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Showing papers in "Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue for an approach that goes beyond an institutional reading of urban climate governance to engage with the ways in which government is accomplished through social and technical practices.
Abstract: In this paper, we argue for an approach that goes beyond an institutional reading of urban climate governance to engage with the ways in which government is accomplished through social and technical practices. Central to the exercise of government in this manner, we argue, are ‘climate change experiments’– purposive interventions in urban socio-technical systems designed to respond to the imperatives of mitigating and adapting to climate change in the city. Drawing on three different concepts – of governance experiments, socio-technical experiments, and strategic experiments – we first develop a framework for understanding the nature and dynamics of urban climate change experiments. We use this conceptual analysis to frame a scoping study of the global dimensions of urban climate change experimentation in a database of 627 urban climate change experiments in 100 global cities. The analysis charts when and where these experiments occur, the relationship between the social and technical aspects of experimentation and the governance of urban climate change experimentation, including the actors involved in their governing and the extent to which new political spaces for experimentation are emerging in the contemporary city. We find that experiments serve to create new forms of political space within the city, as public and private authority blur, and are primarily enacted through forms of technical intervention in infrastructure networks, drawing attention to the importance of such sites in urban climate politics. These findings point to an emerging research agenda on urban climate change experiments that needs to engage with the diversity of experimentation in different urban contexts, how they are conducted in practice and their impacts and implications for urban governance and urban life.

853 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical take on Agamben's'space of exception' is presented, which accounts for the complex, multiple and hybrid sovereignties of the camp.
Abstract: While the repressive geographies of asylum and refuge in Europe have been the focus of academic attention in recent years, much less work in geography has focused on the refugee camp as a distinctive political space. This paper sets out an analytical strategy for refugee camp space, focusing on the particular case of Palestinian camps in Lebanon. It takes three analytical cuts into the space of the camp: a critical take on Agamben’s ‘space of exception’ that accounts for the complex, multiple and hybrid sovereignties of the camp; an analysis of the camp as an assemblage of people, institutions, organisations, the built environment and the relations between them that produce particular values and practices; and an analysis of the constrained temporality of the camp, its enduring liminality and the particular time-space from which it draws meaning. This spatial analysis of the camp offers a way of grounding geopolitics, seeing its manifestations and negotiations in the everyday lives and practices of ordinary people. The camp is much more than an anonymous terrain of conflict or a tool of international agencies, and understanding its spatiality is essential for seeing the everyday politics and material practices of refugees.

264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a broad overview of the ways that augmented reality matters, but also the complex and often duplicitous manner that code and content can congeal in our experiences of augmented places.
Abstract: With the increasing prevalence of both geographically referenced information and the code through which it is regulated, digital augmentations of place will become increasingly important in everyday, lived geographies. Through two detailed explorations of ‘augmented realities’, this paper provides a broad overview of not only the ways that those augmented realities matter, but also the complex and often duplicitous manner that code and content can congeal in our experiences of augmented places. Because the re-makings of our spatial experiences and interactions are increasingly influenced through the ways in which content and code are fixed, ordered, stabilised and contested, this paper places a focus on how power, as mediated through technological artefacts, code and content, helps to produce place. Specifically, it demonstrates there are four key ways in which power is manifested in augmented realities: two performed largely by social actors, distributed power and communication power; and two enacted primarily via software, code power and timeless power. The paper concludes by calling for redoubled attention to both the layerings of content and the duplicity and ephemerality of code in shaping the uneven and power-laden practices of representations and the experiences of place augmentations in urban places.

221 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue for a shift of focus in biosecurity away from defined borderlines towards that of borderlands, highlighting the continuous topological interplay and resulting tensions involved in making life live.
Abstract: Biosecurity, as a response to threats from zoonotic, food-borne and emerging infectious diseases, implies and is often understood in terms of a spatial segregation of forms of life, a struggle to separate healthy life from diseased bodies. While an ensuing will to closure in the name of biosecurity is evident at various sites, things are, in practice and in theory, more intricate than this model would suggest. There are transactions and transformations that defy easily segmented spaces. Using multi-species ethnographic work across a range of sites, from wildlife reserves to farms and food processing plants, we argue for a shift of focus in biosecurity away from defined borderlines towards that of borderlands. The latter involves the detachment of borders from geographic territory and highlights the continuous topological interplay and resulting tensions involved in making life live. We use this spatial imagination to call for a different kind of biopolitics and for a shift in what counts as a biosecurity emergency. As a means to re-frame the questions concerning biosecurity, we argue for a change of discourse and practice away from disease ‘breach points’ towards the ‘tipping points’ that can arise in the intense foldings that characterise pathological lives.

