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Showing papers in "Urban Geography in 2010"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used GIS and statistical models to analyze single-family residential water consumption in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area and found that residential water usage per household at the census block group scale is best explained by average building size, followed by building density and building age.
Abstract: Although water demand theories identify price structures, technology, and individual behavior as determinants of water demand, limited theoretical or empirical evidence suggests a link between urban development patterns and water use. To assess the role of urban development patterns on water demand, we used GIS and statistical models to analyze single-family residential water consumption in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Our results show that residential water consumption per household at the census block group scale is best explained by average building size, followed by building density and building age, with low water consumption areas clustering together and typically located in high-density and older neighborhoods. Accounting for spatial dependence among residuals, explanatory variables explain up to 87% of variations in water consumption. Our results help to develop a water demand framework that incorporates existing factors with urban development policies to more effectively manage limite...

124 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors trace a case of urban policy transfer from Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia to Hyderabad, India and conclude that the kind of urban geography traced here forms an important complement to more conventional academic practices based on sustained engagement with specific urban sites, lives and transformations.
Abstract: Diverse strands of geographic inquiry share a concern for the role of seductive projections of various forms in shaping urban policy and material realities at a distance. We trace a case of urban policy transfer from Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia to Hyderabad, India. Drawing on our respective empirical investigations of the two Asian cities, we consider a geography of urban policy replication. At one level, this involves direct political connections between the two cities and, in particular, KL as a "model" for Hyderabad. Yet we are also concerned with identifying broader intra-Asia policy networks and practices that demand critical geographic attention. We conclude with some reflections on the implications of the KL-Hyderabad case for conceptions of and ways of doing urban geography. We argue that the kind of urban geography traced here forms an important complement to more conventional academic practices based on sustained engagement with specific urban sites, lives, and transformations.

103 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored patterns and the expanding range of mechanisms for urban infrastructure financing in general and across the country's regions, and investigated whether and how infrastructure investment is related to urban economic performance, using lagged variables to demonstrate both short and medium-term effects.
Abstract: Research points to a strong association between infrastructure investment and economic performance. Despite China's great strides in providing basic services, there is increasing disparity among cities of different regions in their ability and performance to finance infrastructure development. Such unevenness has a long-term effect on urban economic growth. This study explores patterns and the expanding range of mechanisms for urban infrastructure financing in general and across the country's regions. It also investigates whether and how infrastructure investment is related to urban economic performance, using lagged variables to demonstrate both short- and medium-term effects. It is clear that such investment has responded to past unmet demands and paved the way for future growth.

84 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the effects of immigration on Vancouver's residential housing market as the city became increasingly influenced by global processes and the arrival of skilled and wealthy migrants, revealing a de-coupling of local housing from labour markets as recent immigrants' housing consumption became less tied to their local labor market participation.
Abstract: The effect of residential capital through immigration on the internal structure of cities and housing markets has become of increasing importance. This study examines the effects of immigration on Vancouver's residential housing market as the city became increasingly influenced by global processes and the arrival of skilled and wealthy migrants. The changing determinants of housing demand are analyzed for recent immigrants and the rest of the population using Statistics Canada data for two time periods. Intraurban spatial dimensions of the changes in housing demand are examined using tract data. The analysis reveals a de-coupling of local housing from labour markets as recent immigrants' housing consumption became less tied to their local labor market participation. Labor market income measured in national datasets becomes less instructive in explaining housing market outcomes and neighborhood change if immigrants arrive with established wealth and continue to earn unreported income outside the country.

71 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an accessibility model is implemented and employed in a case study of public service provision in the urban area of Ghent, Belgium to explore the extent to which changes in open hours affect the social equity of service provision.
