental effects. Modified bulk and single-seed descent would be the suitable breeding methods. Combining ability analysis revealed that both GCA and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were important in the genetics of salt tolerance. Moderately tolerant parents — e.g., IR4595-4-1-13 and IR9884-54-3-1E-P1 — were the best general combiners. Most of the best combinations had susceptible parents crossed either to moderate or tolerant parents. The presence of reciprocal effects among crosses necessitates the use of susceptible parents as males in hybridization programs. Large heterotic effects suggest the potential of hybrid rice for salt-affected lands.
TL;DR: A key is proposed by which one can differentiate apple cultivars using commercially available prime by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Abstract: Eleven apple cultivars were differentiated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The variability of the technique and of the origin of the DNA extract was analyzed. A set of bands consistent in their presence or absence was chosen to create a differentiating band pattern. A key is proposed by which one can differentiate apple cultivars using commercially available prime.
TL;DR: The results indicate that trembling aspen is more genetically variable than bigtooth aspen at both the allozyme and DNA levels, one can generate more polymorphic and species-specific loci with DNA markers than with allozymes in aspen, and RAPDs provide a very powerful tool for “fingerprinting” aspen individuals.
Abstract: We examined genetic variation in allozyme loci, nuclear DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) in 130 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and 105 bigtooth aspen (P grandidentata) trees In trembling aspen 10 out of 13 allozyme loci assayed (77%) were polymorphic (P), with 28 alleles per locus (A) and an expected heterozygosity (He) of 025 In contrast, bigtooth aspen had a much lower allozyme genetic variability (P=29%; A=14; He=008) The two species could be distinguished by mutually exclusive alleles at Idh-1, and bigtooth aspen has what appears to be a duplicate 6PG locus not present in trembling aspen We used 138 random aspen genomic probes to reveal RFLPs in HindIII digests of aspen DNA The majority of the probes were from sequences of low copy number RFLP results were consistent with those of the allozyme analyses, with trembling aspen displaying higher genetic variation than bigtooth aspen (P=71%, A=27, and He=025 for trembling aspen; P=65%, A=18, and He=013 for bigtooth aspen) The two species could be distinguished by RFLPs revealed by 21 probes (15% of total probes assayed) RAPD patterns in both species were studied using four arbitrary decamer primers that revealed a total of 61 different amplified DNA fragments in trembling aspen and 56 in bigtooth aspen Assuming a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, estimates of P=100%, A=2, and He=030 in trembling aspen and P=88%, A=19, and He=031 in bigtooth aspen were obtained from the RAPD data Five amplified DNA fragments were species diagnostic All individuals within both species, except for 2 that likely belong to the same clone, could be distinguished by comparing their RAPD patterns These results indicate that (1) RFLPs and allozymes reveal comparable patterns of genetic variation in the two species, (2) trembling aspen is more genetically variable than bigtooth aspen at both the allozyme and DNA levels, (3) one can generate more polymorphic and species-specific loci with DNA markers than with allozymes in aspen, and (4) RAPDs provide a very powerful tool for "fingerprinting" aspen individuals
TL;DR: The I gene for bean common mosaic virus resistance is the first disease resistance gene to be located on the common bean genetic linkage map.
Abstract: A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based linkage map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) covering 827 centiMorgans (cM) was developed based on a F2 mapping population derived from a cross between BAT93 and Jalo EEP558. The parental genotypes were chosen because they exhibited differences in evolutionary origin, allozymes, phaseolin type, and for several agronomic traits. The segregation of 152 markers was analyzed, including 115 RFLP loci, 7 isozyme loci, 8 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker loci, and 19 loci corresponding to 15 clones of known genes, 1 virus resistance gene, 1 flower color gene, and 1 seed color pattern gene. Using MAPMAKER and LINKAGE-1, we were able to assign 143 markers to 15 linkage groups, whereas 9 markers remained unassigned. The average interval between markers was 6.5 cM; only one interval was larger than 30 cM. A small fraction (9%) of the markers deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios (1∶2∶1 or 3∶1) and mapped into four clusters. Probes of known genes belonged to three categories: seed proteins, pathogen response genes, and Rhizobium response genes. Within each category, sequences homologous to the various probes were unlinked. The I gene for bean common mosaic virus resistance is the first disease resistance gene to be located on the common bean genetic linkage map.