207 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore new dimensions of the knowledge politics advanced through new spatial media and the mechanisms through which they emerge, including hyper-granular, highly immediate, experiential cartographic representations de-coupled from conventional practices of cartographic abstraction.
Abstract: New spatial media – the informational artefacts and mediating technologies of the geoweb – represent new opportunities for activist, civic, grassroots, indigenous and other groups to leverage web-based geographic information technologies in their efforts to effect social change. Drawing upon evidence from an inductive analysis of five online initiatives that engage new spatial media in activism and civic engagement, we explore new dimensions of the knowledge politics advanced through new spatial media and the mechanisms through which they emerge. ‘Knowledge politics’ refers to the use of particular information content, forms of representation or ways of analysing and manipulating information to try to establish the authority or legitimacy of knowledge claims. The five new spatial media initiatives we analyse here introduce new dimensions to the modes of collecting, validating and representing information, when considered against practices of many activist/civic encounters with other kinds of geographic information technologies, such as GIS. The significance of these practices is not in their (arguable) newness, but rather their role in advancing different epistemological strategies for establishing the legitimacy and authority of knowledge claims. Specifically, these new knowledge politics entail a deployment of geovisual artefacts to structure a visual experience; a prioritisation of individualised interactive/exploratory ways of knowing; hyper-granular, highly immediate, experiential cartographic representations de-coupled from conventional practices of cartographic abstraction; and approaches to asserting credibility through witnessing, peer verification and transparency.

199 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that cartographic epistemology needs to be focused on how mappings are (re)made in diverse ways (technically, socially, bodily, aesthetically and politically) by people within particular contexts.
Abstract: In recent years there has been a turn within cartographic theory from a representational to a processual understanding of mapping. Maps have been re-conceptualised as mappings that ceaselessly unfold through contingent, citational, habitual, negotiated, reflexive and playful practices, embedded within relational contexts. In this paper, we explore what this rethinking means for cartographic epistemology, contending that attention needs to be focused on understanding cartography through the lens of practices – how mappings are (re)made in diverse ways (technically, socially, bodily, aesthetically and politically) by people within particular contexts and cultures as solutions to everyday tasks. We detail how these practices can be profitably examined using a suite of methods – genealogies, ethnographies, ethnomethodology, participant observation, observant participation and deconstruction – that are sensitive to capturing and distilling the unfolding and contextual nature of mapping. To illustrate our argument we narrate the unfolding production and consumption of a set of mappings of so-called ‘ghost estates’ in Ireland, a public geography project that has been covered over 300 times in local, national and international media and that has contributed to Irish public discourse and policy debates.

171 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that resource recovery engenders highly complex and brokered forms of governance that relate to practices of valuing heterogeneous materials and which contrast markedly with the modes of co-ordination dominated by global production networks for consumer goods.
Abstract: The dominant political-economic approaches to global trade flows known as global value chains and global production networks offer powerful insights into the coordination and location of globally stretched supply chains, in particular from global South to North. By way of both conceptual and empirical challenge, this paper highlights flows of end-of-life goods from the global North towards the global South. This involves the disassembly and destruction of goods to recover secondary resources for further rounds of commodity production. Global recycling networks take things of rubbish value (often spent or ‘end-of-life’ goods) and turn them back into resources in other places and production networks. They operate not through adding value, but by connecting different regimes of value. The paper does not set out a new conceptual framework, but asks what challenges the rekindling of value in used goods creates for global commodity chain analysis and what insights those approaches bring to looking at ‘waste’ flows. The examples of used clothing and end-of-life merchant ships are mobilised to illustrate the dynamics of global recycling networks and to challenge prevailing commodity chain approaches in three key areas – supply logics and crosscutting networks, value and materiality, and inter-firm governance. We argue that resource recovery engenders highly complex and brokered forms of governance that relate to practices of valuing heterogeneous materials and which contrast markedly with the modes of co-ordination dominated by ‘big capital typical of global production networks for consumer goods.

144 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines state and civil society discourse relating to the companion species, "dog", an animal that is protected as a pet if in human homes, and controlled as a pest if out of place.
