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Showing papers in "Wireless Networks in 2019"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Firefly with cyclic randomization is proposed for selecting the best cluster head for wireless sensor network and the network performance is increased in this method when compared to the other conventional algorithms.
Abstract: Wireless sensor network (WSN) is comprised of tiny, cheap and power-efficient sensor nodes which effectively transmit data to the base station. The main challenge of WSN is the distance, energy and time delay. The power resource of the sensor node is a non-rechargeable battery. Here the greater the distance between the nodes, higher the energy consumption. For having the effective transmission of data with less energy, the cluster-head approach is used. It is well known that the time delay is directly proportional to the distance between the nodes and the base station. The cluster head is selected in such a way that it is spatially closer enough to the base station as well as the sensor nodes. So, the time delay can be substantially reduced. This, in turn, the transmission speed of the data packets can be increased. Firefly algorithm is developed for maximizing the energy efficiency of network and lifetime of nodes by selecting the cluster head optimally. In this paper firefly with cyclic randomization is proposed for selecting the best cluster head. The network performance is increased in this method when compared to the other conventional algorithms.

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research review will analyze smart home approaches, challenges and will suggest possible solutions for them and illustrate open issues that still need to be addressed.
Abstract: The smart home is considered as an essential domain in Internet of Things (IoT) applications, it is an interconnected home where all types of things interact with each other via the Internet. This helps to automate the home by making it smart and interconnected. However, at the same time, it raises a great concern of the privacy and security for the users due to its capability to be controlled remotely. Hence, the rapid technologically growth of IoT raises abundant challenges such as how to provide the home users with safe and secure services keeping privacy in the account and how to manage the smart home successfully under the controlled condition to avoid any further secrecy or theft of personal data. A number of the research papers are available to address these critical issues, researchers presented different approaches to overcome these stated issues. This research review will analyze smart home approaches, challenges and will suggest possible solutions for them and illustrate open issues that still need to be addressed.

165 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper investigates the fog-driven IoT healthcare system, focusing only on authentication and key agreement, and proposes a three-party authenticated key agreement protocol from bilinear pairings, as well as security analysis against common attacks.
Abstract: The convergence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT) is partially due to the pragmatic need for delivering extended services to a broader user base in diverse situations. However, cloud computing has its limitation for applications requiring low-latency and high mobility, particularly in adversarial settings (e.g. battlefields). To some extent, such limitations can be mitigated in a fog computing paradigm since the latter bridges the gap between remote cloud data center and the end devices (via some fog nodes). However, fog nodes are often deployed in remote and unprotected places. This necessitates the design of security solutions for a fog-based environment. In this paper, we investigate the fog-driven IoT healthcare system, focusing only on authentication and key agreement. Specifically, we propose a three-party authenticated key agreement protocol from bilinear pairings. We introduce the security model and present the formal security proof, as well as security analysis against common attacks. We then evaluate its performance, in terms of communication and computation costs.

150 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Simulation experiments and tests of the practical applications of MANET show that the proposed approach can effectively avoid the attacks of malicious nodes, besides, the calculated direct trust and indirect trust about normal nodes are more conformable to the actual situation.
Abstract: It is known to all that mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is more vulnerable to all sorts of malicious attacks which affects the reliability of data transmission because the network has the characteristics of wireless, multi-hop, etc. We put forward novel approach of distributed & adaptive trust metrics for MANET in this paper. Firstly, the method calculates the communication trust by using the number of data packets between nodes, and predicts the trust based on the trend of this value, and calculates the comprehensive trust by considering the history trust with the predict value; then calculates the energy trust based on the residual energy of nodes and the direct trust based on the communication trust and energy trust. Secondly, the method calculates the recommendation trust based on the recommendation reliability and the recommendation familiarity; adopts the adaptive weighting, and calculates the integrate direct trust by considering the direct trust with recommendation trust. Thirdly, according to the integrate direct trust, considering the factor of trust propagation distance, the indirect trust between nodes is calculated. The feature of the proposed method is its ability to discover malicious nodes which can partition the network by falsely reporting other nodes as misbehaving and then proceeds to protect the network. Simulation experiments and tests of the practical applications of MANET show that the proposed approach can effectively avoid the attacks of malicious nodes, besides, the calculated direct trust and indirect trust about normal nodes are more conformable to the actual situation.

123 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic literature review has been conducted for hierarchical energy efficient routing protocols reported from 2012 to 2017 and a technical direction for researchers on how to develop routing protocols is provided.
