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Showing papers in "WSEAS Transactions on Computers archive in 2009"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A D GBL model for History educational games design and a development methodology which combined the ID and game development process, named DGBL-ID model is proposed.
Abstract: History subject plays a vital role in instilling the spirits of patriotism among the students; to nourish and instill love and loyalty to one's country and to be a true citizen. The lack of creativity in history teaching caused process effectively and interestingly especially among young learners. Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) approach utilizes the game as a medium for conveying learning contents. There are many models for educational games development which combined the Instructional Design (ID) and game development process. However, there is still a conflict on how to merge ID and game development effectively. Therefore, we looked into the pedagogy and game design aspects. We then propose a DGBL model for History educational games design and a development methodology which combined the ID and game development process, named DGBL-ID model. The DGBL-ID model consists of five phases: analysis, design, development, quality assurance as well as implementation and evaluation.

107 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed automatic multilevel thresholding approach on vehicle detection at night.
Abstract: This study proposes a vehicle detection system for identifying the vehicles by locating their headlights and rear-lights in the nighttime road environment. The proposed system comprises of two stages for detecting the vehicles in front of the camera-assisted car. The first stage is a fast automatic multilevel thresholding, which separates the bright objects from the grabbed nighttime road scene images. This proposed automatic multilevel thresholding approach provide the robustness and adaptability for the system to operate on various illuminated conditions at night. Then the extracted bright objects are processed by the second stage - the proposed knowledge-based connected-component analysis procedure, to identify the vehicles by locating their vehicle lights, and estimate the distance between the camera-assisted car and the detected vehicles. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach on vehicle detection at night.

44 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The experimental results show that the watermark proposed in this paper is invisible (the PSNR is higher than 41) and is robust in the case of against some normal at tacks such as JPEG compression, additive noise and filtering, etc.
Abstract: This paper proposes a new blind watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform(DWT) domain. The method uses the HVS model, and radial basis function neural networks(RBF). RBF will be implemented while embedding and extracting watermark. The human visual system (HVS) model is used to determine the watermark insertion strength. The neural networks almost exactly recover the watermarking signals from the watermarked images after training and learning. The experimental results show that the watermark proposed in this paper is invisible (the PSNR is higher than 41) and is robust in the case of against some normal at tacks such as JPEG compression, additive noise and filtering, etc.

41 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A scalable personalized mobile information pushing platform, which can provide user-friendly and flexible location-based service, and a novel 3-D Tag-Cloud module, so that it can visualize useful retrieval information even in the limited mobile screen.
Abstract: Combining the GPS location-based services and the latest Web2.0 technologies, this paper builds a scalable personalized mobile information pushing platform, which can provide user-friendly and flexible location-based service. We first propose a Location-based Data and Service Middleware based on Service-Oriented Architecture in order to implement Mobile Information Pushing System involved in a variety of formats of data integration and conversion, as well as a combination of a wide range of services. Then, we propose a novel 3-D Tag-Cloud module, so that it can visualize useful retrieval information even in the limited mobile screen. Especially, we design a multi-dimensional collaborative filtering algorithms, in order to achieve dynamic personalized recommendation and mobile information sharing. Cooperating with some restuarants, we also develop a dynamic restaurant mobile location-based recommendation and discount counpons pushing system. The successful application of the application system do show the efficiency of our ideas.

40 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Two methodologies are presented that implies both components of spatial redundancy and the use of temporal redundancy for achieving the objective of fault-tolerant and safe operation in the area of wireless sensor networks.
Abstract: In this paper we presented and classified various approaches for redundancy in the area of wireless sensor networks, related to sensing, communication and information processing. Sometimes an ally, sometimes a foe, redundancy is an inherent feature of sensor networks that has to be very carefully examined in order to improve important aspects of their functioning. Moreover, this paper presents two methodologies: one that implies both components of spatial redundancy and one that implies the use of temporal redundancy for achieving the objective of fault-tolerant and safe operation. In the end, the fields in which the redundancy could be applied with significant results are highlighted.