Abstract: The UK is widely regarded as a nation committed to animal welfare. On the other hand, the precarious lives of India’s stray dogs have attracted a considerable amount of international animal activist attention, and raised questions about the nation’s indifference to these animals. Furthermore, animal welfare practice and policy in India are significantly shaped by British law and practice, which is often considered superior. While these contrasting reputations appear reasonable, a closer inquiry reveals complexities that belie an easy relegation to ‘cruel’ and ‘kind’. Bringing together Foucauldian scholarship on power with legal and more-than-human geographies, this paper examines state and civil society discourse relating to the companion species, ‘dog’, an animal that is protected as a pet if in human homes, and controlled as a pest if out of place. In particular, this inquiry examines the discursive formations of dog control law and welfare practice in the UK and India to interrogate conventional understandings of dog (well)being. This analysis is then used as a foundation to conceptually develop Foucauldian work on biopower for the study of more-than-human relationships. The paper also draws out, from the above examination, insights connected to the political question of how humans might share physical and ethical space with animals, even those that do not enjoy the status of ‘protected’ or useful species.

109 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine informal citizenship training for youth and the historical geographies of education over time through analysing the Scout Movement in Britain and its activities in the first half of the twentieth century.
Abstract: This paper examines informal citizenship training for youth and the historical geographies of education over time through analysing the Scout Movement in Britain and its activities in the first half of the twentieth century. In doing so, it highlights the complexity of youth citizenship and the significance of non-school spaces in civil society to our understandings of young people's positioning as citizen-subjects. Drawing on archival research, I demonstrate how a specific youth citizenship project was constructed and maintained through the Scout Movement. I argue that various processes, strategies and regulations were involved in envisioning 'citizen-scout' and developing both duty-bound, self-regulated individuals as well as a wider collective body of British youth. This analysis speaks to broader debates on citizenship, nationhood and youth, as well as highlighting how the historical geographies of citizenship education are an important area of study for geographers.

101 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report a new type of world regionalisation based upon the location strategies of leading advanced producer service firms, which are interpreted as fuzzy (overlapping) and porous regional formations each consisting of two parts: a home region and a global outreach.
Abstract: This paper reports a new type of world regionalisation based upon the location strategies of leading advanced producer service firms. To generate these ‘global practice’ regions, a principal components analysis of the office networks of 175 service firms across 138 cities is used to identify 10 common location strategies. These are interpreted as fuzzy (overlapping) and porous regional formations each consisting of two parts: a home-region and a global-outreach. The results indicate five overlapping pairs of regions: (i) intensive and extensive globalisations based upon the USA plus London (USAL); (ii) Americas and Latin America regions; (iii) Pacific Asia and China regions; (iv) Europe and Scandinavia regions; and (v) Australasian and Canadian ‘Commonwealth’ regions. All regions have worldwide global-outreaches but they differ significantly in their respective sizes and importance. Discussion of these findings elaborates upon two key points: first, globalisation is not a ‘blanket’ process creating a homogeneous world, and second, the resulting fuzzy and porous regionalisation counters the traditional ‘territorialist’ regional geographies that can provide a framework for global conflict with a more complex geography of multiple global integrations.

93 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the relationship between faith and suburban spaces and argue that there is a need to more carefully theorise the ways in which faith communities have engaged with the challenges of suburban geographies including processes of secularisation and suggest that the study of faith in suburbia offers new ways of thinking about the complexity of suburban space.
Abstract: Spectacular new religious buildings on London’s outskirts are often cited as evidence of London’s multicultural diversity. However, the suburban location of these new buildings is usually dismissed as incongruous, drawing on familiar tropes of the suburbs as sites of modernisation, materialism and secularism. This paper uses this assumed incongruity to address the complexity of relationships between religion and suburban space by tracing the significance of religion in changing suburban geographies through a focus on London’s suburbs. The paper begins with a critique of the absence of religion in suburban studies, which emphasise secularisation and homogeneity. The rediscovery of the creative potential of the suburbs gives little consideration to religious creativity. Similarly recent work on diasporas and religion have little to say about the significance of the suburban. Our paper uses three case studies, of different faith groups, from North and West London to explore three distinctive articulations of the relationship between religion and suburban space that we call ‘semi-detached faith’, ‘edge-city faith’ and ‘ethnoburb faith’. These examples are not intended as ideal types but as analytical categories that open up the relationships between space, faith and mobilities. We argue there is a need to more carefully theorise the ways in which faith communities have engaged with the challenges of suburban geographies including processes of secularisation and suggest that the study of faith in suburbia offers new ways of thinking about the complexity of suburban space.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigated the impact of academic mobility at the individual level among Chinese scholars who have conducted research visits in Germany and argued against a mechanical translation of geographical mobility to capital accumulation, but for a grounded understanding of the highly individualised and contextualised development processes.