Abstract: In recent years, there has been increasing awareness about the impact of urban time policies on the quality of people's everyday lives. However, within the urban planning field, evaluations of public service delivery have primarily focused on the spatial rather than the temporal organization of public service facilities. This study tries to fill this gap by using space-time accessibility analysis to explore the extent to which changes in open hours affect the social equity of service provision. To this end an accessibility model is implemented and employed in a case study of public service provision in the urban area of Ghent, Belgium. Our analysis not only demonstrates that access to public services exhibits substantial hour-to-hour and day-to-day variations, but it also shows that individuals with certain personal and household attributes are affected differently by changes to the temporal regime of public service facilities.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors build on recent research on the growth of suburban poverty by tracking bi-annual poverty trends in inner suburbs from 1989 to 2005 through data reported by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, finding that inner-ring suburban poverty increased from 1989 through 1997 but then declined and stabilized at levels similar to those of 1989.
Abstract: This study builds on recent research on the growth of suburban poverty by tracking bi-annual poverty trends in inner suburbs from 1989 to 2005 through data reported by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Contrary to analyses based on the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this research finds that inner-ring suburban poverty increased from 1989 through 1997 but then declined and stabilized at levels similar to those of 1989. It will be shown that most of these changes were driven by transitions into and out of poverty, and that the migration of the poor between central-city and suburban neighborhoods has little effect on poverty rates. These results suggest that such poverty is highly dependent upon economic conditions, which may indicate an increase in inner-ring poverty since 2005.

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the dynamics of land use and land cover change using satellite data and addressed the need for models and urban management tools that can guide sustainable urban planning policies.
Abstract: Africa's urban population growth has been especially rapid, averaging about 5% per year over the past two decades. As a result, many urban areas have experienced dramatic growth that is seriously outstripping the capacity of most cities to provide adequate services for their residents. Although population growth and urbanization rates in Africa have slowed recently due to a number of factors including HIV/AIDS, urban growth is still expected to double by 2030, leading to dramatic sprawl with serious environmental and social consequences. Using Nairobi as an example of a rapidly urbanizing African city, we studied the dynamics of land use and land cover change using satellite data and addressed the need for models and urban management tools that can guide sustainable urban planning policies. Cellular Automata, which integrate biophysical factors with dynamic spatial modeling, are used in this study. The model was calibrated and tested using time series of urbanized areas derived from land use/cover maps, p...

53 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present four cases where governmental decisions concerning a municipal boundary have institutionalized racial inequality, which is documented with maps created from public GIS data and other public records (e.g., City Council meeting minutes) as well as legal documents.
Abstract: Municipalities create a local political geography that can institutionalize subordinate positions for minority groups. Most importantly, local governments determine which areas are incorporated into a municipality through annexation and which are excluded. Through these powers, local governments can diminish or deny minority political standing in local affairs, limit access to public services, and reduce the value of minority property. The boundaries are a component of racial residential segregation. Racially disparate application of local governments' power to shape local political geography creates barriers to equality that are difficult to discern on the ground, but which can be made visible by the mapping of spatial data. This study presents four cases where governmental decisions concerning a municipal boundary have institutionalized racial inequality, which is documented with maps created from public GIS data and other public records (e.g., City Council meeting minutes) as well as legal documents. T...

48 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the balance between forces of standardization and differentiation in the evolution of residential density in Canada's four largest metropolitan regions between 1971 and 2006 and found that the leading factors of standardized development are the continentwide postwar adaptation of urban form to the automobile and growing housing space consumption.
Abstract: This study investigates the balance between forces of standardization and differentiation in the evolution of residential density in Canada's four largest metropolitan regions between 1971 and 2006. The leading factors of standardized development are the continentwide postwar adaptation of urban form to the automobile and growing housing space consumption. The influence of these factors is manifested in increasing convergence in the density levels of the four metropolitan regions as one moves from older to newer zones. Nonetheless, inherited urban forms, topography, economic and demographic performance, and land-use and transportation policies all have the potential to shape distinct density patterns. Each metropolitan region presents a specific density trajectory: Toronto registers a pattern that can be qualified as stable and recentralized; Montreal emerges as a decentralizing metropolitan region; Vancouver shows clear signs of intensification; and in Ottawa-Hull the trajectory combines decentralization...

