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Showing papers in "Urban Geography in 2007"


Journal ArticleDOI
Jan Nijman1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce comparative urbanism and compare it to urban geography, and present a comparison of the two approaches in terms of the urban environment and the urban geography.
Abstract: (2007). Introduction—Comparative Urbanism. Urban Geography: Vol. 28, Comparative Urbanism, pp. 1-6.

191 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sonia Hirt1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the nature of peri-urban growth in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia and argue that since the end of socialism in 1989, Sofia's periurban growth has been driven primarily by affluent households relocating from the central city to its scenic southern outskirts in search of a higher quality of life.
Abstract: In this article, I discuss the nature of peri-urban growth in the Bulgarian capital of Sofia. I argue that since the end of socialism in 1989, Sofia's peri-urban growth has been driven primarily by affluent households relocating from the central city to its scenic southern outskirts in search of a higher quality of life. In this sense, the process exhibits the classic signs of Western-style suburbanization and is qualitatively different from the peri-urban development that occurred under socialism. Much of the new growth, however, has occurred within the borders of former villages and areas occupied by summer cottages (villas). These once-modest city environs now exhibit a peculiar blend of the new and the old and house two distinct social strata, affluent newcomers and poor long-time residents. I conclude with a discussion of the social consequences of recent peri-urban change and the response of the local planners.

152 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the growth and spatiality of Chinese urbanism with special reference to changes in state-society relations and the reformation of state-Society relations in the post-socialist era has facilitated the growth of modern urbanism characterized by the dramatic expansion of urban size, high inner-city density, growing diversity, heterogeneity, and inequality.
Abstract: This study examines the growth and spatiality of Chinese urbanism with special reference to changes in state-society relations. Imperial China was well-known for a relatively strong state, weak society, and underdeveloped market. Earlier Chinese urbanism was shaped by an imperial state of tributary nature, a society stratified in the Confucian doctrine, and a relatively relaxed state-society relation. In the socialist era, important features of (anti-)urbanism were linked with a special state-society relation that privileges the interests of the working class, discriminates merchants, values equality, and stresses urban manageability. The reformation of state-society relations in the post-socialist era has facilitated the growth of modern urbanism characterized by the dramatic expansion of urban size, high inner-city density, growing diversity, heterogeneity, and inequality. The urban scale has been expanded and stretched as the state manages to negotiate with forces of globalization, enhance China's inte...

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors highlights the different agents and enablers of gentrification and the increasing importance of place-based community activism in inner city neighborhoods that is a response to a retrenching state.
Abstract: Recent scholarship on gentrification suggests the need to pay attention the role of the state in fostering new geographies of gentrification This paper highlights the different agents and enablers of gentrification and the increasing importance of place-based community activism in inner city neighborhoods that is a response to a retrenching state These agents include new types of gentrifiers: family-oriented, middle-class groups who have different interests and motivations from "traditional" (childless) gentrifiers The neoliberalization of social service provision has enabled private groups, such as middle-class gentrifiers, to transform critical social institutions in gentrifying neighborhoods One such institution is a charter school, which enables private management of public dollars to provide public education Through interviews and archival analysis, these new dynamics in the gentrification process are explored by examining the importance of place-based community that is produced and consumed by

91 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the relationship between postwar urban redevelopment and the more recent transition that fused subsequent gentrification with tourism strategies in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) is analyzed.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between postwar urban redevelopment and the more recent transition that fused subsequent gentrification with tourism strategies in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). First, it examines the long endeavor of local government to foster neighborhood change in coalition with tourism and commercial development planning, and documents the intimate connection between gentrification and displacement. Second, it sheds light on the entwined effects of gentrification and tourism in the transformation of this urban outpost of the European Union.

87 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the advertising themes and rhetoric that have been assembled in the place-marketing of Shanghai's newly built gated communities, and demonstrates how place marketing strategies, in this case selling the Chinese dream home, draws upon specific landscape meanings and values that are embedded in Chinese/Shanghainese history, even as symbolic and cultural capital from the contemporary scene also exert their influences.