Abstract: In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have played a major role in applications such as tracking and monitoring in remote environments. Designing energy efficient protocols for routing of data events is a major challenge due to the dynamic topology and distributed nature of WSNs. Main aim of the paper is to discuss hierarchical routing protocols in order to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime. This paper provides a discussion about hierarchical energy efficient routing protocols based on classical and swarm intelligence approach. The routing protocols belonging to both categories can be summarized according to energy efficiency, data aggregation, location awareness, QoS, scalability, load balancing, fault tolerance, query based and multipath. A systematic literature review has been conducted for hierarchical energy efficient routing protocols reported from 2012 to 2017. This survey provides a technical direction for researchers on how to develop routing protocols. Finally, research gaps in the reviewed protocols and the potential future aspects have been discussed.

120 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A processing framework is proposed that seeks to optimize the searching efficiency of typed resources in terms of IoT data, information and knowledge inside an integrated architecture, and the framework includes Data Graph, Information Graph and Knowledge Graph.
Abstract: Web services are middleware designed to support the interoperation between different software systems and devices over the Web. Today, we encounter a variety of situations in which services deployed on the Internet of things (IoT), such as wireless sensor networks, ZigBee networks, and mobile edge computing frameworks, have become a widely used infrastructure that has become more flexible, intelligent and automated. This system supports multimedia applications, E-commerce transactions, business collaborations and information processing. However, how to manage these services has been a popular topic in IoT research. Existing research covers numerous resource models, based on sensors or human interactions. For everything as a service, things are available as a service include products, processes, resource management and security provision. To cope with the challenge of how to manage these services, we present an extension of Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom architecture as a resource expression model to construct a systematic approach to modeling both entity and relationship elements. The entity elements are formalized from a fully typed, multiple-related dimensions perspective to obtain a whole frequency-value-based representation of entities in the real world. A relationship model is extended and applied to define resource models based on relationships defined from a semantics perspective that is based on our proposed existence-level reasoning. Then, a processing framework is proposed that seeks to optimize the searching efficiency of typed resources in terms of IoT data, information and knowledge inside an integrated architecture, and the framework includes Data Graph, Information Graph and Knowledge Graph. We concentrate on improving performance in accessing and processing resources and providing resource security protection by utilizing the cost difference of both type conversions of resources and traversing on resources. Finally, an application scenario is simulated to illustrate the usage of the proposed framework. This scenario shows the feasibility and effectiveness of our method, considering the conversion, traversing and storage costs. Our method can help improve the optimization of services and scheduling resources of multimedia systems.

90 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A multi-objective fractional gravitational search algorithm is proposed to find the optimal cluster head for energy efficient routing protocol in IoT network and ensures to prolong the lifetime of IoT nodes.
Abstract: Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) plays a significant role in the Internet world. The IoT is a system which integrates the computing devices, digital machines provided with unique identifiers which have the ability to transfer the data over the network via the better route. IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data, the consequent necessity for quick aggregation of the data and process such data more effectively. In this paper, a multi-objective fractional gravitational search algorithm is proposed to find the optimal cluster head for energy efficient routing protocol in IoT network. To extend the lifetime of the node, the Fractional Gravitational Search Algorithm (FGSA) is proposed to find out the optimal cluster head node iteratively in the IoT network model. The cluster head node is selected in FGSA that is evaluated by the fitness function using multiple objectives such as distance, delay, link lifetime and energy, termed as multi-objective FGSA (MOFGSA). The simulation results and performance is analyzed using MATLAB implementation. The performance is compared with existing algorithms like Artificial Bee Colony, Gravitational Search Algorithm and multi-particle swarm immune cooperative algorithm. Thus, the proposed MOFGSA algorithm ensures to prolong the lifetime of IoT nodes.

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A node recognition method for assessment probability is established to satisfy the priority adjustment for the high probability nodes of cache, and then cache space should be reconstructed to improve the transmission environment.
Abstract: In social networks, nodes should analyze communication area during data transmission and find suitable neighbors to perform effective data classification transmission. This is similar to finding certain transmission destinations during data transmission with mobile devices. However, cache space with node in social opportunistic networks is limited, and waiting for destination node could also cause end-to-end delay. To improve the transmission environment, this study established a node recognition method for assessment probability, to satisfy the priority adjustment for the high probability nodes of cache, and then cache space should be reconstructed. To avoid accidentally deleting cached data, the cache task of the node is shared through the neighbor node cooperation, and the effective data transmission is performed. Through experiments and the comparison of social network algorithms, the proposed scheme improves delivery ratio by 82% and reduces delay by 74% with the traditional algorithms on average.