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a case-control point process model was applied to the urban fringe of Vienna, Austria to investigate the multinucleated monofunctional clustering of higher-order services.
Abstract: Metropolitan areas today are faced with pervasive changes of their urban spatial structure and are reshaped by postsuburbanization processes In this study, one example of such postsuburban restructuring, the multinucleated monofunctional clustering of higher-order services, is investigated in the urban fringe of Vienna, Austria The methodological framework uses microgeographic data for 2006 and applies a case-control point process modeling approach, which accounts for nonstationarity in first-order effects The results show a relocation of highly specialized firms into the outer metropolitan ring, where these firms provide functional enrichment This disagrees with the classical notion of a central place hierarchy The urban fringe thus increasingly conforms to the core city This spatial functional agglomeration shows statistically significant evidence of a bicentric urban structure, with the two new subcenters located in traditional suburban areas Accordingly, Vienna's urban fringe is being altered b

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the employment decentralization process in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) between 1991 and 2001, disaggregating employment data among four categories of knowledge-intensive activities (Knowledge-Intensive Services; High- Technology Industries; Producer Services; and Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate) and two groups of other employment (Other Manufacturing and Other Services).
Abstract: This study focuses on the employment decentralization process in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region (BMR) between 1991 and 2001. Disaggregating employment data among four categories of knowledge-intensive activities (Knowledge-Intensive Services; High- Technology Industries; Producer Services; and Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate) and two groups of other employment (Other Manufacturing and Other Services), the aim is to test whether these four groups decentralized in a similar way to other employment, and whether this process encouraged them to locate in a polycentric or spatially dispersed pattern. The results show that knowledgeintensive and other employment activities decentralize in a similar way, although the former tends to be more concentrated through the formation of employment subcenters and therefore follows a polycentric location model. As a result, physical proximity is still important for numerous activities, especially those that incorporate more knowledge.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the concept of privacy functions as an important lens through which to view both the spatial underpinnings of social and political exclusion and the strategies through which the homeless resist these exclusions.
Abstract: Though much critical urban scholarship is devoted to the struggles of the homeless and their advocates to become "visible" to the state and the "public," little attention has been paid to efforts made by the homeless to escape the public gaze. This study draws on media reports, press releases, and ethnographic research conducted in a Seattle homeless encampment to highlight the ways in which members of this collective mobilized the discourse of rights, and in particular the right to privacy, in their battle against the Safe Harbors homeless management information system. In doing so, it is argued that the concept of privacy functions as an important lens through which to view both the spatial underpinnings of social and political exclusion and the strategies through which the homeless resist these exclusions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that urban skateboarding and the laws by which the city is governed must be understood as intertwined, arguing that the transformation of skateboarding's most popular practices from the 1970s onward are a product of an ongoing dialectical engagement between young people and the law.
Abstract: This article argues that urban skateboarding and the laws by which the city is governed must be understood as intertwined. The transformation of skateboarding's most popular practices from the 1970s onward are a product of an ongoing dialectical engagement between young people and the law. When faced with shifting landscapes of property and liability, young skaters have adapted their practices, seeking out new types of terrain. This search has led skateboarding into the public spaces of the city and regimes of urban governance. Contemporary efforts to build public skateparks in cities such as Seattle, Washington are properly contextualized as part of a continuing evolution of skaters' agency in responding to and capitalizing on openings in the legal landscape. By working both within the political system and constructing skateparks outside conventional political avenues, skatepark advocates seek spaces that are free from increasingly restrictive conventional logics of private and public property.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of existing institutions as vehicles of neoliberalism is explored in this paper, where the authors focus on the way that gospel rescue missions function as vehicles for neoliberalism in the United States.