40 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: An SWOT analysis for implementing an ERP system in Romanian Universities is made and a comparison framework of ERP solutions for higher education management is proposed using as starting point the requirements of a Romanian University.
Abstract: A Higher Education ERP system can be used as a solution to integrate and increase the efficiency of the Romanian university processes. This paper examines the application of ERP software in Romanian Universities. We made an SWOT analysis for implementing an ERP system in Romanian Universities. Also, we proposed a comparison framework of ERP solutions for higher education management using as starting point the requirements of a Romanian University. The framework was applied to four of the top Higher Education management solutions. The process of evaluating an ERP system for use in higher education requires that a university compare the existing ERP software available to their current processes and see which ERP solution will best fit the existing procedures.

33 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Hands-free human-computer interface designed around commercially available inertial sensor pack is introduced, primarily intended to provide computer access for people with little or no upper-limb functionality, but can be used by able bodied subject in certain application scenarios.
Abstract: The paper introduces hands-free human-computer interface designed around commercially available inertial sensor pack. It is primarily intended to provide computer access for people with little or no upper-limb functionality, but can be used by able bodied subject in certain application scenarios. The performance of the proposed device was evaluated on twelve healthy subjects performing multi-directional point-and-select task with throughput as the main performance parameter. The system was tested using two different pointer control schemes, as well as three selection techniques. Test subjects were given two questionnaires (one per control scheme) in order to provide comfort assessment of the device and short post-measurement interviews with test subjects provided user feedback. Obtained performance and comfort assessment results are presented and discussed.

32 citations


Journal Article
Mohamed Ettaouil1, Youssef Ghanou1
TL;DR: A mathematical formulation is proposed in order to determine the optimal number of hidden layers and good values of weights and the effectiveness of the theorical results shown and computational experiments are presented.
Abstract: The artificial neural networks (ANN) have proven their efficiency in several applications: pattern recognition, voice and classification problems. The training stage is very important in the ANN's performance. The selection of the architecture of a neural network suitable to solve a given problem is one of the most important aspects of neural network research. The choice of the hidden layers number and the values of weights has a large impact on the convergence of the training algorithm. In this paper we propose a mathematical formulation in order to determine the optimal number of hidden layers and good values of weights. To solve this problem, we use genetic algorithms. The numerical results assess the effectiveness of the theorical results shown in this paper and computational experiments are presented, and the advantages of the new modelling.

30 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The architecture for implementing a multi-agent system within the context of a learning environment, called E-University, is presented and a group of intelligent agents for learning activities such as user interface agents, task agents, knowledge agents and mobile agents is developed.
Abstract: In previous work [27], the authors proposed an E-University but they did not take into account some essential parts. In this paper, the system presented in [27] is modified and developed. New critical important items such as security in E-Learning, learning management, business continuity management and science park are added to the proposed university. According to the great development of IT, the current Web-based learning systems need to be as effective as human tutors. Recently, intelligent agents became one of the most interesting subjects of modern information technology. Agent-based technology has been taken as an important approach for developing advanced E-Learning systems. This paper presents architecture for implementing a multi-agent system within the context of a learning environment. The roles of intelligent agents within an E-Learning system, called E-University, are presented. The agents perform specific tasks on the behalf of students, professors, administrators, and other members of the university. Also a group of intelligent agents for learning activities such as user interface agents, task agents, knowledge agents and mobile agents is developed. Using the multi-agent technology in E-Learning system, gives user interaction facility to both users and designers, and adds ability to exchange information between different objects in a flexible way.

29 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This software library, called O3L (Object-Oriented Ontology Library), provides a complete representation of ontologies compliant with OWL 2 W3C and has been experimented in the realization of some e-business applications showing both high effortlessness in the development of the applications and high performances in their execution.
Abstract: Ontologies have been gaining interest and their use has been spreading in different applications fields. However, their use in the realization of applications might be further increased by the availability of more usable and efficient software library for the management of ontologies. In this paper, an object-oriented software library for the management of OWL ontologies is presented. This software library, called O3L (Object-Oriented Ontology Library), provides a complete representation of ontologies compliant with OWL 2 W3C. O3L has not the goal to be use for the creation and manipulation of ontologies, but provides a simplified and efficient API for the realization of applications, that interoperate through the use of shared ontologies, and allows: i) the use of OWL individuals as data of the applications, ii) the exchange of OWL individuals between applications, iii) the reasoning about OWL individuals, and iv) the classification of OWL classes and properties. This software library has been experimented in the realization of some e-business applications showing both high effortlessness in the development of the applications and high performances in their execution.