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings on how the sensor nodes, newest routing protocols and data analysis techniques influence ubiquitous health monitoring influence WBANs are surveyed, which sets this survey apart from the already existing surveys onWBANs.
Abstract: According to the World Health Organization, most of the world population is affected by chronic diseases, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes while another dominant problem is of aging population. Thus, it is desirable to have cost effective solutions for health monitoring, especially for countries that have minimum conventionally trained healthcare staff and infrastructure. Healthcare has shifted from hospital dominant services to patient dominant services which has thrived WBANs to provide ubiquitous health monitoring by virtue of wearable or implantable sensor nodes that commonly monitor biological signals. As the society becomes more health conscious, WBANs have the potential to revolutionize the way people integrate their health and information technology. Hence, WBANs are desired to strengthen conventional healthcare systems. Notwithstanding the current achievements, technological advances, proposed solutions and commercialized products; WBANs still experience many obstacles in their foolproof adoption. This paper surveys the plethora of WBAN applications and network architecture in detail used for data collection, data transmission and data analysis that form sensor analyst system in the realm of Internet of Things. Wireless communicational technologies are also discussed in this paper. Also, we have categorized the routing protocols and have provided with their critical qualitative analysis. Towards the end we discuss several projects in the field of WBANs and some open research areas. These findings on how the sensor nodes, newest routing protocols and data analysis techniques influence ubiquitous health monitoring sets this survey apart from the already existing surveys on WBANs.

78 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An improved genetic algorithm (GA) based scheduling for WSNs is proposed and an efficient chromosome representation is given and it is shown to generate valid chromosome after crossover and mutation operation.
Abstract: Energy efficient scheduling of sensor nodes is one of the most efficient techniques to extend the lifetime of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Instead of activating all the deployed sensor nodes, a set of sensor nodes are activated or scheduled to monitor the targeted region. While scheduling with lesser number of sensor nodes, coverage and connectivity of the network should be taken care due to the limited sensing and communication range of the sensor nodes. In this paper, we have proposed an improved genetic algorithm (GA) based scheduling for WSNs. An efficient chromosome representation is given and it is shown to generate valid chromosome after crossover and mutation operation. The fitness function is derived with four conflicting objectives, selection of minimum number of sensor nodes, full coverage, connectivity and energy level of the selected sensor nodes. We have introduced a novel mutation operation for better performance and faster convergence of the proposed GA based approaches. We have also formulated the scheduling problem as a Linear Programming. Extensive simulation is performed on various network scenarios by varying number of deployed sensor nodes, target point and network length. We also perform a popular statistical test, analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis.

72 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposed an adaptive solution to minimize the overall energy consumption of CR-VANETs as well as maintaining the service quality of Vehicle-to-RSU uplink communications by dynamically selecting different spectrum access schemes for CR-enabled vehicles with relays.
Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is a state-of-the-art technology to solve the spectrum shortage problem for emerging wireless services, which include the CR-enabled vehicular ad hoc networks (CR-VANETs) for vehicle-to-road side unit (RSU) communications. With the increasing demands for high data rate and more reliable mobile services, orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) has been often used in such systems. Energy efficiency is an important issue in OFDMA CR-VANETs due to the concern of green communications to transmit the required data in the shortest time, without affecting primary users. In this paper, we proposed an adaptive solution to minimize the overall energy consumption of CR-VANETs as well as maintaining the service quality of Vehicle-to-RSU uplink communications. This goal has been achieved by the means of dynamically selecting different spectrum access schemes for CR-enabled vehicles with relays. Considering the inter-vehicle distances and location information, we formulated a mixed-integer nonlinear constrained optimization problem. A heuristic algorithm based on the greedy strategy and bisection method is then used to solve the formulated problem and it has been evaluated through extensive simulations for different upload data sizes and available communication durations. The acquired results substantiate the efficiency of the proposed solution in terms of energy consumption.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work simultaneously considers malicious jamming and co-channel interference among users, and formulate this anti-jamming defense problem as a Stackelberg game with one leader and multiple followers, and a hierarchical learning algorithm (HLA) is proposed.
Abstract: This paper investigates the channel selection problem for anti-jamming defense in an adversarial environment. In our work, we simultaneously consider malicious jamming and co-channel interference among users, and formulate this anti-jamming defense problem as a Stackelberg game with one leader and multiple followers. Specifically, the users and jammer independently and selfishly select their respective optimal strategies and obtain the optimal channels based on their own utilities. To derive the Stackelberg Equilibrium, a hierarchical learning framework is formulated, and a hierarchical learning algorithm (HLA) is proposed. In addition, the convergence performance of the proposed HLA algorithm is analyzed. Finally, we present simulation results to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It has been shown that the proposed protocol satisfies security requirements of RFID authentication protocol and prevents different attacks on RFID systems, and the proposed authentication protocol is an appropriate model for RFID tags with limited resources.
