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Showing papers in "World leisure journal in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Stebbins discusses the decisions which people make on the question: "What to do with my life?", which is the question of what to do in life.
Abstract: One of the latest book of Robert A. Stebbins on leisure has as its subject fulfillment career. It brings up the decisions which people make on the question: “What to do with my life?”. Fulfillment ...

77 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the relationship between serious leisure types and a flow experience (frequency and quality) among older adults, and found that people who engage in serious leisure activities that emphasize the cognitive stimulation were significantly more l...
Abstract: As people are living longer, there is an emphasis on adding life to years instead of years to life. Flow is regarded as an optimal experience, which contributes to the quality of life. Such flow experiences are likely to occur in serious leisure settings. Thus, this study explored the relationship between serious leisure types and a flow experience (frequency and quality) among older adults. Respondents were recruited from six different community programmes and a total of 113 surveys were used in the study. Serious leisure activities were classified into five types (i.e. “physically & socially centred stimulating” activity, “cognitively centred stimulating” activity, “diversely low stimulating” activity, “diversely high stimulating” activity, and “cognitively & socially centred stimulating” activity) based on the physical, cognitive, and social stimulation. The findings indicated that people who engage in serious leisure activities that emphasize the cognitive stimulation were significantly more l...

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identified meanings and values of gardening as a core leisure activity in the lives of older individuals living in a community setting and found that participants considered gardening to be a central life interest that provided them with a social and active lifestyle.
Abstract: Exploring the indicators of an individual’s happiness and well-being over their lifetime has become a major research focus. The aim of this study was to identify meanings and values of gardening as a core leisure activity in the lives of older individuals living in a community setting. A key focus of such effort being to discern whether or not leisure gardening contributes to the participants’ overall level of happiness and subjective well-being. Participants were purposely selected from previous research conducted by the authors and who were identified as serious leisure gardeners. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 Australians aged 57–84 years. Results identified that participants considered the activity as integral to who they were as a person. Moreover, the study found that the respondents considered gardening to be a central life interest that provided them with a social and active lifestyle. Critically, the activity also offered them a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction through which they derived a deep sense of enjoyment and happiness not experienced by them in other activities. Findings provide strong support for the activity of gardening to be considered more seriously by policy-makers and program developers as a core leisure pursuit that aids older adults to lead a more joyous and fulfilling life in their golden years.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the phenomenon of roller derby on a larger scale to better understand the identity characteristics of female participants in the USA and investigate the perceptions of serious leisure experience on leisure identity development.
Abstract: Roller derby is an international phenomenon, a form of serious leisure and an activity helping female participants define who they are. Thus, the purpose of this research study was: (a) to examine the phenomenon of roller derby on a larger scale to better understand the identity characteristics of roller derby participants in the USA and (b) to investigate the perceptions of serious leisure experience on leisure identity development. Through online distribution, a total of 582 Women's Flat Track Derby Association members across the USA completed the survey. The results of independent t-tests and ANOVA indicated that the level of seriousness and leisure identity did not vary with female participants’ age, race and education level. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that female participants’ level of systematic pursuit of roller derby could be predicted by their leisure identity. This is specifically true when considering self-identity and positive affectivity related to their experience in ...

