Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
John Wiley & Sons Ltd
About: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment is an academic journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Renewable energy & Energy policy. It has an ISSN identifier of 2041-8396. Over the lifetime, 404 publications have been published receiving 10472 citations. The journal is also known as: WIREs energy and environment & Energy and environment.
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of the electrochemical studies on activated carbon, carbide derived carbon, zeolite-templated carbon, carbon aerogel, carbon nanotube, onion-like carbon, and graphene is provided.
Abstract: Electric double layer capacitors, also called supercapacitors, ultracapacitors, and electrochemical capacitors, are gaining increasing popularity in high power energy storage applications. Novel carbon materials with high surface area, high electrical conductivity, as well as a range of shapes, sizes and pore size distributions are being constantly developed and tested as potential supercapacitor electrodes. This article provides an overview of the electrochemical studies on activated carbon, carbide derived carbon, zeolite-templated carbon, carbon aerogel, carbon nanotube, onion-like carbon, and graphene. We discuss the key performance advantages and limitations of various nanostructured carbon materials and provide an overview of the current understanding of the structure–property relationships related to the transport and adsorption of electrolyte ions on their surfaces, specific and volumetric capacitance, self-discharge, cycle life, electrolyte stability, and others. We discuss the impact of microstructural defects, pore size distribution, pore tortuosity, chemistry and functional groups on the carbon surface, nanoscale curvature, and carbon-electrolyte interfacial energy. Finally, we review state-of-the art commercial large scale applications of supercapacitors, including their use in smart grids and distributed energy storage, hybrid electric and electric vehicles, energy efficient industrial equipment, ships, wind power stations, uninterruptible power supplies, power backup, and consumer devices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TL;DR: Energy poverty can be seen as situation in which a household lacks a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home as discussed by the authors, and is particularly widespread in Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe, where it tends to affect groups who are already vulnerable to income poverty.
Abstract: Energy poverty can be seen as situation in which a household lacks a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. In the context of the European Union (EU), its causes and consequences largely coincide with those of the more narrowly defined notion of ‘fuel poverty’, which has attracted a significant amount of public attention, scientific research, and state policy in Ireland and the UK. Outside of these two countries, however, EU energy poverty scholarship, debates, and policies are embryonic. From the limited amount of research that has been published to date, it is possible to conclude that the condition is predicated upon high energy prices, low household incomes, inefficient buildings and appliances, and specific households energy needs. It is particularly widespread in Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe, where it tends to affect groups who are already vulnerable to income poverty. Recent years have seen a conceptual shift in the mainstream theorization of domestic energy deprivation, onto more complex and nuanced issues of household needs, built environment flexibility, and social resilience. This article is categorized under: Energy Efficiency > Economics and Policy Energy Policy and Planning > Economics and Policy Energy and Development > Systems and Infrastructure
TL;DR: In this article, the degradation mechanisms of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) during proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operation in real life (industrial stacks) were investigated.
Abstract: Through a tight collaboration between chemical engineers, polymer scientists, and electrochemists, we address the degradation mechanisms of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) during proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operation in real life (industrial stacks). A special attention is paid to the heterogeneous nature of the aging and performances degradation in view of the hardware geometry of the stack and MEA. Macroscopically, the MEA is not fuelled evenly by the bipolar plates and severe degradations occur during start-up and shut-down events in the region that remains/becomes transiently starved in hydrogen. Such transients are dramatic to the cathode catalyst layer, especially for the carbon substrate supporting the Pt-based nanoparticles. Another level of heterogeneity is observed between the channel and land areas of the cathode catalyst layer. The degradation of Pt3Co/C nanocrystallites employed at the cathode cannot be avoided in stationary operation either. In addition to the electrochemical Ostwald ripening and to crystallite migration, these nanomaterials undergo severe corrosion of their high surface area carbon support. The mother Pt3Co/C nanocrystallites are continuously depleted in Co, generating Co2+ cations that pollute the ionomer and depreciate the performance of the cathode. Such cationic pollution has also a negative effect on the physicochemical properties of the proton-exchange membrane (proton conductivity and resistance to fracture), eventually leading to hole formation. These defects were localized with the help of an infrared camera. The mechanical fracture-resistance of various perfluorosulfonated membranes further demonstrated that polytetrafluoroethylene-reinforced membranes better resist hole formation, due to their high resistance to crack initiation and propagation. WIREs Energy Environ 2014, 3:540–560. doi: 10.1002/wene.113For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the most innovative and interesting ways of synthesis gas utilization and projects,BioTfueLorGoBiGas,BioLiq,Choren, etc.
Abstract: Synthesis gas from biomass can be produced and utilized in different ways. Conversion of biomass to synthesis gas can be done either in fluidized bed or entrained flow reactors. As gasification agent oxygen, steam, or mixtures are used. The most common use of biomass gasification in the last decades has been for heat and/or power production. Nowadays, the importance of transportation fuels from renewables is increased due to environmental aspects and growing fossil fuels prices. That is why the production of Fischer‐Tropsch (FT) liquids, methanol, mixedalcohols,substitutenaturalgas(SNG),andhydrogenfrombiomassisnowin focus of view. The most innovative and interesting ways of synthesis gas utilization andprojects,BioTfueLorGoBiGas,BioLiq,Choren,etc.arediscussedhere.Further the microchannel technology by Oxford Catalysts and distributed production of SNG in decentral small scale are presented. The synthesis platform in G¨ ussing, Austria is also presented. The FT liquids, hydrogen production, mixed alcohols, and BioSNG, these are the projects associated with the FICFB gasification plant in G¨ ussing. Also the principle and examples of sorption-enhanced reforming to adjust H2/CO ratio in product gas during the gasification is described. Finally, in the conclusion also an outlook for the thermochemical pathway to transportation fuels is given. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TL;DR: The politics of plastics is a growing field of inquiry, with the most rapid expansion in the areas of marine pollution and microplastics as discussed by the authors, and the major categories of plastic objects addressed in the current literature, and the different approaches taken to each category.
Abstract: This article surveys the politics of plastics through a reading and analysis of more than 180 scientific articles in the fields of environmental science and environmental studies. Despite the many benefits of plastics, the global plastic system is increasingly being recognized as the source of severe environmental problems. Rather than orient the investigation around specific venues, levels, or architectures of governance, our survey first follows plastic through its life cycle, and then considers the major categories of plastic objects addressed in the current literature, and the different approaches taken to each category. The politics of plastics is a growing field of inquiry, with the most rapid expansion in the areas of marine pollution and microplastics. Our consideration of plastic flows reveals increasing politicization towards the latter end of the life cycle, that is, plastic as waste and pollution. Turning to plastic objects, we observe different forms of mobilization, and varying connections between flows and objects, which allow for multiple interpretations of what is at stake. In the closing section, we consider two recent trends in the plastic governance discussion that take a more holistic view of the plastic crisis: attempts to construct (a) a circular plastics economy and (b) global plastics conventions or treaties. We end the paper by highlighting the need for studies to further investigate the norms and practices that maintain the role of plastics in society, as well as the political and economic arrangements that secure its overabundance and low price. (Less)