Abstract: Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a relatively new technology widely deployed in many applications. Due to several advantages of the technology including decreased costs and increased speed, different organizations and industries show interest in it, and its application range is gradually developing. Some of the main problems of RFID are security and privacy. The implementation of authentication protocols is a flexible and effective way to solve these problems. Several authentication protocols of RFID are based on hash functions or symmetric cryptography. According to the small size of the key, efficient computations, and high security in the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), its use has increased. Recently some certain ECC-based authentication protocols have been represented. In this paper, a RFID authentication protocol is presented using ECC for mutual authentication to overcome weaknesses of the existing authentication protocols. It has been shown that the proposed protocol satisfies security requirements of RFID authentication protocol and prevents different attacks on RFID systems. Also, the proposed authentication protocol has been analyzed in terms of computational costs, communication costs, and storage requirements. The results revealed that the proposed authentication protocol is an appropriate model for RFID tags with limited resources.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The protocol stack of 6LoWPAN networks is overviewed and a set of its protocols and standards are summarized and some potential directions for designing a novel congestion control protocol, which supports the IoT application requirements, are given in future work.
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next big challenge for the research community where the IPv6 over low power wireless personal area network (6LoWPAN) protocol stack is a key part of the IoT. Recently, the IETF ROLL and 6LoWPAN working groups have developed new IP based protocols for 6LoWPAN networks to alleviate the challenges of connecting low memory, limited processing capability, and constrained power supply sensor nodes to the Internet. In 6LoWPAN networks, heavy network traffic causes congestion which significantly degrades network performance and impacts on quality of service aspects such as throughput, latency, energy consumption, reliability, and packet delivery. In this paper, we overview the protocol stack of 6LoWPAN networks and summarize a set of its protocols and standards. Also, we review and compare a number of popular congestion control mechanisms in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and classify them into traffic control, resource control, and hybrid algorithms based on the congestion control strategy used. We present a comparative review of all existing congestion control approaches in 6LoWPAN networks. This paper highlights and discusses the differences between congestion control mechanisms for WSNs and 6LoWPAN networks as well as explaining the suitability and validity of WSN congestion control schemes for 6LoWPAN networks. Finally, this paper gives some potential directions for designing a novel congestion control protocol, which supports the IoT application requirements, in future work.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed BBO-based scheme provides an efficient encoding scheme for the habitat representation and formulates an objective function along with the BBO’s migration and mutation operators to solve the wireless sensor networks’ coverage and connectivity problem.
Abstract: In wireless sensor networks, coverage and connectivity are the fundamental problems for monitoring the targets and guaranteed information dissemination to the far away base station from each node which covers the target. This problem has been proved NP-complete problem, where a set of target points are given, the objective is to find optimal number of suitable positions to organize sensor nodes such that it must satisfy both k-coverage and m-connectivity requirements. In this paper, a biogeography-based optimization (BBO) scheme is used to solve this problem. The proposed BBO-based scheme provides an efficient encoding scheme for the habitat representation and formulates an objective function along with the BBO’s migration and mutation operators. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed scheme to find approximate optimal number of suitable positions under different combinations of k and m. In addition, a comparative study with state-of-art schemes has also been done and its analysis confirms the superiority of the proposed BBO-based scheme over state-of-art schemes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extensive survey of the current literature on 5G wireless communication focusing on UDN, mmWave and CoMP cooperation is made and the architecture and key technology enablers to achieve the goals of the 5G system are discussed.
Abstract: The next generation wireless cellular network is aimed to address the demands of users and emerging use cases set by industries and academia for beyond 2020. Hence, The next generation 5G networks need to achieve very high data rates, ultra-high reliability, extremely low latency, energy efficiency and fully connected coverage. To meet these demands, ultra-dense networks (UDN) or ultra-dense heterogeneous networks (UDHetNet), millimeter wave (mmWave) and multicell cooperation such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP) are the three leading technology enablers. In this paper, we have made an extensive survey of the current literature on 5G wireless communication focusing on UDN, mmWave and CoMP cooperation. We first discuss the architecture and key technology enablers to achieve the goals of the 5G system. Subsequently, we make an in-depth survey of underlying novel ultra-dense heterogeneous networks, mmWave and multicell cooperation. Moreover, we summarize and compare some of the current achievements and research findings for UDHetNet, mmWave and CoMP. Finally, we discuss the major research challenges and open issues in this active area of research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel routing algorithm for wireless sensor network, which achieves uniform energy depletion across all the nodes and thus leading to prolonged network lifetime and compared with various sensor network routing protocols, it is found that the proposed algorithm outperformed them in network lifetime, energy consumption and coverage ratio.