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a valid and reliable serious and casual leisure measure (SCLM) using data from both casual and serious leisure participants using focus groups, an expert panel, a pilot study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to test if there are different qualities of serious leisure in a Turkish sample and to develop a valid and reliable serious and casual leisure measure (SCLM) using data from both casual and serious leisure participants. With the use of focus groups, an expert panel, a pilot study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, a 9-factor model with 42 items demonstrated acceptable fit and reliability values. Besides six dimensions of serious leisure set out by Stebbins [(1982). Serious leisure: A conceptual statement. The Pacific Sociological Review, 25(2), 251–272], two new qualities – personality congruence and sense of competence – not previously discussed in the serious leisure literature emerged in this study. In addition, durable benefits, one of the qualities of serious leisure, was divided into two interpretable factors and they were labelled as therapeutic benefits and psycho-social benefits.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the context of family leisure, this paper found that individuals are more likely to achieve happiness when recreating with their families in predictable activities and in familiar environments, and the best predictors of happiness were quality family leisure time spent in familiar activities inside the home.
Abstract: In the context of family leisure, individuals are more likely to achieve happiness when recreating with their families in predictable activities and in familiar environments. This hypothesis was tested by comparing three models predicting individual happiness. The three models were grounded in distinct frameworks of family leisure incongruity: (a) the null model – all family leisure is equal; (b) activity incongruity model – familiar versus unfamiliar family activities; and (c) location incongruity model – indoor-home, outdoor-home, community, and beyond the community. Analyses used a sample of 1502 individuals in 751 families from the U.K. Models were assessed using multi-level modelling. Overall, results indicated that in the pursuit of happiness all family leisure is not equal. The best predictors of happiness in the context of family leisure were quality family leisure time spent in familiar activities inside the home. Implications for today’s families and future research are discussed.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ewa Jarosz1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the relationship between social class characteristics and four dimensions of leisure: duration, fragmentation, diversity of activities, and complexity of time-use sequences, and found that respondent's occupation and education have a significant effect on all of these parameters.
Abstract: Social differentiation in leisure time-use patterns has been found in many developed countries with long-standing capitalist traditions. Thus far, however, little is known about the countries with relatively younger capitalist economies, such as post-socialist nations in Central and Eastern Europe, where, until recently, social inequality has not been significant in magnitude. This study employs time-use data for Poland to examine the relationship between social class characteristics and four dimensions of leisure: duration; fragmentation; diversity of activities; and complexity of time-use sequences. The results demonstrate that respondent's occupation and education have a significant effect on all of these parameters. Much of the effect of occupational characteristics, however, is explained by differences in leisure duration, which seems to be the main cause of differences in leisure dynamics across occupational categories. Nevertheless, the variety of leisure activities, associated primarily with the l...

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors created a measuring instrument to capture happiness in the context of events and test it in the case of two non-mega-sport events and found that the mere hosting of these events had the potential to impact their happiness and well-being.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to create a measuring instrument to capture happiness in the context of events and test it in the context of two non-mega-sport events. Three groups of residents were distinguished (event 1: Ontario Summer Games (OSG); event 2: Ontario 55 + Summer Games (55 + SG); and a control group, unaware of events: CONTR). Residents who did not attend the events were surveyed in public places in order to find out whether the mere hosting of these events had the potential to impact their happiness and well-being. The theoretical construct of subjective well-being was used to develop a survey to measure happiness and well-being holistically. Four components were developed: overall level of happiness (one item), satisfaction with important domains (three items), and specific emotions recently experienced (i.e. affect dimensions, eight items). Exploratory factor analyses confirmed one construct for satisfaction; and two constructs for the affect dimensions: positive affect (three ite...

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the serious leisure perspective (SLP) related to Brazilian leisure can be found in this paper, where the authors compare the methodological bases of the two approaches and contrast their methodological bases.
Abstract: Joffre Dumazedier's work has, since the mid-1970s, captured the attention of many of Brazil's students and researchers. His work is examined with reference to the scope of the serious leisure perspective (SLP). Thus, after considering Dumazedier's ideas as they bear on the SLP, the Perspective itself is first presented and then examined for its usefulness in understanding Brazilian leisure. The methodological bases of the two approaches are contrasted. Dumazedier underscored the importance of the leisure activity and its central role in generating satisfaction or fulfilment. A review of the SLP-related Brazilian literature follows. Dumazedier failed to build a research programme on the activity-satisfaction link. By contrast, the SLP given its definition of leisure and its basic conceptual structure of the leisure activity and its accompanying leisure experience (found in the core activity), has been expanded at the very base line of leisure: what people actually do in their free time. The princip...