Abstract: This paper examines the advertising themes and rhetoric that have been assembled in the place-marketing of Shanghai's newly built gated communities. We demonstrate how place-marketing strategies, in this case selling the Chinese dream home, draws upon specific landscape meanings and values that are embedded in Chinese/Shanghainese history, even as symbolic and cultural capital from the contemporary scene also exert their influences. Collectively, these representations of the good life both reflect and reinforce the exclusivist housing aspirations and privatist visions of middle-class residents of gated communities in contemporary Shanghai. While advertisements do not always achieve the outcomes that property developers wish for, there is no doubt that they play significant roles in both shaping and reflecting landscape meanings and values. As medium and outcome, they reveal the growing aspirations of a new Chinese middle class.

73 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors use a case study of business improvement districts in downtown Milwaukee to illustrate two key trends in contemporary urban revitalization, highlighting the ways in which the relationship between the public and private sectors continues to be reconfigured in the governance of cities.
Abstract: This paper uses a case study of Business Improvement Districts in downtown Milwaukee to illustrate two key trends in contemporary urban revitalization. First, it highlights the ways in which the relationship between the public and private sectors continues to be reconfigured in the governance of cities. Second, it considers the roles of Business Improvement Districts in light of the current emphasis among urban policymakers and practitioners on delivering "cool" and "liveable" cities. I argue that Business Improvement Districts play a central role in overseeing the contemporary restructuring of urban space in many U.S. cities.

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine how a widespread process of condominium development in Toronto is informed by neoliberal policy imperatives such as growth and competition, and explore the ways in which the neoliberal, political-economic rationality underlying the development translates into changes in the ways that a particular group of city dwellers, women condominium owners, conceptualize their relationships to their homes, neighborhoods, and the city at large.
Abstract: Taking feminist research as a starting point into the ways in which gentrification shapes gender relations in the city, this article addresses the phenomenon of new-build gentrification in terms of the re-contouring of gendered boundaries of public and private urban life. I examine how a widespread process of condominium development in Toronto is informed by neoliberal policy imperatives such as growth and competition. I also explore the ways in which the neoliberal, political-economic rationality underlying condominium development translates into changes in the ways that a particular group of city dwellers, women condominium owners, conceptualize their relationships to their homes, neighborhoods, and the city at large. This study suggests that condominium living produces a shift in the way that public and private spaces are understood and experienced, and that this shift has contradictory implications for the reshaping of urban gender relations.

71 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed list of all the organizations, programs, writings, policies, strategies and tools currently involved in the quest to foster sustainable communities can be found in this article, which is a good place to start.
Abstract: I found this book to be very useful on most levels. It is essentially a detailed listing of all the organizations, programs, writings, policies, strategies and tools currently involved in the quest to foster “sustainable communities.” The approach is multidimensional, ranging from biodiversity to economics to sewage to architecture. The book has been updated regularly since 1992, and this new version boasts new additions to the master list of sustainability endeavors. What I liked most about the book were the unexpected things. Programs that are out of the ordinary are a welcome break from the standard rules, policies, and dry measurement approaches that bureaucrats find themselves implementing. Vancouver’s “Clouds of Change” program that makes “access by proximity” a priority in city planning (p. 149), or approaches to “neighborhoodbuilding” like planting flowers, creating calendars, and holding a multi-racial “family reunion” in Chattanooga are good examples. While this book has its heart in the right place, I found it overly optimistic in places where I wanted it to have more of a realistic edge. Entreating us to “strengthen all forms of community capital” (p. 27) and reminding us “where the market works, use it” (p. 221) are frustratingly complex notions that the author