Abstract: In this article, we propose a novel routing algorithm for wireless sensor network, which achieves uniform energy depletion across all the nodes and thus leading to prolonged network lifetime. The proposed algorithm, divides the Region of Interest into virtual zones, each having some designated cluster head nodes. In the entire process, a node can either be a part of a cluster or it may remain as an independent entity. A non-cluster member transmits its data to next hop node using IRP-Intelligent Routing Process (based on the trade-off between the residual energy of itself as well as its neighbor, and the required energy to transmit packets to its neighbor). If on the transmission path, some cluster member is elected as a next hop, it rejects IRP and transmits the packets to cluster head, which later forwards them to sink (adopting multihop communication among cluster heads). Routing is not solely performed using clusters, rather they aid the overall routing process, hence this protocol is named as Cluster Aided Multipath Routing (CAMP). CAMP has been compared with various sensor network routing protocols, viz., LEACH, PEGASIS, DIRECT TRANSMISSION, CEED, and CBMR. It is found that the proposed algorithm outperformed them in network lifetime, energy consumption and coverage ratio.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed optimal threshold selection approach has improved throughput approximately 24.63% when compared with CDR at chosen SNR and provided better sensing performance in comparison to that of the traditional constant false-alarm rate and constant detection rate (CDR) threshold selection approaches.
Abstract: The spectrum sensing is a key process of the cognitive radio technology in which the cognitive users identify the unutilized/underutilized primary users (PUs)/licensed users spectrum for its efficient utilization. The sensing performance of cognitive radio (CR) is generally measured in terms of false-alarm probability ( $$ P_{f} $$ ) and detection probability ( $$ P_{d} $$ ). IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network is one of the typical cognitive radio standards to access unused licensed frequencies of TV band and according to this standard, the false-alarm probability of CR should be ≤ 0.1 and the detection probability must be ≥ 0.9. Further, the detection and false-alarm probabilities are greatly affected by the selected threshold value in the spectrum sensing approach and selection of threshold is a crucial step to yield the status (presence/absence) of PU. In most of the available literatures, the threshold is decided by fixing one parameter ( $$ P_{f} $$ or $$ P_{d} $$ ) and optimizing the other parameter ( $$ P_{d} $$ or $$ P_{f} $$ ). Moreover, at low SNR, while achieving one of the targeted sensing parameter, there is significant degradation in the other sensing parameter. Therefore, in this paper, we are motivated to decide the optimal threshold at low SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) in such a way where we can jointly achieve both sensing matrices ( $$ P_{f} $$ ≤ 0.1 and $$ P_{d} \ge 0.9 $$ ) and provided better sensing performance in comparison to that of the traditional constant false-alarm rate and constant detection rate (CDR) threshold selection approaches. Further, we have illustrated that at low SNR, the proposed optimal threshold selection approach has provided better throughput as compare to that of the threshold selected by traditional CDR approach. The proposed approach has improved throughput approximately 24.63% when compared with CDR at chosen SNR.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An Energy Efficient Secured Ring Routing protocol which is an enhancement of existing ring routing protocol which considers rechargeable sensors to be deployed in the sensing region and employs Maximum Capacity Path, a dynamic load balanced routing scheme for load balancing and prolonging the networks lifetime is proposed.
Abstract: The advances in hardware manufacturing technologies and wireless communications enabled the evolution of tiny, multi-functional, low-power and resource constrained sensor nodes (SNs) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). SNs located in sinks vicinity, deplete their batteries quickly because of concentrated data traffic near the sink, leaving the data reporting wrecked and disrupted. In order to mitigate this problem, mobile sinks are introduced that provide uniform energy consumption and load balanced data delivery through the sensor network. However, advertising the mobile sinks position information brings forth additional overhead in terms of energy wastage. Recently, an energy-efficient distributed mobile sink routing protocol named ring routing has been proposed aiming to mitigate the introduced overhead. In this present work, we propose an Energy Efficient Secured Ring Routing ($$E^{2} SR^{2}$$E2SR2) protocol which is an enhancement of existing ring routing protocol [62] that considers rechargeable sensors to be deployed in the sensing region and employs Maximum Capacity Path (MCP), a dynamic load balanced routing scheme for load balancing and prolonging the networks lifetime. Furthermore, we use 2ACK scheme that serves as an efficient mechanism for detecting the routing misbehaviour and simultaneously enhance the security. Finally, the proposed protocol was simulated by varying the sink speed for similar node deployments and the results obtained confirm that the proposed $$E^{2} SR^{2}$$E2SR2 achieves improved performance than the existing protocols such as LBDD (Line Based Data Dissemination), rail road and ring routing.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show the efficiency of the proposed model to select the trustworthy vehicles and to monitor their behaviors, as well as to classify them and to deactivate the malicious ones.