Abstract: International movements of scientists and researchers have become more common in the increasingly inter-connected global knowledge economy. Geographic mobility is often perceived as a key to academic excellence and career advancement by scholars, especially in advanced economies. In China, where international geographical mobility is a newly-gained privilege after the advent of the Open Door Policy, academics belong to one of the most mobile subsets of the population. This paper interrogates the impact of academic mobility at the individual level among Chinese scholars who have conducted research visits in Germany. Specifically, the paper operationalises the equivocal notion of personal development with the concepts of capital accumulation and conversion (after Pierre Bourdieu). Drawing upon findings from 64 in-depth interviews with Chinese scholars of postdoctoral level or above and six key informants, and a postal survey (123 Chinese scholars with mobility biography to Germany), this paper illustrates how geographical mobility can be conceptualised as a form of capital that can be accumulated and converted to cultural, social, economic and symbolic capital. While geographical mobility is predominantly considered as a capital for positive self- and professional development, examples also demonstrate the potential detrimental effect on social capital, especially among young Chinese scholars. Using an agent-centred approach, this paper argues against a mechanical translation of geographical mobility to capital accumulation, but for a grounded understanding of the highly individualised and contextualised development processes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the idea of political subjectivity in Hannah Arendt and Jacques Ranciere, both of whom I see as thinkers of ruptural and inaugurative politics with a particularly spatial conceptualisation of politics.
Abstract: This article explores the idea of political subjectivity in Hannah Arendt and Jacques Ranciere, both of whom I see as thinkers of ruptural and inaugurative politics with a particularly spatial conceptualisation of politics. I start by distinguishing between three strands of thinking about the nature of political subjectification, and I situate Arendt and Ranciere's conceptualisations in relation to these. After an examination of their idea of political subjectivity, I offer an interpretation of the movement of sans papiers as it relates to political subjectification. This interpretation also brings out the similarities and differences between Arendt's and Ranciere's understanding of politics.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that the authorities' obsession with normalising urban spaces they have designated as "pathologies" is misplaced because it glaringly defies the reality on the ground.
Abstract: In this paper I consider ‘normalisation’ as a response to urban informal livelihoods in urban southern Africa. I demonstrate that urban planning systems have been mobilised to correct or eliminate ‘spatial pathologies’. Using illustrative cases from southern Africa, I argue that the authorities’ obsession with ‘normalising’ urban spaces they have designated as ‘pathologies’ is misplaced because it glaringly defies the reality on the ground. Interrogated in the paper is the reasoning behind, and effectiveness of, ‘corrective’ measures that exclude and marginalise informality through technicalisation, ‘expertisation’ and depoliticisation. I evaluate the basis, workings and deleterious outcomes of normalising technologies and question the relevance and efficacy of normalisation at a time when it is increasingly becoming clear that African urbanisation is – and will possibly continue to be – simultaneously driven and cushioned by informalisation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a pre-peer review version of the paper is presented, which was substantially revised before publication and the definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com or through the links above.
Abstract: This is a pre-peer review version of the paper which was substantially revised before publication. The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com or through the links above.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it is argued that urban nostalgia for the city needs to be acknowledged as a potentially critical intervention that draws together different modes of attachment and yearning, and it is shown that "restorative" and "reflective" forms can coexist and state-led practices of conservation be maintained in a complex and mutually sustaining relationship with more personal, less official, visions of the value of the past.
Abstract: Drawing on interviews with ex-residents of Tyneside (United Kingdom), this paper builds on recent reappraisals of nostalgia as a ‘productive’ and ‘living’ disposition, to show how fond memories and a sense of loss shape and sustain engagement with the city. In contrast to recent attempts to identify active nostalgia only with its ‘reflective’ forms, or to separate out ‘official’ and ‘non-official’ nostalgia, the paper demonstrates that nostalgias are mobile and interwoven. It is shown that ‘restorative’ and ‘reflective’ forms can co-exist and state-led practices of conservation be maintained in a complex and mutually sustaining relationship with more personal, less official, visions of the value of the past. Thus it is argued that urban nostalgia for the city needs to be acknowledged as a potentially critical intervention that draws together different modes of attachment and yearning.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors follow the mobilities between 1958 and 1990 of the dead body of Dr Petru Groza (1884-1958), a significant political figure in post-World War II socialist Romania, to explore the implications for human geography of engaging with the dead.