portrays in somewhat naïve terms. Perhaps I am becoming too cynical, but the vast and complex ways in which sustainability is approached are not all mutually supportive, and the book mostly skirts this issue. Sometimes, sustainability programs and policies work at cross purposes. What one group is doing under the banner of sustainability may very well impact— negatively—what another is attempting to do. There is not much consideration of the conflicts between economic goals and social goals, between the importance of good design and the strain that puts on maintaining social equity. Public expenditures in one area rob investment in others. What is the implication for sustainability? Nor does this book provide any empirical support that would allow us to judge the worth and effectiveness of one program, policy, or tool relative to another. They are listed on virtually equal footing, with very little insight about pros and cons. Perhaps these criticisms are unfair given what the book is trying to provide—simply a encyclopedic accounting of who is doing what and where. Still, I am hoping that subsequent editions will provide a way to make some cross-comparisons and consider ways in which conflicts may arise when one type of policy is pitted against another. We cannot be expected to believe that all policies are meant to be happily co-existent. It would also help if the author provided a better site map for this project. For example, many concepts are overlapping and terms pop up in multiple places in different contexts. Notions like “community” and “equity” are found throughout, but there is no way to easily cross-reference. I did not find the index particularly useful in that regard. It also would have been helpful for the author to provide more than one way of sorting through and making sense of all the programs and policies listed. Perhaps the author could think about who might actually make use of this book and why, and suggest resources, policies, and tools that they might be particularly interested in, like suggested menus in a cookbook. If you are a small community development corporation (CDC) and you are interested in doing affordable housing that is more sustainable, how would you navigate through all the resources listed here to find your way? What programs and tools would be most appropriate, given your particular set of constraints?

68 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare two commonly employed data sources in world city research, namely, data on corporate organization and information on air passenger flows, and construct connectivity measures, which are then compared through a standard least squares regression analysis.
Abstract: This research note compares two commonly employed data sources in world city research—that is, (1) data on corporate organization and (2) information on air passenger flows. For both types of data we construct connectivity measures, which are then compared through a standard least squares regression analysis. The empirical specifics that emerge from our analysis are discussed through an examination of the regression residuals, which we interpret in terms of cities being underserved and/or overvisited or being overserviced and/or undervisited. Our findings are generalized by discussing them against the backdrop of Castells' description of contemporary globalization as a "network society."

67 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a set of comparative historical essays on the logic of Miami's emergence as a world city is presented, highlighting its idiosyncrasies and revealing some "deep analogies".
Abstract: Comparative approaches in urban studies are rarely explicated in theoretical or methodological terms. The premise of this paper is that comparison over time and/or across space is essential to our understanding of social phenomena. The ascendance of globalization debates has added to the importance of a comparative approach to regional and urban studies. This paper illustrates one comparative approach by way of a set of comparative historical essays on the logic of Miami's emergence as a world city. Multiple individualizing comparisons with Amsterdam, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Dublin serve to highlight Miami's idiosyncrasies but at the same time reveal some "deep analogies." Such comparisons go beyond idiographic description and suggest theoretical arguments, yet they provide an important check on generalization. The insights derived from this essay suggest that Miami's case was decisively influenced by the nature of state-city relations, regional exceptionalism in terms of political economy, the prevalenc...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper analyzed differences between immigrant and native-born Black women in the relationship between racial residential segregation and low birthweight risk, using vital statistics data for New York City on all births to "Black" mothers in 2000.
