Transportation Research Part D-transport and Environment
About: Transportation Research Part D-transport and Environment is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Fuel efficiency & Poison control. It has an ISSN identifier of 1361-9209. Over the lifetime, 2890 publications have been published receiving 98261 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined how the built environment affects trip rates and mode choice of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area using 1990 travel diary data and land-use records obtained from the U.S. census, regional inventories, and field surveys.
Abstract: The built environment is thought to influence travel demand along three principal dimensions —density, diversity, and design. This paper tests this proposition by examining how the ‘3Ds’ affect trip rates and mode choice of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Using 1990 travel diary data and land-use records obtained from the U.S. census, regional inventories, and field surveys, models are estimated that relate features of the built environment to variations in vehicle miles traveled per household and mode choice, mainly for non-work trips. Factor analysis is used to linearly combine variables into the density and design dimensions of the built environment. The research finds that density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-auto travel in statistically significant ways, though their influences appear to be fairly marginal. Elasticities between variables and factors that capture the 3Ds and various measures of travel demand are generally in the 0.06 to 0.18 range, expressed in absolute terms. Compact development was found to exert the strongest influence on personal business trips. Within-neighborhood retail shops, on the other hand, were most strongly associated with mode choice for work trips. And while a factor capturing ‘walking quality’ was only moderately related to mode choice for non-work trips, those living in neighborhoods with grid-iron street designs and restricted commercial parking were nonetheless found to average significantly less vehicle miles of travel and rely less on single-occupant vehicles for non-work trips. Overall, this research shows that the elasticities between each dimension of the built environment and travel demand are modest to moderate, though certainly not inconsequential. Thus it supports the contention of new urbanists and others that creating more compact, diverse, and pedestrian-orientated neighborhoods, in combination, can meaningfully influence how Americans travel.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed vehicle battery storage in greatest detail, comparing three electric vehicle configurations over a range of driving requirements and electric utility demand conditions, and found that the value to the utility of tapping vehicle electrical storage exceeds the cost of the two-way hook-up and reduced vehicle battery life.
Abstract: Electric-drive vehicles, whether fueled by batteries or by liquid or gaseous fuels generating electricity on-board, will have value to electric utilities as power resources. The power capacity of the current internal combustion passenger vehicle fleet is enormous and under-utilized. In the United States, for example, the vehicle fleet has over 10 times the mechanical power of all current U.S. electrical generating plants and is idle over 95% of the day. Electric utilities could use battery vehicles as storage, or fuel cell and hybrid vehicles as generation. This paper analyzes vehicle battery storage in greatest detail, comparing three electric vehicle configurations over a range of driving requirements and electric utility demand conditions. Even when making unfavorable assumptions about the cost and lifetime of batteries, over a wide range of conditions the value to the utility of tapping vehicle electrical storage exceeds the cost of the two-way hook-up and reduced vehicle battery life. For example, even a currently-available electric vehicle, in a utility with medium value of peak power, could provide power at a net present cost to the vehicle owner of $955 and net present value to the utility of $2370. As an incentive to the vehicle owner, the utility might offer a vehicle purchase subsidy, lower electric rates, or purchase and maintenance of successive vehicle batteries. For a utility tapping vehicle power, the increased storage would provide system benefits such as reliability and lower costs, and would later facilitate large-scale integration of intermittent-renewable energy resources.
TL;DR: The authors investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and travel behavior while taking into account the role of travel preferences and neighborhood preferences in explaining this relationship, and found that differences in travel behavior between suburban and traditional neighborhoods are largely explained by attitudes.
Abstract: The sprawling patterns of land development common to metropolitan areas of the US have been blamed for high levels of automobile travel, and thus for air quality problems. In response, smart growth programs—designed to counter sprawl—have gained popularity in the US. Studies show that, all else equal, residents of neighborhoods with higher levels of density, land-use mix, transit accessibility, and pedestrian friendliness drive less than residents of neighborhoods with lower levels of these characteristics. These studies have shed little light, however, on the underlying direction of causality—in particular, whether neighborhood design influences travel behavior or whether travel preferences influence the choice of neighborhood. The evidence thus leaves a key question largely unanswered: if cities use land use policies to bring residents closer to destinations and provide viable alternatives to driving, will people drive less and thereby reduce emissions? Here a quasi-longitudinal design is used to investigate the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and travel behavior while taking into account the role of travel preferences and neighborhood preferences in explaining this relationship. A multivariate analysis of cross-sectional data shows that differences in travel behavior between suburban and traditional neighborhoods are largely explained by attitudes. However, a quasi-longitudinal analysis of changes in travel behavior and changes in the built environment shows significant associations, even when attitudes have been accounted for, providing support for a causal relationship.
TL;DR: This paper frames the study of mode choice in Montgomery County, Maryland around a normative model that weighs the influences of not only three core dimensions of built environments – density, diversity, and design – but factors related to generalized cost and socio-economic attributes of travelers as well.
Abstract: Compact, mixed-use, and walk-friendly urban development, many contend, can significantly influence the modes people choose to travel. Despite a voluminous empirical literature, most past studies have failed to adequately specify relationships for purposes of drawing inferences about the importance of built-environment factors in shaping mode choice. This paper frames the study of mode choice in Montgomery County, Maryland around a normative model that weighs the influences of not only three core dimensions of built environments – density, diversity, and design – but factors related to generalized cost and socio-economic attributes of travelers as well. The marginal contributions of built-environment factors to a traditionally specified utility-based model of mode choice are measured. The analysis reveals intensities and mixtures of land use significantly influence decisions to drive-alone, share a ride, or patronize transit, while the influences of urban design tend to be more modest. Elasticities that summarize relationships are also presented, and recommendations are offered on how outputs from conventional mode-choice models might be “post-processed” to better account for the impacts of built environments when testing land-use scenarios.
TL;DR: A survey of the empirical literature on the effects of climate change and weather conditions on the transport sector can be found in this paper, where clear patterns are that precipitation affects road safety by increasing accident frequency but decreasing severity.
Abstract: This paper presents a survey of the empirical literature on the effects of climate change and weather conditions on the transport sector. Despite mixed evidence on many issues, several patterns can be observed. On a global scale especially shifts in tourism and agricultural production due to increased temperatures may lead to shifts in passenger and freight transport. The predicted rise in sea levels and the associated increase in frequency and intensity of storm surges and flooding incidences may furthermore be some of the most worrying consequences of climate change, especially for coastal areas. Climate change related shifts in weather patterns might also cause infrastructure disruptions. Clear patterns are that precipitation affects road safety by increasing accident frequency but decreasing severity. Precipitation also increases congestion, especially during peak hours. Furthermore, an increased frequency of low water levels may considerably increase costs of inland waterway transport. Despite these insights, the net impact of climate change on generalised costs of the various transport modes are uncertain and ambiguous, with a possible exception for inland waterway transport.
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