Abstract: Studies of neoliberalism have focused on the rollback/rollout nature of the process as it manifests in different urban geographies. According to this narrative, neoliberalism and its proponents mobilize to roll back Keynesian or socialist institutions, while simultaneously or subsequently mobilizing a rollout of institutions that might reproduce a neoliberal social order in the future. Somewhat lost in this narrative, with its emphasis on the creation of new neoliberal institutions, is the role of existing institutions as vehicles of neoliberalism. This study focuses on the way that gospel rescue missions function as vehicles of neoliberalism within the present context in the United States. Gospel rescue missions, most of which predate the neoliberal turn, provide a form of care for America's urban homeless that emphasizes personal responsibility (and failure), and de-emphasizes the structural causes of homelessness. Many require their clientele to attend chapel before receiving services, and most shun go...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of racial/ethnic intermixing in 49 largest U.S. MSAs is presented, where race/ethnicity is defined in terms of the major census categories of African American, American Indian, Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic.
Abstract: This study is concerned with racial/ethnic intermixing as it varies among the 49 largest U.S. MSAs in 2000 and its change over the 1990-2000 decade. Race/ethnicity is defined in terms of the major census categories of African American, American Indian, Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic. Intermixing is calibrated by the Theil Entropy Index, which treats the five groups simultaneously and produces measures of an MSA's diversity (Diversity Score) and its level of intermixing (Entropy). The latter (Entropy) also serves as a dependent variable in regression analyses, wherein independent variables include demographic, socio-economic, and built-environment characteristics. The study departs from earlier work at the urban system level in a number of ways. First, MSAs are treated as objects of study in their own right, not simply as observational units. Second, this leads to challenging the usual practice of employing a 1/0 dummy variable to indicate the region in which an MSA is located, a practice that interferes w...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The worst global financial crisis since the Great Depression began to unfold in late February 2007 as bond-ratings analysts in New York, London, and Hong Kong reviewed the latest quarterly disclosures on securities backed by millions of subprime mortgage loans made to borrowers in cities and suburbs across the United States as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The worst global financial crisis since the Great Depression—a wide-ranging, multidimensional catastrophe often labeled the Great Recession—began to unfold in late February 2007 as bond-ratings analysts in New York, London, and Hong Kong reviewed the latest quarterly disclosures on securities backed by millions of subprime mortgage loans made to borrowers in cities and suburbs across the United States. For many years, the high-cost, high-risk subprime market had flourished by exploiting the interdependent American inequalities of race, ethnicity, class, and place: subprime lending was disproportionately focused on racially and ethnically marginalized people and places (Bradford, 2002; Squires, 1992, 2003) and extracted profits from local, place-bound housing transactions to provide revenue streams for local brokers and lenders and investment opportunities for large national and transnational banks, Wall Street investment firms, hedge funds and monoline insurance companies, and institutional investors around the world. At its peak, the lending boom comprised a substantial (if ultimately unmeasurable) proportion of the highly leveraged web of promises in the seemingly placeless, Castellian space of flows of a credit-default swaps industry estimated at more than $60 trillion. As the housing boom collapsed, high-yielding subprime securities suddenly became known as “toxic assets,” and investor panic brought a cascade of structural failures in the architecture of the global financial system. Big failures begat big bailouts: by the spring of 2009, the International Monetary Fund estimated total worldwide losses to financial institutions of $4.1 trillion, whereas in the U.S. alone more than a dozen interwoven initiatives authorized by Congress in the “Troubled Asset Relief Program” committed almost $3 trillion of public funds to the financial system (SIGTARP, 2009). Even more money came

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on the empirical findings of a sense of place survey developed and tested in two contrasting neighborhoods in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Southwest Mountain, an upper-middle-class suburban neighborhood and Northeast Industrial, a lower-income, working-class neighborhood located in the heart of the city's industrial district.
