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JournalISSN: 1083-8155

Urban Ecosystems 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Urban Ecosystems is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Urban ecology & Species richness. It has an ISSN identifier of 1083-8155. Over the lifetime, 1523 publications have been published receiving 45696 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 105 studies on the effects of urbanization on the species richness of non-avian species: mammals, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and plants are reviewed, including the importance of nonnative species importation, spatial heterogeneity, intermediate disturbance and scale as major factors influencing species richness.
Abstract: Many studies have described the effects of urbanization on species richness. These studies indicate that urbanization can increase or decrease species richness, depending on several variables. Some of these variables include: taxonomic group, spatial scale of analysis, and intensity of urbanization. Recent reviews of birds (the most-studied group) indicate that species richness decreases with increasing urbanization in most cases but produces no change or even increases richness in some studies. Here I expand beyond the bird studies by reviewing 105 studies on the effects of urbanization on the species richness of non-avian species: mammals, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and plants. For all groups, species richness tends to be reduced in areas with extreme urbanization (i.e., central urban core areas). However, the effects of moderate levels of urbanization (i.e., suburban areas) vary significantly among groups. Most of the plant studies (about 65%) indicate increasing species richness with moderate urbanization whereas only a minority of invertebrate studies (about 30%) and a very small minority of non-avian vertebrate studies (about 12%) show increasing species richness. Possible explanations for these results are discussed, including the importance of nonnative species importation, spatial heterogeneity, intermediate disturbance and scale as major factors influencing species richness.

1,897 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values is presented, and it is shown that increasing tree cover 10% or planting about three trees per building lot saves annual heating and cooling costs by an estimated 50 to 90 per dwelling unit.
Abstract: This paper is a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values. During 1991, the regions trees removed an estimated 5575 metric tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth 9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315 800 metric tons of carbon. Increasing tree cover 10% or planting about three trees per building lot saves annual heating and cooling costs by an estimated 50 to 90 per dwelling unit because of increased shade, lower summertime air temperatures, and reduced neighborhood wind speeds once the trees mature. The net present value of the services trees provide is estimated as 402 per planted tree. The present value of long-term benefits is more than twice the present value of costs.

554 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a conceptual model and a set of hypotheses that explicitly link urban pattern to human and ecosystem functions in urban ecosystems, based on preliminary results from an empirical study of the relationships between urban pattern and bird and aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity in the Puget Sound region.
Abstract: Urban ecosystems evolve over time and space as the outcome of dynamic interactions between socio-economic and biophysical processes operating over multiple scales. The ecological resilience of urban ecosystems—the degree to which they tolerate alteration before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes—is influenced by these interactions. In cities and urbanizing areas fragmentation of natural habitats, simplification and homogenization of species composition, disruption of hydrological systems, and alteration of energy flow and nutrient cycling reduce cross-scale resilience, leaving systems increasingly vulnerable to shifts in system control and structure. Because varied urban development patterns affect the amount and interspersion of built and natural land cover, as well as the human demands on ecosystems differently, we argue that alternative urban patterns (i.e., urban form, land use distribution, and connectivity) generate varied effects on ecosystem dynamics and their ecological resilience. We build on urban economics, landscape ecology, population dynamics, and complex system science to propose a conceptual model and a set of hypotheses that explicitly link urban pattern to human and ecosystem functions in urban ecosystems. Drawing on preliminary results from an empirical study of the relationships between urban pattern and bird and aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity in the Puget Sound region, we propose that resilience in urban ecosystems is a function of the patterns of human activities and natural habitats that control and are controlled by both socio-economic and biophysical processes operating at various scales. We discuss the implications of this conceptual model for urban planning and design.

544 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the history of wildlife in urban areas, provides examples of wildlife populations that have modified their behavior as an adaptation to urban stresses, and discusses the challenges that resource managers face when dealing with urban wildlife.
Abstract: Wildlife-human interactions are increasing in prevalence as urban sprawl continues to encroach into rural areas Once considered to be unsuitable habitat for most wildlife species, urban/suburban areas now host an array of wildlife populations, many of which were previously restricted to rural or pristine habitats The presence of some wildlife species in close proximity to dense human populations can create conflict, forcing resource managers to address issues relating to urban wildlife However, evidence suggests that wildlife residing in urban areas may not exhibit the same life history traits as their rural counterparts because of adaptation to human-induced stresses This creates difficulty for biologists or managers that must address problems associated with urban wildlife Population control or mitigation efforts aimed at urban wildlife require detailed knowledge of the habits of wildlife populations in urban areas This paper describes the history of wildlife in urban areas, provides examples of wildlife populations that have modified their behavior as an adaptation to urban stresses, and discusses the challenges that resource managers face when dealing with urban wildlife

487 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of urban development on the functioning of forest ecosystems during the past decade was studied, where red oak stands located on similar soil along an urban-rural gradient running from New York City to rural Litchfield County, Connecticut.
Abstract: In order to understand the effect of urban development on the functioning of forest ecosystems during the past decade we have been studying red oak stands located on similar soil along an urban-rural gradient running from New York City ro rural Litchfield County, Connecticut. This paper summarizes the results of this work. Field measurements, controlled laboratory experiments, and reciprocal transplants documented soil pollution, soil hydrophobicity, litter decomposition rates, total soil carbon, potential nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, fungal biomass, and earthworm populations in forests along the 140 × 20 km study transect. The results revealed a complex urban-rural environmental gradient. The urban forests exhibit unique ecosystem structure and function in relation to the suburban and rural forest stands; these are likely linked to stresses of the urban environment such as air pollution, which has also resulted in elevated levels of heavy metals in the soil, the positive effects of the heat island phenomenon, and the presence of earthworms. The data suggest a working model to guide mechanistic work on the ecology of forests along urban-to-rural gradients, and for comparison of different metropolitan areas.

485 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202382
2022136
2021171
2020112
201998
201884