Abstract: This paper follows the mobilities between 1958 and 1990 of the dead body of Dr Petru Groza (1884–1958), a significant political figure in post-World War II socialist Romania, to explore the implications for human geography of engaging with the dead Although there has been a considerable interest in ‘geographies of the body’ and ‘deathscapes’, human geography has had relatively little to say about dead bodies The paper draws on literatures from death studies and dead body politics, as well as research in memory studies, history, anthropology and law, to develop an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the role of the corpse in society, and argues that human geography should do more to consider how dead bodies contribute to the formation of contemporary geographies To illustrate these points the analysis first explores how the treatment of Groza’s corpse and the ‘deathwork’ associated with it is an example of ‘dead body politics’ Second, the analysis draws out the agency of the corpse and its role in a variety of ‘deathscapes’ The conclusion considers the implications for human geography of engaging with ‘corpse geographies’ more generally

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a framework for analysing the geographically heterogeneous impacts of attempts to mobilise green design knowledges is proposed, and the role of multiple topological connections to metrically near and far but institutionally proximate places in providing diverse knowledge-based solutions is investigated.
Abstract: Buildings are responsible for on average 43 per cent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, a figure that can rise to 70 per cent in cities. Consequently, green' building design has been focused on in efforts to reduce environmental degradation and change. It has been suggested, however, that collective learning and the mobilisation of knowledge between spatially dispersed communities are urgently needed, in particular to overcome what are often portrayed as knowledge deficits in relation to green design. The remit of this paper is to outline a framework for analysing the geographically heterogeneous impacts of attempts to mobilise green design knowledges. Drawing on economic geographical analyses of knowledge mobility, the paper reveals how regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive institutional contexts render green building design knowledges situated and place-specific. But it is also shown that bricolage the bringing together of multiple mobile knowledges to produce new embedded green design knowledges can overcome some of the problems faced. In particular, the analysis developed in the paper reveals: first, the role of multiple topological connections to metrically near and far but institutionally proximate places in providing diverse knowledges that can be folded together into place-specific solutions, and hence the need to conceptualise knowledge mobility as involving plural geographies of flow from multiple cities in the global north and south; second, the way economic geographers can contribute to debates about transitions to sustainability and situated sustainable building design through institutional analyses of the topologies of knowledge mobility, thus widening the relevance of their work to debates about the environment and climate change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the concept of militant tropicality is used to identify counter-hegemonic knowledges, practices and experiences emanating from the tropical world that challenged the way the West judged the tropics against the normality of the temperate north.
Abstract: The critical literature on ‘tropicality’– the colonising discourse that constructs the tropical world as the West’s environmental Other – focuses chiefly on its historical links with colonialism and on the agency of Western colonisers. Scant attention has been paid to the trajectory of this discourse between the 1940s and 1970s, or to how it has been resisted by the ‘tropicalised’. This paper teases out how, in this post-war era of decolonisation and Cold War, there arose in Western experience a potent image of the tropics as militant – as combative, belligerent and revolutionary. The term militant tropicality is deployed to recall this image and identify a suite of counter-hegemonic knowledges, practices and experiences emanating from the tropical world that challenged the way the West judged the tropics against the presumed normality of the temperate north. The paper dwells on two sites in the promulgation of this militant tropicality – the Caribbean during the 1940s and 1950s, and Vietnam during the 1960s – and probes some of its salient imaginative and material geographies using a range of sources (literature, art, journalism, revolutionary thought, and government and military records). The paper underscores the (little studied) martial quality of tropicality and how, by the 1960s, militant tropicality had become closely associated with guerrilla wars in jungle settings that fractured the West’s ‘temperate’ model of war.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Larner et al. as mentioned in this paper argue that the shift in official attitudes towards expatriates arose from the overlap between these two processes in the period 1999-2008, and that the new diaspora initiatives emerged from a process of neoliberal reform.