Abstract: Although the concept of sense of place has a long history in the social sciences, relatively few studies have attempted a quantitative analysis of sense of place at the neighborhood level This study reports on the empirical findings of a sense of place survey developed and tested in two contrasting neighborhoods in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: Southwest Mountain, an upper-middle-class suburban neighborhood and Northeast Industrial, a lower-income, working-class neighborhood located in the heart of the city's industrial district The principal objective is to assess the relationship between sense of place and the socio-demographic characteristics of residents living in neighborhoods of very different socioeconomic status This study also introduces a method for calculating a neighborhood sense of place score derived from a fully tested, validated survey instrument It was found that sense of place was strongest in Southwest Mountain, and among seniors, long-term residents, unmarried people, and immigrants

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors consider the emergence of Public Private Policing Partnerships in England and focus on two increasingly common partnership bodies in particular: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) and Town Center Management (TCM) schemes.
Abstract: This study considers the emergence of Public Private Policing Partnerships (PPPPs) in England and focuses on two increasingly common partnership bodies in particular: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) and Town Center Management (TCM) schemes. It argues that in order to fully understand the operations of these partnerships, research must pay attention to their introduction, evolution, and social relationships. Through comparative case studies of local TCM schemes and BIDs in Coventry, Plymouth, and Reading, it reflects on the ways in which policing services are speculatively used to improve the "experience"' of being downtown, and increase the likelihood of consumers and investors spending more in their district. It also sheds light on the evolving policing "portfolios" the partnerships have developed and the roles that socio-technologies (e.g., CCTV, circulars) play in shaping the performance and relations of the partnerships.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used public use microdata sample (PUMS) data for 1990, 2000, and 2006 to test Smith's hypothesis that as capital flows into these land-value "valleys," the rent gradient shifts upward and outward, displacing the landvalue valley farther from the CBD.
Abstract: In his rent gap theory, Neil Smith argues that development is most likely to occur in areas where the capitalized land rents differ substantially from the potential ground rents that could be obtained if the land were converted to its highest and best use. At the metropolitan scale, the rent gap appears in the form of abberations vis-a-vis the monotonically decreasing rent gradients of the classic monocentric city. This study utilizes public use microdata sample (PUMS) data for 1990, 2000, and 2006 to test Smith's hypothesis that as capital flows into these land-value "valleys," the rent gradient shifts upward and outward, displacing the land-value valley farther from the CBD. It is concluded that from 1990 to 2006 there were two visible land-value valleys, and, consistent with Smith's hypothesis, as the first valley closed the second expanded.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw upon the urban theory of Henri Lefebvre to examine HOPE VI, a public housing demolition and redevelopment program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Abstract: This study draws upon the urban theory of Henri Lefebvre to examine HOPE VI, a public housing demolition and redevelopment program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Hailed as a new approach to urban policy, the HOPE VI program embodies many of the key tenets of neoliberal urbanization, including an emphasis on entrepreneurial forms of urban regeneration and a focus on individual responsibility. To provide a lens for understanding this neoliberalization of space, we first detail Lefebvre's theorization of abstract space and transparency, highlighting in particular its nondialectical and depoliticized character. We then turn to examine the HOPE VI model and its implementation in Charlotte, North Carolina. Lefebvre's analysis, we argue, provides a useful entry point for interpreting the re-envisioning of urban space that underlies HOPE VI-style redevelopment, and therefore can potentially inform contemporary struggles against neoliberal urban policy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that Wacquant essentializes place and space through his conceptualization of "the ghetto"; relies too heavily on the South Side of Chicago as representative of U.S. cities; ignores contemporary conditions such as the increasing diversification of poverty; minimizes the agency of poor people; and lacks attention to the role of the local state and the gendered nature of the state.
Abstract: In Urban Outcasts, Loic Waquant has advanced our understanding of contemporary poverty through an international comparative analysis of Chicago and Paris that pays close attention to the role of the state in producing marginality. Yet, Wacquant's analysis falls short at more fully explaining recent changes in the United States or pointing us in the direction of political change because of limitations related to his theorizing of "the ghetto," the welfare state, and advanced marginality. Specifically, I argue that Wacquant essentializes place and space through his conceptualization of "the ghetto"; relies too heavily on the South Side of Chicago as representative of U.S. cities; ignores contemporary conditions such as the increasing diversification of poverty; minimizes the agency of poor people; and lacks attention to the role of the local state and the gendered nature of the state. As such there is no discussion of the actual or potential emancipatory politics that may come from diverse (both within and ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used a job proximity indicator of employment access among the working poor, with cluster analysis and spatial regimes modeling, to explore the spatial dimensions of geographic context (neighborhood characteristics) at a localized scale.
