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Open accessJournalISSN: 1999-4915


About: Viruses is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Virus & Viral replication. It has an ISSN identifier of 1999-4915. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 7920 publication(s) have been published receiving 121916 citation(s). more

Topics: Virus, Viral replication, Population more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V4061011
20 Jun 2012-Viruses
Abstract: Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes—A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses. more

Topics: Coronavirus (64%), Viral entry (63%), Host cell membrane (62%) more

818 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V12030254
25 Feb 2020-Viruses
Abstract: The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19 outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). There is an imminent need to better understand this new virus and to develop ways to control its spread. In this study, we sought to gain insights for vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 by considering the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, which caused the outbreak in 2003, and leveraging existing immunological studies of SARS-CoV. By screening the experimentally-determined SARS-CoV-derived B cell and T cell epitopes in the immunogenic structural proteins of SARS-CoV, we identified a set of B cell and T cell epitopes derived from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins that map identically to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. As no mutation has been observed in these identified epitopes among the 120 available SARS-CoV-2 sequences (as of 21 February 2020), immune targeting of these epitopes may potentially offer protection against this novel virus. For the T cell epitopes, we performed a population coverage analysis of the associated MHC alleles and proposed a set of epitopes that is estimated to provide broad coverage globally, as well as in China. Our findings provide a screened set of epitopes that can help guide experimental efforts towards the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. more

Topics: Epitope mapping (62%), Epitope (58%), Coronavirus (58%) more

796 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V11010059
Zhiqi Song1, Yanfeng Xu1, Linlin Bao1, Ling Zhang1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
14 Jan 2019-Viruses
Abstract: Coronaviruses (CoVs) have formerly been regarded as relatively harmless respiratory pathogens to humans. However, two outbreaks of severe respiratory tract infection, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), as a result of zoonotic CoVs crossing the species barrier, caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates in human populations. This brought CoVs global attention and highlighted the importance of controlling infectious pathogens at international borders. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, as well as provides details on the pivotal structure and function of the spike proteins (S proteins) on the surface of each of these viruses. For building up more suitable animal models, we compare the current animal models recapitulating pathogenesis and summarize the potential role of host receptors contributing to diverse host affinity in various species. We outline the research still needed to fully elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of these viruses, to construct reproducible animal models, and ultimately develop countermeasures to conquer not only SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but also these emerging coronaviral diseases. more

754 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V12040372
Yuefei Jin1, Haiyan Yang1, Wangquan Ji1, Weidong Wu2  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
27 Mar 2020-Viruses
Abstract: The outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) in China has been brought to global attention and declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Scientific advancements since the pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002~2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2012 have accelerated our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the development of therapeutics to treat viral infection. As no specific therapeutics and vaccines are available for disease control, the epidemic of COVID-19 is posing a great threat for global public health. To provide a comprehensive summary to public health authorities and potential readers worldwide, we detail the present understanding of COVID-19 and introduce the current state of development of measures in this review. more

Topics: Middle East respiratory syndrome (57%), Viral Epidemiology (52%), Public health (52%) more

743 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V12020135
24 Jan 2020-Viruses
Abstract: The emergence of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has awakened the echoes of SARS-CoV from nearly two decades ago. Yet, with technological advances and important lessons gained from previous outbreaks, perhaps the world is better equipped to deal with the most recent emergent group 2B coronavirus. more

Topics: Coronavirus (52%), Disease reservoir (52%)

723 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

Top Attributes

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Martin Beer

21 papers, 140 citations

Arvind Varsani

18 papers, 213 citations

Eric Delwart

14 papers, 94 citations

Rainer G. Ulrich

12 papers, 68 citations

Joachim Denner

12 papers, 198 citations

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