Abstract: This research analyzes differences between immigrant and native-born Black women in the relationship between racial residential segregation and low birthweight risk. Differences in nativity are investigated because sociocultural diversity may affect women's exposure to environmental and psychosocial stressors associated with living in highly segregated neighborhoods and in the presence of protective "ethnic density" effects. Using vital statistics data for New York City on all births to "Black" mothers in 2000, we analyze the associations between segregation and the risk of having a low birthweight infant for immigrant and native-born mothers. Multilevel models are estimated that include maternal characteristics, census tract poverty, and a spatial measure of local segregation. For U.S.-born Black women, living in racially segregated areas—areas with high racial isolation—is associated with a higher low birthweight risk. Similar findings are uncovered for immigrant Black women; however, the association be...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the transformation of Baltimore's inner suburbs from 1980 to 2000 is analyzed using census place-level data, and three major influences on decline among the inner suburbs of Baltimore are labor market restructuring, the nature of the local housing market, and income and racial segregation.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the transformation of Baltimore's inner suburbs from 1980 to 2000. After developing a geographic definition of inner suburbs, we then spatially analyze them using census place-level data. The analysis shows evidence of socioeconomic decline in Baltimore's inner suburbs, but the extent of this decline varies among these suburbs. Since 1980, many declining inner suburbs had difficulty attracting new residents, White flight was the prevailing trend, and the housing stock was outdated relative to the outer suburbs. The analysis suggests three major influences on decline among the inner suburbs of Baltimore: labor market restructuring, the nature of the local housing market, and income and racial segregation. This paper concludes with a classification of Baltimore's inner suburbs based on our understanding of the processes of suburban decline in the region.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the relationship between seven dimensions of land-use patterns and five dimensions of segregation of Blacks and Whites for a representative sample of 50 large metropolitan areas, using multiple regression analysis.
Abstract: This paper advances a theory of how metropolitan land-use patterns affect racial settlement patterns and tests it by measuring the relationship between seven dimensions of land-use patterns and five dimensions of segregation of Blacks and Whites for a representative sample of 50 large metropolitan areas, using multiple regression analysis. We find substantial, nonlinear relationships between changes in multiple dimensions of segregation and multiple dimensions of land use, with most evincing a direct relationship between more compact patterns and segregation once a threshold value is exceeded. The results can be explained holistically by positing that variations in different dimensions of land-use patterns differentially affect land/housing prices, inter-group propinquity, interracial commonality of commuting destinations, and spatial mismatch, which in turn appear to affect the ability of a metropolitan area to desegregate. But alterations in certain aspects of land use—density/continuity and job compact...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compared the transformation of metropolitan institutions in two Canadian city-regions (Toronto and Montreal) taking Neil Brenner's argument about new state spaces as a starting point, and discussed comparatively how governance restructuring in recently consolidated Toronto and Montreal has been part of more general changes to the architecture of governance in Canada.
Abstract: This paper compares the transformation of metropolitan institutions in two Canadian city-regions (Toronto and Montreal). Taking Neil Brenner's argument about new state spaces as a starting point, we discuss comparatively how governance restructuring in recently consolidated Toronto and Montreal has been part of more general changes to the architecture of governance in Canada. We look specifically at changes to the mediation channels between civil society and metropolitan institutions. A "nationally" scaled comparison, this project must take into account the specific differences between Francophone and Anglophone Canada, between the different civic traditions in Montreal and Toronto and different traditional significance attributed to the scale and nature of metropolitan governance structures and variously scaled agency in both cities. This makes our case in many ways more like an international comparison.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare the connectivity profiles of U.S. cities by drawing on a unique airline dataset, which allows comparing the importance of a city's connections within and without its own country.
Abstract: Despite profound differences in theoretical perspectives, it is now widely accepted that under conditions of contemporary globalization key cities are (re)produced by what flows through them rather than what is fixed within them. Comparing the position of cities in the context of this "world city network" implies that relational and transnational data are required. This paper uses this starting point to contrast the connectivity profiles of U.S. cities by drawing on a unique airline dataset, which allows comparing the importance of a city's connections within and without its own country.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the validity of four major explanatory frameworks on racial/ethnic segregation and its changes: Assimilation, Stratification, Resurgent Ethnicity, and Market-Led Pluralism.