Abstract: Critical geographic perspectives argue that employment access in U.S. metropolitan areas is more complex than traditional understandings, calling for research utilizing approaches that reflect the spatially dynamic structure of cities. This study uses a job proximity indicator of employment access among the working poor, with cluster analysis and spatial regimes modeling, to explore the spatial dimensions of geographic context (neighborhood characteristics) at a localized scale. The findings indicate that: (1) patterns of high or low employment access are not consistent with neoclassical conceptualizations of metropolitan areas; and (2) the statistical relationship between geographic context indicators and the measure of job accessibility were not spatially constant, but varied across the urban landscape. This supports the critical geographic arguments that a high degree of complexity underlies the employment access problem. To better inform public policy, future empirical research needs access to more so...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors map and measure several dimensions of residential segregation in Montreal in 1881, thereby adding to our understanding of the social structure of the industrial city of the city.
Abstract: This article maps and measures several dimensions of residential segregation in Montreal in 1881, thereby adding to our understanding of the social structure of the industrial city. Taking advantage of an unusual historical database—a historical geographic information system (H-GIS)—we locate 17,000 individual households with precision, and evaluate the "dissimilarity" of neighborhoods along several social dimensions and at various levels of spatial aggregation. The empirical findings suggest that Montreal was highly segregated along lines of ethnic identity as well as socioeconomic status; segregation values increased inversely with size of the spatial unit, but precision of unit boundaries have negligible effect. Coupling the highprecision GIS with a statistical model such as the classic index of dissimilarity lends new power to grasp the scale of phenomena, to inquire into behavioral choices of 19th-century households, and even to challenge our assumptions about the meaning of "segregation" or "integra...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article provided a comparative perspective on homelessness in Canada and New Zealand, with a focus on three urban regions, and evaluated the utility of counting the homeless, and identified common and divergent approaches in homelessness policy.
Abstract: This article provides a comparative perspective on homelessness in Canada and New Zealand, with a focus on three urban regions. It seeks to document homeless numbers in the chosen cities, to evaluate the utility of counting the homeless, and to identify common and divergent approaches in homelessness policy. Research involved document analysis, key informant interviews, and participant observation. Literal homelessness is found to be several orders of magnitude higher in the Canadian cities. In one of the Canadian centers, suburban homelessness is emerging as a significant phenomenon. Efforts to count the homeless allow such trends to be tentatively quantified, and inform policymaking. Policy differences between the countries are stark: Canadian cities are seeking to respond to an emergency, which may call for a radical change of approach in the form of "housing first." In New Zealand, a national program of social housing, combined with cultural factors, reduces pressure to act.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that the control of disorder in Montreal, Canada, and its consequences for the occupation of public spaces by the homeless, are neither directly dictated by the law nor rely only on the law as a source of legitimacy and authority.
Abstract: This study shows that the control of disorder in Montreal, Canada, and its consequences for the occupation of public spaces by the homeless, are neither directly dictated by the law nor rely only on the law as a source of legitimacy and authority. They also depend on other forms of expression of state power expressed through local policies, architectural changes, political demands, police discretion, and policing practices, which in turn have connections to the law. This combination of factors sheds light on the multiple sites of law and repression, and opens new possibilities for ensuring homeless people's rights and for resistance.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the process of constructing a heritage tourist landscape on Atlanta's Auburn Avenue and argued that the city's redevelopment vision ties into particular aspects of African American identity, which link to neoliberal economic policies in an effort to turn Auburn Avenue into a "culturetainment" district.