TL;DR: RAPD analysis was applied to onion (Allium cepa) and other Allium species in order to assess the degree of polymorphism within the genus and to investigate if this approach was suitable for genetic studies of onion.
Abstract: RAPD analysis was applied to onion (Allium cepa) and otherAllium species in order to assess the degree of polymorphism within the genus and to investigate if this approach was suitable for genetic studies of onion. Seven cultivars ofA. cepa, including shallot, and single cultivars of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum), chive (A. schoenoprasum), leek (A. ampeloprasum), and a wild relative of onion (A. roylei), were evaluated for variability using a set of 20 random 10-mer primers. Seven out of the twenty primers revealed scorable polymorphisms between cultivars ofA. cepa and these will be further evaluated for use in genetic mapping. Wide variations in banding profiles between species were observed with nearly every primer tested. These were assessed for use in systematic studies within the genus. Ninety-one band positions were scored (+/-) for all the cultivars studied. Genetic distances between each of the cultivars were calculated and cluster analysis was used to generate a dendrogram showing phylogenetic relationships between them. The resulting analysis was in broad agreement with previous classifications of the species studied, confirming the validity of the method. However, amongst the species studied, it placedA. roylei as the closest relative ofA. cepa, questioning the current classification of the former species in the section Rhizideum.
TL;DR: The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in assessing the genetic stability of somatic embryogenesis-derived populations of black spruce was evaluated and the utilization of RAPD markers both for the assessment of Genetic stability of clonal materials and to certify genetic stability throughout the process of somatics embryogenesis is discussed.
Abstract: The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in assessing the genetic stability of somatic embryogenesis-derived populations of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] was evaluated. Three arbitrary 11-mer primers were successfully used to amplify DNA from both in-vivo and in-vitro material. Twenty-five embryogenic cell lines, additional zygotic embryos and megagametophytes from three controlled crosses involving four selected genotypes of black spruce were used for the segregation analysis of RAPD variants. Ten markers were genetically characterized and used to evaluate the genetic stability of somatic embryos derived from three embryogenic cell lines (one cell line per cross, 30 somatic embryos per cell line). No variation was detected within clones. The utilization of RAPD markers both for the assessment of genetic stability of clonal materials and to certify genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis is discussed.
TL;DR: To study the physical distribution of recombination, polymorphism for C-banding patterns was used to monitor recombination in 67 segments in 11 B-genome chromosome arms of Triticum turgidum, indicating a noncorrespondence between genetic and physical distances in wheat chromosomes.
Abstract: Several studies have indicated a noncorrespondence between genetic and physical distances in wheat chromosomes. To study the physical distribution of recombination, polymorphism for C-banding patterns was used to monitor recombination in 67 segments in 11 B-genome chromosome arms of Triticum turgidum. Recombination was absent in proximal regions of all chromosome arms; its frequency increased exponentially with distance from the centromere. A significant difference was observed between the distribution of recombination in physically short and physically long arms. In physically short arms, recombination was almost exclusively concentrated in distal segments and only those regions were represented in their genetic maps. In physically long arms, while a majority of the genetic distance was again based upon recombination in distal chromosome segments, some interstitial recombination was observed. Consequently, these regions also contributed to the genetic maps. Such a pattern of recombination, skewed toward terminal segments of chromosomes, is probably a result of telomeric pairing initiation and strong positive chiasma interference. Interference averaged 0.81 in 35 pairs of adjacent segments and 0.57 across the entire recombining portions of chromosome arms. The total genetic map lengths of the arms corresponded closely to those expected on the basis of their metaphase-I chiasma frequencies. As a consequence of this uneven distribution of recombination there can be a 153-fold difference (or more) in the number of DNA base pairs per unit (centiMorgan) of genetic length.