Abstract: VANET aims to improve safety for all road users. Vehicles exchange safety messages over wireless communication links which are prone to multiple attacks. To enhance the existing security of V2V communications, we propose in this paper a security framework based on vehicles behavior analysis. We define a Hybrid Trust Model (HTM) and a misbehavior detection system (MDS) where a trust metric is assigned to every vehicle depending on its behavior. Using this trust metric, a classification of the vehicles into malicious or honest is done. HTM is based on-the-fly group formation which helps to manage the communication between vehicles and the back-end system by selecting the most trustworthy node as group leader (GL). Vehicles and GL will cooperate with each other within the group and with the back-end system to detect the malicious node and to notify the Misbehavior Authority. The latter takes appropriate actions to limit the consequences of the malicious behaving node. Performance evaluation of HTM and MDS is carried out using Groovenet Simulator. Results show the efficiency of the proposed model to select the trustworthy vehicles and to monitor their behaviors, as well as to classify them and to deactivate the malicious ones.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents an anonymous three-factor key agreement using Elliptic Curve Cryptography, using the Burrows–Abadi–Needham logic to ensure the mutual authentication properties and shows that the proposed scheme withstands various attacks.
Abstract: Secure information exchange in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a continuing issue since the resource-constrained sensors generally deployed over an unattended environment. To access the real-time data from the sensors, user authentication and key agreement as an important tool for secure communications in WSN plays a vital role. Recently, Das proposed an efficient biometrics based security scheme by only using lightweight symmetric-key primitives. Their scheme is efficient in computation, but we find the scheme of Das is not actually achieve the three-factor security, thus failing to prevent the user impersonation attack. Additionally, the failure of user anonymity also gives an opportunity for the adversary to mount impersonation attacks. With the purpose of mitigating all the problems in Das’s scheme, we present an anonymous three-factor key agreement using Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Using the Burrows–Abadi–Needham logic to ensure the mutual authentication properties. Through the rigorous security analysis, we show that the proposed scheme withstands various attacks. In addition, Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVIPSA) tool is used to verify its security.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A hybrid unequal energy efficient clustering is proposed to improve previous methods and increase lifetime of the network, and a new mechanism called clustering strategy is used and two new techniques for routing are proposed.
Abstract: An important challenge in wireless sensor networks is energy conservation. Recently, several hybrid, dynamic and static clustering protocols have been proposed to solve this challenge. In this paper, a hybrid unequal energy efficient clustering is proposed to improve previous methods and increase lifetime of the network. In the proposed protocol, a new mechanism called clustering strategy is used. This mechanism, based on arrangement of nodes in a network, determines whether nodes should use information of their neighbors or should not use this information. This strategy helps to reduce overhead considerably. On the other hand, clustering is unequal so that nodes closer to base station (BS) have more energy to receive and relay data towards BS. In order to reduce overhead, clustering is designed as hybrid static–dynamic so that transmitting control message for clustering is not required at each round. Two new techniques are proposed for routing. First, assistance to cluster heads mechanism which allows cluster heads to get help from some of its member nodes which have suitable energy and distance to help sharing cluster’s load. In other words, a new intra-cluster multi-hop routing is proposed. Second new technique is discretion license which is performed in real time and allows the nodes to prevent transmissions of packets that may arrive at a destination in an incomplete form. In addition, inter-cluster routing use a new technique based on layering is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method has reduced network overhead, increased network stability, energy balance and lifetime of the network.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a detailed review of previous studies on using data mining techniques in indoor navigation systems for the loT scenarios with a focus on indoor environments and investigates how data mining solutions can provide solutions on those challenges.