Abstract: Utilizing redevelopment plans created by Central Atlanta Progress, this study explores the process of constructing a heritage tourist landscape on Atlanta's Auburn Avenue. Once home to the wealthiest African American community in the United States, Auburn Avenue went through a period of economic decline in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2000, planners for the City of Atlanta focused on redeveloping the Auburn Avenue corridor. At that time, Central Atlanta Progress began to update plans to convert Auburn Avenue into the United States' premier African American tourist destination. Utilizing those plans, this article argues that the city's redevelopment vision ties into particular aspects of African American identity, which link to neoliberal economic policies in an effort to turn Auburn Avenue into a "culturetainment" district. This vision is juxtaposed against the reaction of community residents who seek an alternative redevelopment vision.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as discussed by the authors analyzed small-area data provided by China's 2000 Population Census and found that major new economic and social forces largely shape the spatial composition of housing in Guangzhou.
Abstract: Principal components analysis of small-area data provided by China's 2000 Population Census shows that major new economic and social forces largely shape the spatial composition of housing in Guangzhou. This is generally manifested in a series of concentric rings: the old urban core, the middle zone of reform housing, and the outer ring of new commodity housing. In addition, urban villages punctuate the metropolitan landscape. Corresponding analysis of sociodemographic attributes depict a metropolis in transition, with market elements and choice-based housing decisions beginning to impinge on the urban fabric. However, the deeply entrenched socialist institutions established during the early years of the People's Republic ensure the continuing dominance of the workplace and occupational attributes as factors structuring China's metropolitan space.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used qualitative information on four Dutch cities that have chosen culture as one of the spearheads of urban policy: Ams, Aalst, Oordijk, Nederland, and Oostende.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, culture and creativity have been at the center of the shift in urban economies toward the non-material and the relational. In the new "cultural-economic" paradigm, the hypermobile class of creative workers and symbolic mediators is considered the vanguard of the knowledge society, and is nurtured and competed for by an increasing number of ambitious city governments. However, the integration of creative talent into the urban economy is not without problems: many cities are rapidly coming to realize that "traditional" approaches to economic development offer little help in the case of cultural industries, and that their impacts could be short-lived or socially ambivalent. More insight is thus needed into the dynamic relationships between culture and urban development, and on their implications for policymaking. This study is an attempt to build such knowledge, using qualitative information on four Dutch cities that have chosen culture as one of the spearheads of urban policy: Ams...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the use and application of photographic postcards to urban landscape analysis through a case study in Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico on the U.S. border directly across from Douglas, Arizona.
Abstract: Picture postcards are visual data that have great utility in urban research. This Research Note examines the use and application of photographic postcards to urban landscape analysis through a case study in Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico on the U.S. border directly across from Douglas, Arizona. Postcards are especially valuable for visualizing landscape change in cities. Arranged and analyzed systematically, picture postcards permit the researcher to visualize a serial view of people and place, thereby enhancing our understanding of landscape change. Serial visual imagery presents a quality to seeing urban landscape that is difficult to achieve with more conventional historic photographs or from land use data like maps and archival records alone.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors look at No Child Left Behind through a geographic lens, emphasizing the importance of local context and the differential effects of policy, and utilize insights from Foucault to flesh out issues regarding "taken-for-granted" education reform.
Abstract: Education is considered key to economic growth and to the reduction of social inequality and disadvantage. Contemporary education policy reflects the ideals of a neoliberal agenda (i.e., reform and economic competitiveness). Given that the United States both recognizes and abides by the rules of the free market, public schools find themselves in a neoliberal straitjacket. This "one-size-fits-all" garment has "pinched" public schools. This study draws on a broadly post-structural perspective of space and geographical context, and utilizes insights from Foucault to flesh out issues regarding "taken-for-granted" education reform in the U.S. Specifically, this work looks at No Child Left Behind through a geographic lens, emphasizing the importance of local context and the differential effects of policy.