TL;DR: It is shown that northern weed beet populations arise from seeds originating from the accidental pollinations of cultivated beets by adventitious beets in the seed production area, which have been transported to the regions where sugar beets are cultivated.
Abstract: Populations of weed beets have expanded into European sugar beet production areas since the 1970s, thereby forming a serious new weed problem for this crop. We sampled seeds in different French populations and studied mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA and life-cycle variability. Given the maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes and the nuclear determinism of the annual habit, we were able to determine the maternal origin and evolution of these weed beet populations. Our study shows that they carry the dominant allele “B” for annual habit at high frequency. The main cytoplasmic DNA type found in northern weed beet populations is the cytoplasmic male-sterile type characteristic of sugar beets. We were able to determine that these populations arise from seeds originating from the accidental pollinations of cultivated beets by adventitious beets in the seed production area, which have been transported to the regions where sugar beets are cultivated. These seeds are supposedly the origin of the weed forms and a frequently disturbed cultivated environment has selected for annual habit and early flowering genotypes. We discuss the consequences of the weed beet populations for the breeding, seed production and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets.
TL;DR: Analysis of a collection of resistant and susceptible cultivars and experimental lines revealed that observations of variable recombination among Mesoamerican bean races suggested suppression of recombination between introgressed segments and divergent recurrent backgrounds.
Abstract: Rust in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused byUromyces appendiculatus (Pers.) Unger var.appendiculatus [ =U. phaseoli (Reben) Wint.], is a major disease problem and production constraint in many parts of the world. The predominant form of genetic control of the pathogen is a series of major genes which necessitate the development of efficient selection strategies. Our objective was focused on the identification of RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers linked to a major bean rust resistance gene block enabling marker-based selection and facilitating resistance gene pyramiding into susceptible bean germplasm. Using pooled DNA samples of genotyped individuals from two segregating populations, we identified two RAPD markers linked to the gene block of interest. One such RAPD, OF10970 (generated by a 5′-GGAAGCTTGG-3′ decamer), was found to be closely linked (2.15±1.50 centi Morgans) in coupling with the resistance gene block. The other identified RAPD, OI19460 (generated by a 5′-AATGCGGGAG-3′ decamer), was shown to be more tightly linked (also in coupling) than OF10970 as no recombinants were detected among 97 BC6F2 segregating individuals in the mapping population. Analysis of a collection of resistant and susceptible cultivars and experimental lines, of both Mesoamerican and Andean origin, revealed that: (1) recombination between OF10970 and the gene block has occurred as evidenced by the presence of the DNA fragment in several susceptible genotypes, (2) recombination between OI19460 and the gene block has also occurred indicating that the marker is not located within the gene block itself, and (3) marker-facilitated selection using these RAPD markers, and another previously identified, will enable gene pyramiding in Andean germplasm and certain Mesoamerican bean races in which the resistance gene block does not traditionally exist. Observations of variable recombination among Mesoamerican bean races suggested suppression of recombination between introgressed segments and divergent recurrent backgrounds.
TL;DR: The recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya showed that RAPD technology is a rapid, precise and sensitive technique for genomic analysis.
Abstract: We have applied the recently developed technique of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to the analysis of the relationships among ten cultivars of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Eleven ten-base synthetic oligonucleotides were chosen that gave multiple PCR amplification products using papaya DNA as template. These 11 primers amplified a total of 102 distinct fragments. Cultivars were scored for presence or absence of RAPD fragments and grouped by cluster analysis using simple matching coefficients of similarity. A dendrogram of the ten cultivars was constructed. Of the ten cultivars seven were of the Hawaiian type, and all of these grouped to one branch of the tree. Divisions within the Hawaiian, branch were mostly consistent with the known genetic background of these cultivars. Three non-Hawaiian, cultivars were also analyzed. The minimum similarity detected was 0.7 suggesting that the domesticated papaya germ plasm is quite narrow. Our results show that RAPD technology is a rapid, precise and sensitive technique for genomic analysis.