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) is turning into an essential part of daily life, and numerous IoT-based scenarios will be seen in future of modern cities ranging from small indoor situations to huge outdoor environments. In this era, navigation continues to be a crucial element in both outdoor and indoor environments, and many solutions have been provided in both cases. On the other side, recent smart objects have produced a substantial amount of various data which demands sophisticated data mining solutions to cope with them. This paper presents a detailed review of previous studies on using data mining techniques in indoor navigation systems for the loT scenarios. We aim to understand what type of navigation problems exist in different IoT scenarios with a focus on indoor environments and later on we investigate how data mining solutions can provide solutions on those challenges.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Classification of denial of service attack is made and the key differences among black hole, sequence number based gray-hole and smartgray-hole attack are highlighted and it is found that the impact of the smart gray- hole attack is low as compared with the sequence numberbased gray-holes attack.
Abstract: The recent development in wireless communication technology and portable devices has led to the development of Mobile Ad-Hoc Network which has unique features such as dynamic topology, open wireless medium, decentralized system etc but these network are susceptible to various denial of service attacks such as black hole, gray-hole, worm hole etc. In order to mitigate black-hole attack, various protocols have been proposed but these protocols have been not analyzed under gray-hole attack. In this paper, we have made classification of denial of service attack and highlighted the key differences among black hole, sequence number based gray-hole and smart gray-hole attack. We simulated two types of attacks namely Attack1 and Attack2 by modifying AODV protocol. The Attack1 (GAODV) is sequence number based gray-hole attack protocol whereas Attack2 (SGAODV) is smart gray-hole attack protocol. In order to observe the impact of gray-hole attacks on AODV, IDS-AODV and MBDP-AODV, NS-2.35 simulator is used. The simulation results show that MBDP-AODV performs well as compared with IDS-AODV and AODV under sequence number based gray-hole attack. Through simulation, it has also been found that the impact of the smart gray-hole attack is low as compared with the sequence number based gray-hole attack.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An explore-based active detection scheme, called EBAD, to efficiently mitigate the routing misbehaviors in MANETs running with dynamic source routing and results show that the proposed countermeasure can not only improve the detection rate and packet delivery ratio but also can reduce the energy consumption and detection latency.
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to security attacks because of the shared radio medium and lack of centralized coordination. Since most multi-hop routing protocols implicitly assume cooperative routing and are not originally designed for security attacks, MANET has been challenged by diverse denial-of-service attacks that often interfere with the protocol and interrupt on-going communication. In this paper, we propose an explore-based active detection scheme, called EBAD, to efficiently mitigate the routing misbehaviors in MANETs running with dynamic source routing. The basic idea is that a source node broadcasts a route request packet with a fictitious destination node to lure potential malicious nodes to reply a fake route reply packet. If the source node receives the fake route reply packet or an intermediate node cannot decrypt the received route reply packet, the routing misbehavior can be detected. We also propose a route expiry timer based approach to reduce the effect of route cache pollution because of the fake route reply. We present a simple analytical model of the EBAD and its numerical result in terms of detection rate. We also conduct extensive simulation experiments using the OMNeT++ for performance evaluation and comparison with the existing schemes, CBDS and 2ACK. The simulation results show that the proposed countermeasure can not only improve the detection rate and packet delivery ratio but also can reduce the energy consumption and detection latency.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An authentication key agreement scheme is proposed to build a secure channel between WSNs and a cloud server in the IoTs and it is proven to be secure under computation Diffe–Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.
Abstract: WSNs are one of the important components in the Internet of Things (IoTs), since they enable gathering and transmitting of data to the cloud server via the Internet medium. Designing an efficient secure cryptography scheme for the IoTs is a challenging task, since sensor node is a resource-constrained device. In this paper, an authentication key agreement scheme is proposed to build a secure channel between WSNs and a cloud server in the IoTs. The proposed scheme has two properties: (1) it has a lightweight computation, and (2) it provides various security properties of key agreement. In addition, it is proven to be secure under computation Diffe–Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. AKAIoTs is implemented using Contiki OS and use Z1 emulator to evaluate time overhead and memory usage. Three different curves; “BN-P158”, “SECG-P160” and “NIST-P192” are used. The implementation results verify that, the proposed scheme is computationally efficient and memory usage between 51 and 52% from total memory of ROM, and between 59 and 62% from total memory of RAM for three different security levels. As a result, curve SECG-P160 might be a good choice to supply security for the IoTs devices, since it consumes reasonable time which result in less power consumption than curve NIST-P192 and more secure than curve BN-P158. Compared with existing relevant schemes, the proposed AKAIoTs is efficient in terms of energy consumption. Moreover, two application scenarios are given to show how the proposed scheme can be applied in the IoTs applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm based on Q-learning to pro-actively avoid jammed channels is proposed and achieves a higher packet success rate compared to the classical fixed channel selection and best channel selection without learning.