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study aimed to discover and compare the students' perceived constraints toward participation in physical activity and sport at Iranian and Hungarian universities, finding that female students perceived all kinds of constraints more than males at the Iranian universities, while Hungarian students did not show any differences based on gender.
Abstract: This study aimed to discover and compare the students’ perceived constraints toward participation in physical activity and sport at Iranian and Hungarian universities. The hierarchical model of leisure constraints was used as a theoretical framework of this research. Persian and Hungarian language questionnaires yielded useable data from 1315 Iranian and 793 Hungarian participants. Descriptive and inferential analyses (t-test, MANOVA) were used for analyzing data. The results indicated that Iranian and Hungarian students experienced intrapersonal and structural constraints differently; however, they similarly perceived interpersonal constraints. Furthermore, female students perceived all kinds of constraints more than males at the Iranian universities, while Hungarian students did not show any differences based on gender. From the results it can be concluded that the differences between Iranian and Hungarian students might be related to various culture, values, norms and traditions dominant in eac...

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the issue of board composition within non-profit sport organizations operating in a federated governance structure and use the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) as a case study to illustrate the challenges and complexities of comprising a board that has the requisite skill set to carry out its function in a rapidly changing operating environment.
Abstract: This paper examines the issue of board composition within non-profit sport organizations operating in a federated governance structure. The Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) is used as a case study to illustrate the challenges and complexities of comprising a board that has the requisite skill set to carry out its function in a rapidly changing operating environment. Interviews (n = 10) supported by document analysis were conducted with senior ranking officials within the Association in order to analyse the integral factors related to board composition within the GAA. Findings show that the Association heavily relies on the delegate system of board composition, potentially limiting its ability to appoint a board that has a commercially orientated focus reflecting the professionalization and commercialization of the contemporary sport industry. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors tested the influence of activity novelty and the mediating influence of emotion balance on life satisfaction for a group of adolescent females on a winter holiday, and found that activity novelty may have a positive or negative influence on emotion balance.
Abstract: Leisure research on adolescent females’ holiday experiences, and how these experiences may contribute to their happiness is scarce. Recent work in the area of positive psychology has suggested that novelty within an experience may enhance positive emotions and life satisfaction which together comprise subjective well-being (SWB), a common conceptualization of happiness. The purpose of this paper was to test the direct influence of activity novelty and the mediating influence of emotion balance (the balance between positive and negative emotions) on life satisfaction for a group of adolescent females on a winter holiday. As part of a larger study, participants (n = 74) were German girls aged 12–17 years who completed a diary-based questionnaire for 21 consecutive days (before, during, and after their holiday). A conditional process analysis indicated that activity novelty may have a positive or negative influence on emotion balance depending on pre-vacation activity novelty patterns. Furthermore, w...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a balanced and systematic leisure education service model using Eastern and Western perspectives is presented to stimulate self-awareness, promote acquisition of leisure-related knowledge, and encourage skill development that enhances self-determination by meeting needs for autonomy, competence, and social connections.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present a balanced and systematic leisure education service model using Eastern and Western perspectives. The term leisure education describes a multi-faceted, dynamic process that promotes exploration of perspectives and opportunities intended to develop an ethic of positivity and savouring that is conducive to flow, arousal, and leisure. Leisure education is designed to stimulate self-awareness, promote acquisition of leisure-related knowledge, and encourage skill development that enhances self-determination by meeting needs for autonomy, competence, and social connections, which are influenced by a variety of factors and people including family members, educators, leisure service providers, and neighbours. These leisure education services are applied across diverse audiences in various venues across the world designed to facilitate the interrelated positive experiences of leisure, happiness, and flourishing.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study about the determinants of adopting healthy lifestyle habits using a mixed method and two data collection methods was conducted using observation sessions during physical education classes and semi-structured interviews with school administrators, students with disabilities, parents and physical educators.
Abstract: This article draws a portrait of peer interactions during physical activities between students with and without disabilities. A research group part of a project funded by Quebec en Forme under the AlterGo Defi Sportif has carried out a study about the determinants of adopting healthy lifestyle habits using a mixed method and two data collection methods. This research was conducted using observation sessions during physical education classes and semi-structured interviews with school administrators, students with disabilities, parents and physical educators. Results highlight an increased need for raising awareness in schools, a certain distance kept by students without disabilities towards students with disabilities and the impacts of small groups on the active participation of the latter.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a colleague who designs theme parks suggested that the success of theme park design may be reflected in the "smiles" at the exit gate, and the meaning of "happiness" was discussed.
Abstract: This Special Issue of theWorld Leisure Journal had its genesis in conversations with a colleague who designs theme parks. We were reflecting on what it is that draws people to attend parks, attractions, events, theatre and the host of other places and activities that consume discretionary time and money. What do they hope to experience and how could we know if they have been successful in their quest? It was suggested, albeit simplistically, that the success of theme park design may be reflected in the “smiles” at the exit gate. Well-designed theme parks, or other places and activities that offer a bundle of social, sensual, intellectual and psychological experiences, make participants happy. So, what is the meaning of “happiness”? The Thesaurus throws up many words, some describing immediate and short-term feelings and expressions, some describing greater depths of emotion and some describing longer-term enduring feelings. The list includes words such as the following:

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviours, is suggested.
Abstract: This study identified adolescents' patterns of active leisure participation over two years and five waves of data and how those patterns were related to substance use and sexual activity. Participants included 3581 primarily Colored (mixed race) South African adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to determine patterns of active leisure patterns and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the patterns and substance use and sexual activity. Four patterns were identified: Non-Participants; Early Participants; Late Participants; and Consistent Participants. Most males were Consistent Participants, whereas most females were Non-participants. Female Consistent Participants had the lowest odds of tobacco use, marijuana use, and sexual activity by the tenth grade relative to the other patterns, whereas Early Participants had the highest odds. In contrast, male Consistent Participants were at moderate risk of engaging in health risk behaviors relative to the other patterns. These findings suggest the need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviors.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of pulp and paper mill closure on rural community recreation services and amenities was examined using semi-structured interviews with 10 community stakeholders from Preston Village, a rural community in Central Canada.
Abstract: Rural restructuring is transforming the social and economic landscape of rural communities, including the availability of community-wide recreation services and amenities. Through the use of semi-structured interviews with 10 community stakeholders from Preston Village, a rural community in Central Canada, this article uses social ecological theory to examine the impact of a pulp and paper mill closure on rural community recreation services and amenities. The findings show that the pulp and paper mill closure negatively influenced community organizations’ recreation participation rates, priorities, and increased their workload. This article demonstrates how rural economic restructuring, in the context of a pulp and paper mill closure, can influence community recreation services and amenities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the tourist experience in the "everyday" landscape of Cuban homes and found that while tourists cross into the spaces of everyday life, stays in casas particulares are generally short and in a span of few days it is difficult for the tourist to understand the nuances of daily life.
Abstract: Through the operation of casas particulares (bed-and-breakfasts) tourists in Cuba are provided with the opportunity to stay in local homes. Casas particulares are government regulated small-scale accommodation alternatives that can be found throughout the island. They starkly contrast with more familiar large-scale and standardized accommodations in Cuba such as resorts and hotels. By electing to stay in casas particulares, visitors to Cuba are exposed to the seemingly more everyday spaces of Cuban daily life. Based on ethnographic research conducted in the city of Trinidad, this article examines the tourist experience in the “everyday” landscape of Cuban homes. The research reveals that while tourists cross into the spaces of everyday life, stays in casas particulares are generally short and in a span of few days it is difficult for the tourist to understand the nuances of daily life.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a summary of a range of considerations about leisure management and community leisure programs and services is provided, including health, socialization, economic impact, community development and national identity.
Abstract: This article sets the scene for the range of issues that could be addressed in the World Leisure Journal special edition on leisure management. The management and delivery of leisure programmes and services is the foundation of community leisure. Leisure management textbooks provide guidelines and direction for leisure programme delivery but there is limited research about how leisure programmes and services are delivered and evaluated. This paper provides a summary of a range of considerations about leisure management and community leisure programmes and services. After decades of leisure services delivery, there is still a need for public leisure managers to provide a rationale for why they deliver services. Five legitimations based on health, socialization, economic impact, community development and national identity provide a further consideration for what needs to be better understood about leisure management.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore how members transit from participants to leaders within Swedish scouting, and they make a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the continued involvement of women in Swedish Scouting.