TL;DR: The results suggest that specific types of errors can be detected in RAPDAnalysis, that uniparental inheritance is not common, and that RAPD analysis might be more prudently used for some applications than for others.
Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were analyzed in materials from a partial diallel, including 16 corn F1 hybrids (with five reciprocals) and their five parental inbreds. Using 21 primers, we scored a total of 140 different fragments for their presence/absence and intensity variation, where appropriate. When all 21 genotypes were taken into consideration, 20.7% of these fragments were nonpolymorphic, 37.1% were unambiguously polymorphic, and 42.1% were quantitatively polymorphic. Unambiguous polymorphisms were distinguished by the simple presence or absence of a specific fragment in the inbred genotypes, whereas quantitative polymorphisms exhibited a variation in the intensity of a fragment. Of the F1 patterns, 95.2% of the unambiguously polymorphic situations could be interpreted genetically by assuming complete dominance of the presence of the parental fragment, while 3.2% of the F1 patterns exhibited a fragment intensity that was intermediate between the two parental patterns (partial dominance). For quantitative polymorphisms, values of 88.1% for complete dominance and 5.0% for partial dominance were obtained. The results suggest that specific types of errors can be detected in RAPD analysis, that uniparental inheritance is not common, and that RAPD analysis might be more prudently used for some applications than for others.
TL;DR: The findings indicate that GSP may be the product of theHa locus and thus be the major factor that determines the milling characteristics of bread wheats.
Abstract: The Mr 15000 protein associated with water-washed wheat starch granules from soft wheats was shown to be heterogeneous: it could be divided into a fraction containing one or moreα-amylase inhibitor subunits and a fraction largely composed of a previously uncharacterised polypeptide(s) referred to as the “grainsoftness protein” (GSP). The major N-terminal sequence and sequences of peptides derived from protease digests of GSP are reported. An antiserum specific for GSP was used to show that GSP accumulated in both hard and soft wheat grains, but the GSP in soft grains associated more strongly with starch granules than the GSP in hard grains. A positive correlation between grain softness and accumulation of GSP in the seed was demonstrated for a range of cultivars. This differs from the qualitative relationship, based on the isolated starch fraction, between GSP and grain softness that has already been reported. Analysis of wholemeal extracts with the antiserum demonstrated that the accumulation of GSP in the seed was dependent on the short arm of chromosome 5D, which also encodes theHa locus. In addition, examination of near-isogenic lines differing in hardness indicated that the gene(s) controlling GSP was (were) linked with theHa locus. The findings indicate that GSP may be the product of theHa locus and thus be the major factor that determines the milling characteristics of bread wheats.
TL;DR: The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.
Abstract: A partial molecular linkage map of the Musa acuminata diploid genome is presented. This map is based on 58 RFLP, four isozyme and 28 RAPD markers segregating in an F2 population of 92 individuals. A total of 90 loci was detected, 77 of which were placed on 15 linkage groups while 13 segregated independently. Segregation distortions were shown by 36% of all loci, mostly favoring the male parent. Chromosome structural rearrangements were believed to be one of the main causes of these distortions. The use of genetic linkage data to further the genetic and evolutionary knowledge of the genus Musa, as well as to help improve the design of breeding strategies, is discussed.
TL;DR: Results indicate that nucleotide sequences are conserved, but variation in copy number were detected and several rearrangements in linkage orders appeared to have occurred since the divergence of the two species.
