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JournalISSN: 0042-6989

Vision Research

About: Vision Research is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Spatial frequency & Motion perception. It has an ISSN identifier of 0042-6989. Over the lifetime, 13085 publication(s) have been published receiving 622892 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Vision Res.. more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00169-7
Bruno A. Olshausen1, David J. FieldInstitutions (1)
01 Dec 1997-Vision Research
Abstract: The spatial receptive fields of simple cells in mammalian striate cortex have been reasonably well described physiologically and can be characterized as being localized, oriented, and bandpass, comparable with the basis functions of wavelet transforms. Previously, we have shown that these receptive field properties may be accounted for in terms of a strategy for producing a sparse distribution of output activity in response to natural images. Here, in addition to describing this work in a more expansive fashion, we examine the neurobiological implications of sparse coding. Of particular interest is the case when the code is overcomplete--i.e., when the number of code elements is greater than the effective dimensionality of the input space. Because the basis functions are non-orthogonal and not linearly independent of each other, sparsifying the code will recruit only those basis functions necessary for representing a given input, and so the input-output function will deviate from being purely linear. These deviations from linearity provide a potential explanation for the weak forms of non-linearity observed in the response properties of cortical simple cells, and they further make predictions about the expected interactions among units in response to naturalistic stimuli. more

Topics: Basis function (58%), Efficient coding hypothesis (56%), Neural coding (56%) more

3,585 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00163-7
Laurent Itti1, Christof Koch1Institutions (1)
01 Jun 2000-Vision Research
Abstract: Most models of visual search, whether involving overt eye movements or covert shifts of attention, are based on the concept of a saliency map, that is, an explicit two-dimensional map that encodes the saliency or conspicuity of objects in the visual environment. Competition among neurons in this map gives rise to a single winning location that corresponds to the next attended target. Inhibiting this location automatically allows the system to attend to the next most salient location. We describe a detailed computer implementation of such a scheme, focusing on the problem of combining information across modalities, here orientation, intensity and color information, in a purely stimulus-driven manner. The model is applied to common psychophysical stimuli as well as to a very demanding visual search task. Its successful performance is used to address the extent to which the primate visual system carries out visual search via one or more such saliency maps and how this can be tested. more

Topics: Visual search (65%), Gaze-contingency paradigm (62%), N2pc (60%) more

2,940 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00121-1
01 Dec 1997-Vision Research
Abstract: It has previously been suggested that neurons with line and edge selectivities found in primary visual cortex of cats and monkeys form a sparse, distributed representation of natural scenes, and it has been reasoned that such responses should emerge from an unsupervised learning algorithm that attempts to find a factorial code of independent visual features. We show here that a new unsupervised learning algorithm based on information maximization, a nonlinear “infomax” network, when applied to an ensemble of natural scenes produces sets of visual filters that are localized and oriented. Some of these filters are Gabor-like and resemble those produced by the sparseness-maximization network. In addition, the outputs of these filters are as independent as possible, since this infomax network performs Independent Components Analysis or ICA, for sparse (super-gaussian) component distributions. We compare the resulting ICA filters and their associated basis functions, with other decorrelating filters produced by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and zero-phase whitening filters (ZCA). The ICA filters have more sparsely distributed (kurtotic) outputs on natural scenes. They also resemble the receptive fields of simple cells in visual cortex, which suggests that these neurons form a natural, information-theoretic coordinate system for natural images. more

Topics: Independent component analysis (58%), Infomax (58%), Efficient coding hypothesis (56%) more

2,259 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0042-6989(95)00294-4
Heiner Deubel1, Werner X. Schneider2Institutions (2)
01 Jun 1996-Vision Research
Abstract: The spatial interaction of visual attention and saccadic eye movements was investigated in a dual-task paradigm that required a target-directed saccade in combination with a letter discrimination task. Subjects had to saccade to locations within horizontal letter strings left and right of a central fixation cross. The performance in discriminating between the symbols "E" and "E", presented tachistoscopically before the saccade within the surrounding distractors was taken as a measure of visual attention. The data show that visual discrimination is best when discrimination stimulus and saccade target refer to the same object; discrimination at neighboring items is close to chance level. Also, it is not possible, in spite of prior knowledge of discrimination target position, to direct attention to the discrimination target while saccading to a spatially close saccade target. The data strongly argue for an obligatory and selective coupling of saccade programming and visual attention to one common target object. The results favor a model in which a single attentional mechanism selects objects for perceptual processing and recognition, and also provides the information necessary for motor action. more

Topics: Saccadic suppression of image displacement (64%), Saccade (58%), Saccadic masking (56%) more

1,757 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Robert F. Hess

132 papers, 6.1K citations

Dennis M. Levi

111 papers, 7.5K citations

Hugh R. Wilson

64 papers, 4.6K citations

David Regan

53 papers, 2.9K citations

Clifton M. Schor

49 papers, 2.2K citations

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