Abstract: There are four major explanatory frameworks on racial/ethnic segregation and its changes: Assimilation, Stratification, Resurgent Ethnicity, and Market-Led Pluralism. Previous efforts to evaluate the significance of each framework, mainly relying on cross-urban metrics, pay less attention to intraurban residential patterning even though each framework leads to a different expectation about it. In response, this paper examines the validity of each framework in terms of intraurban segregation and changes. Following Brown and Chung's (2006) suggestion, this investigation utilizes a set of local segregation measures—Location Quotient and Local Moran's I—that shows where segregation occurs within a city. They are applied to the Columbus, Ohio MSA for 1990 and 2000. The overall findings support Resurgent Ethnicity and Market-Led Pluralism as the most relevant of the four frameworks.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated how household-scale mixing affects neighborhood-scale racial segregation and found that mixed-race households are a disproportional predictor of neighborhood segregation in the U.S. The results show that racial mixing within households has meaningful effects on neighborhood segregation, suggesting that patterns of mixed race household formation and residential location condition understandings of neighborhood dynamics.
Abstract: This paper investigates how household-scale racial mixing affects measurements of neighborhood-scale racial segregation. This topic is increasingly important as mixed-race households are becoming more common across the United States. Specifically, our research asks two questions: What is the sensitivity of neighborhood racial segregation measures to levels of household-scale racial mixing? And what is the relationship between neighborhood racial diversity and the presence of mixed-race households? We answer these questions with an analysis that uses confidential long-form data from the 1990 U.S. census. These data provide information on household racial composition at the tract level. The results show that racial mixing within households has meaningful effects on measurements of neighborhood segregation, suggesting that patterns of mixed-race household formation and residential location condition understandings of neighborhood segregation dynamics. We demonstrate that mixed-race households are a dispropor...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a more general framework to understand differences in long-term trajectories of urban systems and found that the divergence can be explained by the differences in the (pre-industrial) points of departure between London and the Randstad, but also by the difference of insertion in the global economy.
Abstract: In this article, we first seek to develop a more general framework to understand differences in long-term trajectories of urban systems. We use a model that has two dimensions: the level of accumulation of capital and the level of concentration of capital. We then use the model, very much in a heuristic way, to see what insights can be gained when applied to the concrete cases of the urban systems of London and the Dutch Randstad. As the data, especially for the pre-industrial and the industrial era, are still very scarce, this mapping of the long-term trajectories is still highly conjectural. What emerges quite clearly from this novel way of looking at urban development trajectories, though, is the divergence between the two global city regions. This divergence can be explained by the differences in the (pre-industrial) points of departure between London and the Randstad, but also by the difference of insertion in the global economy. A more detailed analysis of the Randstad in the post-industrial era sho...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nik Heynen, Maria Kaika, and Erik Swyngedouw, eds., the authors In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism.
Abstract: (2007). In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism. Nik Heynen, Maria Kaika, and Erik Swyngedouw, eds.. Urban Geography: Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 206-208.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigates the changing relations between Milwaukee's Bureau of Forestry and its African American and female employ, finding that the Bureau's management employed and promoted very few African Americans and women within its arboricultural workforce based on its racist and gendered categories of laboring individuals.
Abstract: Little attention is paid to the ways that labor market inequalities within urban institutions enforce governance regimes that (re)produce urban environmental unevenness. Milwaukee's Bureau of Forestry is one such institution that has historically been dependent on state-sanctioned labor market inequalities to perpetuate an explicitly White/male regime of environmental governance and production. Historically, the Bureau's management employed and promoted very few African Americans and women within its arboricultural workforce, based on its racist and gendered categories of laboring individuals. Furthermore, and for identical reasons, these workers—and by extension their communities—face distributional injustices as they are not allowed to channel their labors into the production of equitable and/or alternative forms of urban forests more suitable to their own social reproduction. This paper investigates the changing relations between Milwaukee's Bureau of Forestry and its African American and female employ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the relationship between public school and neighborhood composition in Los Angeles County and found that there is a strong correlation between the racial and ethnic composition of the school attendance zone and that of a school located in it.