Abstract: Genome relationships between mungbean (Vigna tradiata) and cowpea (V. Unguiculata) based on the linkage arrangement of random genomic restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers have been investigated. A common set of probes derived from cowpea, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mungbean, and soybean (Glycine max) PstI genomic libraries were used to construct the genetic linkage maps. In both species, a single F2 population from a cross between an improved cultivar and a putative wild progenitor species was used to follow the segregation of the RFLP markers. Approximately 90% of the probes hybridized to both mungbean and cowpea DNA, indicating a high degree of similarity in the nucleotide sequences among these species. A higher level of polymorphism was detected in the mungbean population (75.7%) than in the cowpea population (41.2%). Loci exhibiting duplications, null phenotypes, and distorted segregation ratios were detected in both populations. Random genomic DNA RFLP loci account for about 89% of the currently mapped markers with a few cDNA and RAPD markers added. The current mungbean map is comprised of 171 loci/loci clusters distributed in 14 linkage groups spanning a total of 1570cM. On the other hand, 97 markers covered 684 cM and defined 10 linkage groups in the current cowpea map. The mungbean and cowpea genomes were compared on the basis of the copy number and linkage arrangement of 53 markers mapped in common between the two species. Results indicate that nucleotide sequences are conserved, but variation in copy number were detected and several rearrangements in linkage orders appeared to have occurred since the divergence of the two species. Entire linkage groups were not conserved, but several large linkage blocks were maintained in both genomes.
TL;DR: OA141100 will be most useful for pyramiding Up2 with other rust resistance genes into germ plasm of Mesoamerican origin where the marker does not traditionally exist, and Marker-based selection may provide an alternative to the time-consuming testcrosses required to pyramid bean Rust resistance genes that exhibit epistasis.
Abstract: Summary. The Up2 gene of common bean (PhaseoIus vulgaris L.) is an important source of dominant genetic resistance to the bean rust pathogen [ Uromyces appendiculatus (Pers. ex Pers.) Unger var 'appendiculatus' [syn U. phaseoli (Reben) Wint.]. Up2 in combination with other rust resistance genes may be used to obtain potentially stable genetic resistance. It is difficult, however, to combine rust resistance genes effective against a single race due to epistatic interactions that frequently occur between them. A strategy that employed bulked DNA samples formed separately from the DNA of three BC6F 2 individuals with Up2 and three without Up2 as contrasting near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPDs) tightly linked to the Up2 locus. Only 1 of 931 fragments amplified by 167 10-mer primers of arbitrary sequence in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was polymorphic. The RAPD marker (OA14110o) amplified by the 5'TCTGTGCTGG-3' primer was repeatable and its presence and absence easy to score. No recombination was observed between OA1411oo and the dominant Upz allele within a segregating BC6F 2 population of 84 individuals. This result suggests that OA141 loo and Up2 are tightly linked. Andean and Mesoamerican bean germ plasm, with and without the Up2 allele, were assayed for the presence of OA141 loo. Apparently, the marker is of Andean origin because all Andean lines, with or without the Upz allele, contained the marker,
TL;DR: The results show that the RAPD patterns can be used to determine genetic distances among heterogeneous populations and cultivars which correspond to their known relatedness and indicate that, by using ten primers with bulked DNA samples from ten individuals, 18–72 populations or cultivars can be distinguished from each other on the basis of at least one unique RAPD marker.
Abstract: A procedure which involves the use of RAPD markers, obtained from bulked genomic DNA samples, to estimate genetic relatedness among heterogeneous populations is demonstrated in this study. Bulked samples of genomic DNA from several alfalfa plants per population were used as templates in polymerase chain reactions with different random primers to produce RAPD patterns. The results show that the RAPD patterns can be used to determine genetic distances among heterogeneous populations and cultivars which correspond to their known relatedness. The results also indicate that, by using ten primers with bulked DNA samples from ten individuals, 18–72 populations or cultivars can be distinguished from each other on the basis of at least one unique RAPD marker. We anticipate that DNA bulking and methods for comparing RAPD patterns will be very useful for identifying cultivars, for studying phylogenetic relationships among heterogeneous populations and for selecting parents to maximize heterosis in crosses.