Abstract: The aim of the present article is to explore how members transit from participants to leaders within Swedish scouting. It is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the continued involvement ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The second survey was undertaken in 2014 as a part-replication of the 1938 survey, using the method adopted by Mass Observation of linking a series of everyday situations and experiences to happiness as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical comparison of two surveys of subjective perceptions of leisure and happiness. The first was undertaken in 1938 by Mass Observation for its ethnographic study of everyday working-class life in Bolton, or “Worktown”. Leisure was found to be important to happiness insofar as it formed part of an everyday communal life, working through friendship, the appreciation of music and enjoyment of nature, reading and involvement in informal active citizenship. The second survey was undertaken in 2014 as a part-replication of the 1938 survey, using the method adopted by Mass Observation of linking a series of everyday situations and experiences to happiness. A total of 489 self-selecting respondents completed a questionnaire modelled on that used in 1938. The 2014 survey revealed a number of important continuities and differences from the survey of 1938 and the importance of leisure as an agent of happiness rose from eighth place in 1938 to third place in 2014.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored how romantic couples' involvement in a music scene affected both individual and mutual enjoyment during participation, which stimulated the desire for future shared leisure experiences, and found that participation and interaction with their significant other in the activity that had high value for both led to shared happiness and increased their collective well-being.
Abstract: This paper explored how romantic couples’ involvement in a music scene affected both individual and mutual enjoyment during participation which stimulated the desire for future shared leisure experiences. As all aspects of involvement were seen as largely positive, shared music scene participation served as a vehicle to grow together and strengthen relationships. Through joint participation couples were able to affect their collective well-being in three ways: (1) participation on an individual level led to accrued happiness through lengthy and frequent involvement in an activity that was significantly meaningful and a high priority in each participant’s life; (2) participation and interaction with their significant other in the activity that had high value for both led to shared happiness and (3) the shared participation led to greater well-being for the union of the partnership through the existence of mutual friendships, meaningful music and positive experiences of release, recharging and catha...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that existential disturbances may be necessary as a beginning for leisure, which can then lead to happiness under certain conditions, and contrast their work to relatively recent contributions, particularly those of Neulinger (1974, 1981, 1990), which they interpret as appealing to an idea of leisure, instrumentalized in pragmatic projects useful to legitimize its academic study.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to contend with, not answer, a question related to happiness. Specifically, we are interested in whether leisure and happiness are possible when feelings stand in stark contrast to those conventionally associated with these terms. Is leisure or happiness possible when one is existentially shaken or disturbed? We contend that it is; that existential disturbances may be necessary as a beginning for leisure, which can then lead to happiness under certain conditions. We begin by situating this claim in an exploration of the early scholarship of Pieper (1998a) and de Grazia (1964), foregrounding their work as appealing to a Classical leisure ideal. We then contrast their work to relatively more recent contributions, particularly those of Neulinger (1974; 1981; 1990), which we interpret as appealing to an idea of leisure, instrumentalized in pragmatic projects useful to legitimize its academic study. Thus, we critically reflect upon what was lost or gained, enhanced or dim...

Journal ArticleDOI