Abstract: New Zealand, like many countries, has recently shifted from casting emigrants in a negative light to celebrating expatriates as national champions. What explains this change? Wendy Larner focuses on recent government initiatives towards expatriates as part of a neoliberal ‘diaspora strategy’, aimed at constructing emigrants and their descendants as part of a community of knowledge-bearing subjects, in order to help the New Zealand economy ‘go global’. This study confirms that the new diaspora initiatives emerged from a process of neoliberal reform. However, it also highlights that in the same period, older inherited institutional frameworks for interacting with expatriates were being dismantled as part of a different dynamic within the wider neoliberalisation process. It argues that the shift in official attitudes towards expatriates arose from the overlap between these two processes in the period 1999–2008. In this way, the research builds on the ‘diaspora strategy’ concept, placing it within a broader analysis of institutional transformation through ‘creative destruction’, and linking it to a wider research agenda aimed at understanding state–diaspora relations beyond the reach of neoliberalism.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of the Irish famine on population change in the period 1841-51 covering the period of the famine has been examined extensively across a range of disciplines.
Abstract: The Irish famine of the 1840s had a dramatic effect both on the population within Ireland and the populations of countries such as the US, the UK and Australia, which received the bulk of the Irish diaspora resulting from the famine (Kenny 2003). As such, the effects of the famine have been examined extensively across a range of disciplines. It is therefore a challenge to provide any new perspective on this well-researched area. However, this paper provides novel insights into the spatial effects of the famine on population in two ways. Firstly, we present the most spatially detailed data recorded to date on population change in the period 1841–51 covering the famine. We are able to do this by, for the first time, linking census data from 1851 (which also records 1841 population) to the boundaries of 3436 Electoral Divisions (EDs) to provide a very detailed description of the uneven nature of population change during the famine decade. Secondly, by collecting data at the same spatial scale for over 100 other variables, we are able to analyse the relationship between population change during this decade and various demographic, locational and land use characteristics of EDs. We do this through not only traditional regression but also by geographically weighted regression (GWR), which allows us to investigate possible spatial variations in the determinants of population change during the famine period. The results of this analysis raise a series of intriguing new questions relating to the effect of the Irish famine on population change and point the way to further detailed historical and geographical research on this important topic. The research also demonstrates the use of GIS and spatial analytical techniques in historical geography as a means of uncovering new questions that can be answered by further qualitative research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition as discussed by the authors was designed to reveal the agency of indigenous peoples and intermediaries in the history of exploration, as reflected especially in the recruitment of guides, interpreters, porters and pilots.
Abstract: This paper addresses the potential of public exhibitions to challenge long taken-for-granted assumptions about the history of exploration and geography The Hidden Histories of Exploration exhibition, originally held in 2009, was based on historical research in the Royal Geographical Society’s extensive collections, including manuscripts, books, maps and atlases, artefacts, artworks, photography and film The exhibition was designed to reveal the agency of indigenous peoples and intermediaries in the history of exploration, as reflected especially in the recruitment of guides, interpreters, porters and pilots By highlighting and to some extent celebrating the role of such individuals, it sought to prompt questions about what is made visible and what is obscured in standard narratives of exploration, especially when seen from a metropolitan perspective However, the relationship between research and exhibition was by no means one-way, as is implied by the language of ‘dissemination’ and ‘output’: the process of bringing the exhibition into being raised questions about the structure of the archives on which the exhibition depended, as well as prompting further reflection on the biographical mode in which the work of recovery of ‘hidden histories’ is often conceived in the heritage sector Particular attention is devoted to the impact of collaboration with designers on the presentation and interpretation of materials in the exhibition The paper focuses on three design strategies reflected in the exhibition space: ‘role reversal’ (celebrating the role of intermediaries and presenting the explorers as dependent); ‘juxtaposition’ (emphasising the importance of partnership and the co-production of geographical knowledge); and ‘re-scaling’ (transforming anonymous archival fragments into documents of a truly human history)

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors consider the intersections between the science of human genetic diversity and the politics of national belonging and trace the ways in which accounts of a national ‘genetic heritage' are methodologically and discursively entangled with the question of who counts as British.