Abstract: This article examines the relationship between public school and neighborhood composition in Los Angeles County. In contrast to studies that examine the relationship between school and neighborhood composition at the school district level, our analysis focuses on the finer geographical unit of school attendance zones and finds that there is a strong correlation between the racial and ethnic composition of the school attendance zone and that of the school located in it. However, the analysis of the outliers suggests that private school attendance and open enrollment may increasingly lead to an uncoupling of the relationship between public school and neighborhood composition. This has important implications for school integration and suggests that even in a multiethnic city like Los Angeles "White flight" continues to be one strategy by which White families avoid contact between their children and racial or ethnic minorities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an Urban Geography Plenary Lecture on "Femicide, Mother-Activism, And The Geography Of Protest In Northern Mexico".
Abstract: (2007). Urban Geography Plenary Lecture—Femicide, Mother-Activism, And The Geography Of Protest In Northern Mexico1. Urban Geography: Vol. 28, Urban Geography Plenary Lecture, pp. 401-425.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a concept of a specifically "urban imaginary of nature" is developed through a dialectical rereading of Georg Simmel's and Louis Wirth's seminal texts on the nature of urbanism.
Abstract: A concept of a specifically "urban imaginary of nature" is developed through a dialectical (re)reading of Georg Simmel's and Louis Wirth's seminal texts on the nature of urbanism. We then examine how this urban imaginary is mobilized through the politics of nature in metropolitan Portland, Oregon. We demonstrate that the logic of Oregon's "Urban Growth Boundary" land-use policy promises the retrieval and spatial demarcation of a fading "nature" threatened by urbanization itself. We then examine how Portland's metropolitan planning agency ("Metro") imagines ways in which the urban growth boundary can reconcile and spatially delimit an "invisible line" where the urban ends and nature begins. These policies set the conditions through which Portland can market itself as the "green city." We conclude by arguing for a more radical and denaturalized political imaginary that takes into account the socioecological constitution of the urban "metabolism" itself.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an urban-geographic rereading of scale as a volumetric, networked, space of flows is proposed to better understand the outsized spatiality of the big box and the global commodity chains in which it is embedded.
Abstract: Human geographers have recently rethought the concept of geographic scale in important ways that have unrealized potential for the urban-geographic study of the relative spatiality of urban processes and forms. Yet in an influential 2005 article, Marston, Jones III, and Woodward suggested that scale should be "expurgated" from the human geographical lexicon, an argument they have more recently reiterated. My article questions this on both theoretical and empirical grounds. First, I consider the origins of hierarchical, vertically ordered scale to suggest such interpretations may inhere more in a territorialized imaginary in political geography than scale itself. Second, I propose an urban-geographic rereading of scale as a volumetric, networked, space of flows. Exploring this idea through the example of Wal-Mart's "geography of big things," I suggest we need to recover and elaborate scale to better understand the outsized spatiality of the big box and the global commodity chains in which it is embedded.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first formal measure of segregation probably was introduced by Bell (1954), yet Duncan and Duncan's (1955) dissimilarity index D was used far more widely to summarize residential segregation patterns for entire metropolitan areas as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Beginning with the work of University of Chicago sociologists in the 1920s, social scientists have been interested in explaining the uneven group distributions of individuals and households as well as the dynamics driving these distributions by using a human ecological approach (McKenzie, 1924; Park et al., 1925; Park, 1936). By the 1950s, this approach began to take a sharp turn toward formal quantitative analysis, a turn that marked the beginning of segregation analysis. What was diminished by this change was the attention paid to both the spatial dimensions of local unevenness and the dynamic processes of neighborhood change. The first formal measure of segregation probably was introduced by Bell (1954), yet Duncan and Duncan’s (1955) dissimilarity index D was used far more widely to summarize residential segregation patterns for entire metropolitan areas. There are some disciplinary variations; for example, economists favor using the Gini index (Silber, 1989), which also has a long history, when measuring income segregation. But the study of segregation has become truly interdisciplinary, expanding from its sociological roots to attract the attention of economists (Galster, 1988; Bayer et al., 2004), geographers (Clark, 1986; Wong, 1993), and urban policy analysts and planners (Jargowsky, 1996; Dawkins, 2004).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used a dasymetric mapping technique in a raster GIS environment to intersect population data in a block group layer with land use categories from a land use layer.
