Tropical Animal Health and Production
Springer Science+Business Media
About: Tropical Animal Health and Production is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Medicine & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 0049-4747. Over the lifetime, 6409 publications have been published receiving 89341 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: D Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites, and disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died.
Abstract: Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), supported by checklists and intensive case studies on individual households, was carried out in three villages at three different altitudes in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The chicken production system in each village is described and the problems are discussed. More than 60% of the families kept chickens, and in most cases the women owned and managed the birds and controlled the cash from the sales. The production systems followed were mainly low-input and small-scale, with 7-10 mature birds per household, reared in the back yards with inadequate housing, feeding and health care. The average egg production per clutch was 15-20, with 3-4 clutches per year. The mean number of eggs set per bird was 12.9 +/- 2.2 (n = 160), depending on the size of the bird and season, and the hatching rate was 80.9% +/- 11.1%, range 44%-100% (n = 160). Poultry meat and eggs were generally accepted and appreciated in all three villages. In addition to the small amount of cash income they provide, scavenging chickens have nutritional, cultural and social functions. The flock composition, price of poultry and poultry products, disease outbreaks and hatching of chicks were strongly affected by season. Disease was cited as the most important problem by most of the members of the community, followed by predation, lack of feed, poor housing, insufficient water and parasites. Disease periodically decimated the flocks, and consequently, about 50% of the eggs produced were incubated in order to replace the birds that had died. The major source of loss in the system was the high mortality of chicks (61%) that occurred between hatching and the end of brooding at 8 weeks of age. The system was characterized by no or few inputs and a low output level. The major input was the cost of foundation stock, but after that virtually no cost was involved. The major source of feed for the birds was from the scavenging feed resource base, which comprised table leftovers, small grain supplements and anything edible from the immediate environment.
TL;DR: Alleviation of heat stress in the growing and adult female NZW rabbits was more efficient with drinking cool water than with supplementation with palm oil, natural clay or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production).
Abstract: Exposing growing and adult New Zealand White (NZW) female rabbits to severe heat stress (temperature-humidity index = 28.9) during summer adversely affected their growth and reproductive traits. The traits that declined significantly (p < 0.01) were the live body weight, daily weight gain and feed intake of growing rabbits, and the litter size and litter weight at weaning (p < 0.05) and the pre-weaning weight gain of pups (p < 0.01) for adult females. The conception rate declined considerably with heat stress. The declines in the values of the digestibility coefficients due to heat stress were 7.9% (p < 0.05) for dry matter (DM), 8.1% (p < 0.05) for crude protein (CP) and 1.0% for crude fibre (CF). The traits that increased significantly (p < 0.01) due to heat stress were water intake, water/feed ratio and rectal temperature in growing rabbits and pre-weaning mortality for adult females. Alleviation of heat stress in the growing and adult female NZW rabbits was more efficient with drinking cool water (10-15 degrees C; between 10:00 and 17:00) than with supplementation with palm oil (as a source of energy) or natural clay (as a natural enhancer to growth and milk production). Supplying the animals with cool drinking water gave the highest body weight and weight gain, conception rate, litter size and weight and digestibility coefficients for DM and CP and the lowest rectal temperature, respiration rate and pre-weaning mortality. The loss in rabbit production pertaining to heat stress estimated from the percentages of decline in conception rate x pre-weaning mortality x litter weight at weaning was 73.0%. The provision of cool water restored 11/12 of heat loss.
TL;DR: The use ofbrowse species containing secondary compounds as feedsupplement rich in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) forruminants in many parts of the tropics is increasing in orderto improve animal performance and reduce methane.
Abstract: MethanereductionontrulydegradedsubstratebasisOMD Organic matter digestibilityPSM Plant secondary metabolitesQSE Quillaja saponaria extractSCFAs Short-chain fatty acidsTP Total phenolsTT Total tanninsIntroductionThe ruminal methane production is a by-product of themicrobial digestive process and represents a loss of 2–12%of the feed energy. Furthermore, emission of methane isconsidered as one of the most important global environ-mental issues (IPCC 2001). Therefore, decreasing methaneproduction is desirable for reducing the greenhouse gasemission with improved efficiency of the digested energyutilization (Johnson and Johnson 1995). A previous reportby Kurihara et al. (1999) indicated that methane energy lossin cattle fed on tropical forage diets was higher than inthose fed on temperate forage diets, due to relative highlevels of fibre and lignin and a low level of non-fibrecarbohydrate in tropical forages. Also, the livestock indeveloping countries are predominantly maintained on ahigh-roughage diet with little or no concentrate resulting inincreased ruminal methanogenesis. Therefore, the use ofbrowse species containing secondary compounds as feedsupplement rich in plant secondary metabolites (PSM) forruminants in many parts of the tropics is increasing in orderto improve animal performance and reduce methane(Abdulrazak et al. 2000). Tannins and saponins constitutethe major classes of PSM that are currently under researchin a number of laboratories. The antimicrobial action andeffects on rumen fermentation of these compounds dependon their nature, activity and concentration in a plant or plant
TL;DR: White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat.
Abstract: Thirty Santa Ines adult, non-lactating, non-pregnant ewes, ten with a brown coat, ten black coated and ten white coated, as well as ten Bergamasca and ten of mixed breed were used to evaluate the effect of climate on physiological and blood parameters in sheep. Two sample collections were taken (6 am and 2 pm) on six days. Sweating rate (SR), heart (HR) and breathing rates (BR), complete hemogram, rectal (RT) and skin temperatures (ST) were measured. Variance analyses were carried out using SAS®. In general, there were significant differences between animals due to skin type, time and day of collection. White coated animals showed lower HR, BR and RT, with afternoon parameters higher than morning. Correlations between HR, BR, RT, SR and ST were medium and positive. Correlations between physiological and blood traits were in general negative and medium. Packed Cell Volume (PCV), total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration had high positive correlations between each other. The first two autovectors explained 49% of variation between traits. White coated Santa Ines animals were shown to be better adapted to climatic conditions in Central Brazil and wool sheep more affected by heat.
TL;DR: Evidence is given that tick-borne diseases inflict substantial economic losses on cattle production and resource use in Tanzania, despite the inadequacies of the data used.
Abstract: Tick-borne diseases, namely, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis, constrain cattle production and improvement in Tanzania, leading to considerable economic losses. A simple spreadsheet model was used to estimate the economic losses resulting from production losses, treatment and control costs associated with tick-borne diseases (TBD) in Tanzania. Model parameters included the national cattle population, reported TBD morbidity, fatality risk, and chemotherapy and control measures used. The total annual national loss due TBD was estimated to be 364 million USD, including an estimated mortality of 1.3 million cattle. Theileriosis accounted for 68% of the total loss, while anaplasmosis and babesiosis each accounted for 13% and cowdriosis accounted for 6% of the total loss. Costs associated with mortality, chemotherapy and acaricide application accounted for 49%, 21% and 14% of the total estimated annual TBD losses, respectively, infection and treatment method milk loss and weight loss accounted for 1%, 6% and 9% of the total annual loss, respectively. Despite the inadequacies of the data used, the results give evidence that tick-borne diseases inflict substantial economic losses on cattle production and resource use in Tanzania.