Trends in Neurosciences
About: Trends in Neurosciences is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Synaptic plasticity & Neurotransmission. It has an ISSN identifier of 0166-2236. Over the lifetime, 5349 publication(s) have been published receiving 684678 citation(s).
Topics: Synaptic plasticity, Neurotransmission, Receptor, Postsynaptic potential, Long-term potentiation
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown here how the response of the immune system to repeated exposure to high-energy radiation affects its ability to discriminate between healthy and diseased tissue.
Abstract: xi. A6.m. x. 160 10 Eiscn. J. S. and Marder. E. (1983) SOC. New+ sci. Ahsrr. 9. 75.l II Kushncr. P. D. and Barker. D. L. (1983) J. Nercrohiol. IJ. 17-28 12 Kushner P. D. and Mavnxd. E. A. (1977) Braitl Rex I2Y. 13-28 13 Lingle. C. J. (1980) J. Camp. Physio/. 138. l87-l9Y I4 Marder. E. (1976) J. Physiol. fLondon) 257: 6.3% I5 Mardcr. E. and E&n, J. S. (1982) Sot. Neuroxi. Absfr. 8. 160 I6 Mardcr. E. and Paupardin-Tritsch. D. (lY78) J. fhy.Gof. ~Lortdot~f 280. 2 I-3-236 I7 Maynard. D. M. (1972) Am. NY Acad. Sci. 193. 5%72 18 Miller, J. P. and Selverston, A. I. (1982) Res. 223.19-38 J. Neurophysiol. 48. 137U-1391 28 Russell. D. F. and Hartline. D. K. (1982) 19 Miller, J. P. and Sclverston. A. I. (1982) 1. Neurophysiol. 48. 914937
TL;DR: It is proposed that the ventral stream of projections from the striate cortex to the inferotemporal cortex plays the major role in the perceptual identification of objects, while the dorsal stream projecting from the stripping to the posterior parietal region mediates the required sensorimotor transformations for visually guided actions directed at such objects.
Abstract: Accumulating neuropsychological, electrophysiological and behavioural evidence suggests that the neural substrates of visual perception may be quite distinct from those underlying the visual control of actions. In other words, the set of object descriptions that permit identification and recognition may be computed independently of the set of descriptions that allow an observer to shape the hand appropriately to pick up an object. We propose that the ventral stream of projections from the striate cortex to the inferotemporal cortex plays the major role in the perceptual identification of objects, while the dorsal stream projecting from the striate cortex to the posterior parietal region mediates the required sensorimotor transformations for visually guided actions directed at such objects.
TL;DR: A model in which specific types of basal ganglia disorders are associated with changes in the function of subpopulations of striatal projection neurons is proposed, which suggests that the activity of sub Populations of Striatal projections neurons is differentially regulated by striatal afferents and that different striatal projections may mediate different aspects of motor control.
Abstract: Basal ganglia disorders are a heterogeneous group of clinical syndromes with a common anatomic locus within the basal ganglia. To account for the variety of clinical manifestations associated with insults to various parts of the basal ganglia we propose a model in which specific types of basal ganglia disorders are associated with changes in the function of subpopulations of striatal projection neurons. This model is based on a synthesis of experimental animal and post-mortem human anatomic and neurochemical data. Hyperkinetic disorders, which are characterized by an excess of abnormal movements, are postulated to result from the selective impairment of striatal neurons projecting to the lateral globus pallidus. Hypokinetic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, are hypothesized to result from a complex series of changes in the activity of striatal projection neuron subpopulations resulting in an increase in basal ganglia output. This model suggests that the activity of subpopulations of striatal projection neurons is differentially regulated by striatal afferents and that different striatal projection neuron subpopulations may mediate different aspects of motor control.
TL;DR: An understanding of intercellular signalling pathways for microglia proliferation and activation could form a rational basis for targeted intervention on glial reactions to injuries in the CNS.
Abstract: The most characteristic feature of microglial cells is their rapid activation in response to even minor pathological changes in the CNS. Microglia activation is a key factor in the defence of the neural parenchyma against infectious diseases, inflammation, trauma, ischaemia, brain tumours and neurodegeneration. Microglia activation occurs as a graded response in vivo. The transformation of microglia into potentially cytotoxic cells is under strict control and occurs mainly in response to neuronal or terminal degeneration, or both. Activated microglia are mainly scavenger cells but also perform various other functions in tissue repair and neural regeneration. They form a network of immune alert resident macrophages with a capacity for immune surveillance and control. Activated microglia can destroy invading micro-organisms, remove potentially deleterious debris, promote tissue repair by secreting growth factors and thus facilitate the return to tissue homeostasis. An understanding of intercellular signalling pathways for microglia proliferation and activation could form a rational basis for targeted intervention on glial reactions to injuries in the CNS. Trends Neurosci. (1996) 19, 312–318
TL;DR: Recent evidence indicating that a parallel functional architecture may also be characteristic of the organization within each individual circuit is discussed, which represents a significant departure from earlier concepts of basal ganglia organization.
Abstract: Concepts of basal ganglia organization have changed markedly over the past decade, due to significant advances in our understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of these structures. Independent evidence from each of these fields has reinforced a growing perception that the functional architecture of the basal ganglia is essentially parallel in nature, regardless of the perspective from which these structures are viewed. This represents a significant departure from earlier concepts of basal ganglia organization, which generally emphasized the serial aspects of their connectivity. Current evidence suggests that the basal ganglia are organized into several structurally and functionally distinct 'circuits' that link cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus, with each circuit focused on a different portion of the frontal lobe. In this review, Garrett Alexander and Michael Crutcher, using the basal ganglia 'motor' circuit as the principal example, discuss recent evidence indicating that a parallel functional architecture may also be characteristic of the organization within each individual circuit.