Abstract: This paper deals with the jamming attack which may hinder the cognitive radio from efficiently exploiting the spectrum. We model the problem of channel selection as a Markov decision process. We propose a real-time reinforcement learning algorithm based on Q-learning to pro-actively avoid jammed channels. The proposed algorithm is based on wideband spectrum sensing and a greedy policy to learn an efficient real-time strategy. The learning approach is enhanced through cooperation with the receiving CR node based on its sensing results. The algorithm is evaluated through simulations and real measurements with software defined radio equipment. Both simulations and radio measurements reveal that the presented solution achieves a higher packet success rate compared to the classical fixed channel selection and best channel selection without learning. Results are given for various scenarios and diverse jamming strategies.

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TL;DR: A Two Level Data Aggregation (TLDA) Protocol for Prolonging the Lifetime of Periodic Sensor Networks is proposed and extensive simulation results are conducted using OMNeT++ network simulator and based on real data of sensor network to show the efficiency of the TLDA protocol compared with two existing methods.
Abstract: One big contributor in the future of the Internet of Things is the Periodic Sensor Networks (PSNs) because it has been used by many applications in real life. The main challenge in this type of networks is to gather the huge amount of data periodically in an energy saving way and then transmit them to the base station in order to extend the lifetime of PSN. Since the limited nature of the sensors batteries power, therefore, an energy-efficient data aggregation method is needed to optimize both energy and lifetime in PSNs. This article proposes a Two Level Data Aggregation (TLDA) Protocol for Prolonging the Lifetime of Periodic Sensor Networks. TLDA works in a periodic way. Each period consists of two data aggregation levels. The first level of data aggregation is applied at the sensor node. This level includes data collection, the sliding window to generate a varying number of segments with different lengths, and data aggregation using Adaptive Piecewise Constant Approximation technique to reduce the amount of data collected by each sensor. The second level is applied at the aggregator. It includes grouping received data sets based on the chaining hash table with SAX quantization method, finding and lowering the duplicate sets, finding and merging the duplicate readings, and transmit the aggregated data to the sink. Extensive simulation results are conducted using OMNeT++ network simulator and based on real data of sensor network to show the efficiency of the TLDA protocol compared with two existing methods.

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TL;DR: Simulation results show that the proposed protocol is more energy-efficient and provides better packet delivery ratio as compared to the existing protocols for data collection obtained through Matlab simulations.
Abstract: In a wireless sensor network (WSN), sensor nodes collect data from the environment and transfer this data to an end user through multi-hop communication. This results in high energy dissipation of the devices. Thus, balancing of energy consumption is a major concern in such kind of network. Appropriate cluster head (CH) selection may provide to be an efficient way to reduce the energy dissipation and prolonging the network lifetime in WSN. This paper has adopted the concept of fuzzy if-then rules to choose the cluster head based on certain fuzzy descriptors. To optimise the fuzzy membership functions, particle swarm optimisation has been used to improve their ranges. Moreover, recent study has confirmed that the introduction of a mobile collector in a network which collects data through short-range communications also aids in high energy conservation. In this work, the network is divided into clusters and a mobile collector starts from the static sink or base station and moves through each of these clusters and collect data from the chosen cluster heads in a single-hop fashion. Mobility based on ant-colony optimisation has already proven to be an efficient method which is utilised in this work. Additionally, instead of performing clustering in every round, CH is selected on demand. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been compared with some existing clustering algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol is more energy-efficient and provides better packet delivery ratio as compared to the existing protocols for data collection obtained through Matlab simulations.

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TL;DR: C-RAN as a network and SWIPT as a promising technique with the suggesting green wireless network are discussed besides the importance of energy efficiency for the next generation.
Abstract: C-RAN is a promising new design for the next generation, an important aspect of it in the energy efficiency consideration. Hence, it is considering an innovative candidate to use it as an alternative cellular network instead of the traditional. Investigation green transmission of mobile cloud radio access networks based on SWIPT for 5G cellular networks. Especially, with considering SWIPT as a future solution for increasing the lifetime of end-user battery’s, that’s mean this technique will improving energy efficiency (EE). Addressing SWIPT into C-RAN is a challenging and it is needed to developing a new algorithm to use it on the cellular network with many trying to ensure the success of the system performance. C-RAN as a network and SWIPT as a promising technique with the suggesting green wireless network are discussed besides the importance of energy efficiency for the next generation. Furthermore, there was a study on fifth enabling technologies that can be used for 5G with emphasis on two of them (C-RAN and energy efficiency). Lastly, research challenges and future direction that require substantial research efforts are summarized.