Abstract: This paper considers the intersections between the science of human genetic diversity and the politics of national belonging. Building on critical approaches to the ways ideas of race and ethnicity are being refigured through accounts of the geography of human genetic variation, this paper attends to the scale of the nation-state as the focus of research in human population genetics. Popular and scientific accounts of how studies of human genetic variation in the present can be used to reconstruct a country’s demographic past pick up and play upon longstanding interests in collective national origin stories of ancient settler groups, evoking and reworking ideas of continuity and change, purity and mixing, isolation or contact. But ideas of indigeneity are refracted through the politics of multiculturalism. Genetic studies of the national population are shaped by, represented though and read in terms of discourses of collective heritage, identity and cultural diversity. Focusing on the British context, this paper traces the ways in which accounts of a national ‘genetic heritage’ are methodologically and discursively entangled with the question of who counts as British. While genetic accounts of the national past provide a new lexicon for articulating arguments about collective identity, they do not simply supply support for, or challenge, the idea of the nation as a community of shared descent. The aim of these projects is not to characterise a national genome nor identify an homogenous indigenous population. Instead, a pre-modern geography of regional genetic diversity is counter-posed to a pattern of genetic diversity that is the product of modern immigration. Correlations between ideas of cultural identity and genetic distinctiveness are both challenged and suggested. These ambiguities and contradictions reflect the social and cultural embeddedness of the science of human difference.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that existing theories of urban participatory governance in the global South, which polarise urban citizens and their mobilisation strategies into the elite, typically understood as guilty of capturing participatory structures; and the poor, conceptualised as excluded from formal governance mechanisms but active in more politicised forms of mobilisation, are incomplete.
Abstract: This research critically engages with existing theories of class and urban governance, and is empirically located in Delhi, India. The paper argues that existing theories of urban participatory governance in the global South, which polarise urban citizens and their mobilisation strategies into the elite, typically understood as guilty of ‘capturing’ participatory structures; and the poor, conceptualised as excluded from formal governance mechanisms but active in more politicised forms of mobilisation, are incomplete. This research identifies urban citizens who fit neither the ‘elite’ nor ‘poor’ conceptual binary, and explores how such ‘ordinary’ citizens engage in participatory urban governance. Empirically, research addresses Delhi’s unauthorised colonies (UCs), residential areas that have evolved mostly on private land that is not classified ‘residential’ in the Delhi Master Plan. Housing roughly a quarter to one-third of Delhi’s population and comprising a mix of classes, UCs are technically illegal locations for residential development, are consequently excluded from Delhi’s network of basic urban services (water, roads, electricity) and face potential demolition. UCs are conceptualised as representing India’s ‘missing middle’ both empirically, highlighting the multiplicity of the middle class, and conceptually, revealing the failure of binary concepts to accurately describe participatory urban governance for those in ‘the middle’. In addition, analysis highlights how UCs’ invisibility (linked to their heterogeneity – i.e. their empirical and conceptual ‘middle-ness’) functions as both an asset and a limitation in terms of participation in urban governance. The paper calls for greater recognition in academic and policy debates regarding the nuances in everyday life that are overlooked by neat binaries. As the Delhi case shows, a large proportion of urban populations are neither ‘poor’ nor ‘elite’, and arguably a similar trend is likely to exist in cities throughout the world where segments of populations demographically in ‘the middle’ are ‘missing’ from academic and policy debates.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined place-naming in the Old City of Acre (Israel) in light of tourism development processes, focusing not only on the motivations for the naming but also on the responses of local residents to the naming and to the struggle on the symbolic identity of the city that develop as a result.
Abstract: Extensive research has been conducted on place names because they are one of the most significant markers of the intimate relationship between people and territory Several studies on street names have already noted the use of place names as a form of symbolic capital in order to create and sell place distinctions for the purposes of prestige and profit The literature, however, has not yet adequately addressed a different motivation in place-naming: the promotion of places for the purpose of tourism development Furthermore, research in this field has yet to examine the ways in which local residents interpret and contest official street names with their own oral system of naming, focusing instead on the process of selecting and affixing place names and the cultural conflicts that arise from these political decisions This article explores place-naming in the Old City of Acre (Israel) in light of tourism development processes, focusing not only on the motivations for the naming but also on the responses of local residents to the naming and to the struggle on the symbolic identity of the city that develop as a result The first section of the article examines the historical process of bestowing official street names in the Old City of Acre as well as the existing system of place names used by the local Arab inhabitants of the Old City The article's second section studies the reactions and attitudes of the local population in the Old City to the relatively recent initiative of the Acre Development Company to assign official street names, chosen in the past, to the streets and alleys of the Old City

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the case of state-funded faith schools in England and how opposition to them has been mobilised and negotiated, finding that faith school providers were able to interpret the community cohesion policy in ways that challenged government articulations and reworked dominant meanings.