Abstract: Standard measures of poverty concentration based on census tracts may not accurately reflect neighborhood conditions because they offer a weak link to the underlying geography of a neighborhood. Changes in the spatial configuration of land use within a census tract can have the effect of increasing or decreasing the density of poverty. This study uses a dasymetric mapping technique in a raster GIS environment to intersect population data in a block group layer with land use categories from a land use layer. I produce poverty counts and rates at a much finer spatial resolution than a block group, with an explicit spatial relationship between population and surrounding neighborhood characteristics. I illustrate the technique for the City of Detroit by measuring poverty concentration change between 1990 and 2000. I find that poverty became more concentrated in space during the 1990s, counter to reports of diminishing poverty concentration that are based on the share of poor people in high-poverty tracts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the ethnic relations and urban politics among Russian immigrants in the Jewish-Arab "mixed" city of Lod in Israel and examine the processes of de-Arabization and Judaization and the cultural-political values that Russian immigrants hold in relation to nationalism, minority-majority relations, and civil rights as they knew in their homeland.
Abstract: This article deals with the way in which Russian immigrants identify with the Israeli national project, highlighting the process through which this identification occurs and its effect on the urban context. Our main argument is that this identification has arisen through interrelated processes including the ideology of the Israeli state and the history of settlement, the Russian social constructs of ethnicity and power, and local policies through which the state and the private sector produce neighborhood space. More specifically, the article focuses on the ethnic relations and urban politics among Russian immigrants in the Jewish-Arab "mixed" city of Lod in Israel. Through critical examination of political declarations, media sources, and urban policy documents, it examines the processes of de-Arabization and Judaization and the cultural-political values that Russian immigrants hold in relation to nationalism, minority-majority relations, and civil rights as they knew in their homeland. It also explores ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors performed a case study of Los Angeles County during the period 1990 to 2000, using the prediction strength technique to determine empirically, rather than arbitrarily, how many clusters fit the data and identify which combinations of the direction and magnitude of groups' local changes drive local trends across the region and those that do not.
Abstract: Dynamic racial and ethnic transitions are a critically important aspect of urban neighborhood social geography and demography, which receive little attention from urban analysts compared to static racial and ethnic patterns To determine whether cluster analysis could bring analytic power to the study of neighborhood racial and ethnic change in multigroup context, we performed a case study of Los Angeles County during the period 1990 to 2000, using the prediction strength technique to determine empirically, rather than arbitrarily, how many clusters fit the data Clustering identifies which combinations of the direction and magnitude of groups' local changes drive local trends across the region and, equally important, those that do not The case study supports the conclusion that cluster analysis serves as a powerful data-mining technique for local racial and ethnic trends, and will yield satisfactory results for any region at any scale [Key words: Neighborhood transition, succession, human ecology, raci

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined ethnic differences in Hispanic settlement and argued that ethnicity itself is wielded as a potent force as a group moves into a neighborhood and eventually dominates it. But they did not examine the racial structure of Hispanic ethnic clusters to highlight how Hispanic ethnic settlement intersects with the city's overall racial diversity.
Abstract: Whereas differences in settlement patterns among European ethnics have long been recognized, Hispanics are often viewed monolithically. The diverse origins of Hispanic immigrants to New York City allow us to examine ethnic differences in Hispanic settlement. We find Puerto Rican, Dominican, and South American clusters across the city, and argue that ethnicity itself is wielded as a potent force as a group moves into a neighborhood and eventually dominates it. This is especially evident in the residential succession currently under way, which is occurring in a new context: Hispanic immigrants are competing to succeed not only Whites, but also departing Puerto Ricans, the city's longest established Hispanic group. At the same time, there are stable Hispanic multiethnic neighborhoods in which shared middle-class backgrounds help cement ethnic relationships. We also examine the racial structure of Hispanic ethnic clusters to highlight how Hispanic ethnic settlement intersects with the city's overall racial hi...