Abstract: Within the wider context of interest in the relationships between faith and the state, this paper focuses on the case of state-funded faith schools in England and how opposition to them has been mobilised and negotiated. Discussion focuses specifically on the role of community cohesion policy – a policy adopted to combat social and ethnic division after 2001 – and the contested parameters of this policy when introduced to monitor schools. Analysis suggests that faith school providers were able to interpret the policy in ways that challenged government articulations and reworked dominant meanings, revealing the political and spatial instabilities of the policy. However, our analysis suggests that these challenges to state meanings were less successful in shaping mechanisms to monitor admissions practices in faith schools – producing some unanticipated entanglements of state and religious authority with implications for the shaping of communal religious life. These findings both add to the wider critical policy analysis of community cohesion policy and contribute to debates about the role of religion in the public sphere.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine local labour markets, arguing that labour market segmentation is not simply caste-based and that different groups of Dalits have had very different experiences of accessing jobs in urban areas, and that barriers to entry are located more in the rural social economy than in the urban industry.
Abstract: This article asks how labour markets are changing in the context of wider transformations in the rural economy. Drawing on evidence from two villages in southern India, which are both close to, and deeply affected by, a major textile industry cluster, the article examines local labour markets, arguing that labour market segmentation is not simply caste-based. While some Dalits from one village have gained access to jobs in export markets, the same group of Dalits from another village have not. Furthermore, different groups of Dalits have had very different experiences of accessing jobs in urban areas, and the article shows that barriers to entry are located more in the rural social economy than in the urban industry. It is argued that villages only a few miles apart have very different local labour markets because they are uniquely and variously embedded in local institutions that interact with economic transformations in contingent ways. The article shows that having an industry on your doorstep means very different things for different people.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyse the initial impact of a major school admission reform in Brighton and Hove, which incorporated a lottery for oversubscribed places and new catchment areas and examine the post-reform changes in school composition.
Abstract: We analyse the initial impact of a major school admission reform in Brighton and Hove. The new system incorporated a lottery for oversubscribed places and new catchment areas. We examine the post-reform changes in school composition. We locate the major winners and losers in terms of the quality of school attended. We match similar cities and conduct a difference-in-difference analysis of the policy change. The results are complex: we see an increase in student sorting but we also see a significant weakening of the dependence of school attended on student’s prior attainment.

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TL;DR: The Plynlimon catchments are the UK's most intensively studied long-term research basins, with 40 years of hydrological and hydrochemical observations as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The Plynlimon catchments are the UK’s most intensively studied long-term research basins, with 40 years of hydrological and hydrochemical observations. Used to study the impacts of land cover, their establishment, progress and achievements is a complex story of scientific advances in response to national needs, set against a background of academic controversy and competing stakeholder pressures, that remains relevant today. Established to answer the important practical question ‘Do forests use more water than grassland in our climate?’, these research basins helped to revolutionise our fundamental understanding of forest hydrology in Britain, and became a multi-disciplinary ‘outdoor laboratory’ encompassing floods and droughts, acidification and water chemistry, process studies and climate change used by many universities and research organisations. The findings of the studies there have been widely published, with over 500 papers in refereed journals, and the measurements shared with the international research community. Nevertheless, many data users remain unaware of how and why the catchments were established, the challenges that were overcome, and the ways in which the research programme evolved to meet changing needs. As the study enters its fifth decade, this paper takes the opportunity to look back at its establishment, assess the outputs and offer guidance to other researchers wishing to embark on new catchment or observatory studies.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors scrutinise the possibilities Martin Heidegger's notion of the event of revealing (Ereignis) poses for spatial theory and show how it can be used to explore the politics of finite ontologies, the politics intrinsic for different happenings of revealing.
Abstract: This paper scrutinises the possibilities Martin Heidegger’s notion of ‘the event of revealing’ (Ereignis) poses for spatial theory It shows how Heidegger’s work on ‘the event’ and its ‘fourfold’ constitution (between earth, sky, mortals and divinities) affords a spatial understanding of ontology as a site revealed around the assemblage of things Accordingly, spatial ontologies do not grow from the multiplicity of human constructions and social relations, but from the radical ontological finitude constitutive for the revealing of the material site of the thing Through such post-human understanding of the event, it becomes possible to think spatiality, not just in accordance with the influence Heidegger’s thought could have on the material understanding of spatiality, but in accordance with the rich understanding we could gain by exploring the politics of finite ontologies, the politics intrinsic for the different happenings of revealing