22 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The paper analyses the impact of m-learning on the educational process and describes software characteristics ofm-learning applications, and takes into consideration the fields that define m- learning processes as education, technology and software development.
Abstract: The exponential growth of mobile technology in recent years, increasing availability of network infrastructures, advances in wireless technologies and popularity of handheld devices, have opened up new accessibility opportunities for education. In his research Kinshuk (2003), [2], concludes that the true potential of e-learning as "anytime and anywhere" has finally started to be realized with the advent of mobile learning, m-learning. A characteristic of today's society is the increasing use of modern information and communication technologies in all areas. Investment in mobile device is an important step to improve the quality of life in our dynamic society. The paper analyses the impact of m-learning on the educational process and describes software characteristics of m-learning applications. There are taken into consideration the fields that define m-learning processes as education, technology and software development. For the evaluation of characteristics levels are described metrics and measured values are used to determine the m-learning application overall quality level. The value is determined by aggregating each factor value and taking into consideration importance coefficient.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An adaptive and enhanced edge detection solution for the images of wastewater bacteria is proposed, which can effectively remove noises in the images and get clear edges of microscopic image by optimizing segmentation threshold and the varied order of edge detection.
Abstract: The microscopic images of wastewater bacteria are analysed, and a scheme for classification and recognition for wastewater bacteria based on microscopic images analysis are put forward in the paper. An adaptive and enhanced edge detection solution for the images of wastewater bacteria is proposed, which can effectively remove noises in the images and get clear edges of microscopic image by optimizing segmentation threshold and the varied order of edge detection. Seven contour invariant moment features and four morphological features are extracted by analysis of microscopic images of wastewater bacteria in which six features are chosen by PCA in order to reduce the dimensionality of the features extracted from the images. A self-adaptive accelerated BP algorithm is developed for training the classification of bacteria microscopic images. The proposed method is tested with CECC database and the results show that the presented image recognition solution is effective and can greatly improve the speed and consistency in performing large-scale surveys or rapid determination of bacterial abundance, morphology.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This paper proposes an information architecture to support an adjustment to the INTCare system, an intelligent decision support system for intensive medicine, and focuses on the automatization of data acquisition avoiding human intervention.
Abstract: Daily, a great amount of data that is gathered in intensive care units, which makes intensive medicine a very attractive field for applying knowledge discovery in databases Previously unknown knowledge can be extracted from that data in order to create prediction and decision models The challenge is to perform those tasks in real-time, in order to assist the doctors in the decision making process Furthermore, the models should be continuously assessed and optimized, if necessary, to maintain a certain accuracy In this paper we propose an information architecture to support an adjustment to the INTCare system, an intelligent decision support system for intensive medicine We focus on the automatization of data acquisition avoiding human intervention, describing its steps and some requirements

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the garment retrieval from the e-shopping database, which supports feature-based retrieval by shape categories and styles, and focus on image analysis.
Abstract: In recent years, the theoretical models of mass consumer behavior have change to buy from websites rather than in stores. Because the high-growing of e-commerce, a new demand emerges: the special-purpose search engine for searching goods from network shop. How to meet the customer's requirement in product search is an import problem. Although it is easy for human eyes to determine the existence of clothes styles, recognizing it automatically from a computer program is not a trivial problem. Our work focuses on the garment retrieval from the e-shopping database, which supports feature-based retrieval by shape categories and styles. Traditionally the rigid shape-based algorithms unable to apply well on garment images. Because the clothing is essentially a non-rigid soft object: it is apt to self-occlusion, folding, and has deformation among every part (such as sleeve and tube). While producing deformation, it also influenced by light which lead to various kinds of shade at clothes, and the surface might include various kinds of pattern, texture, little piece, and decorate, these will all cause the great interference on image analysis.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This paper shows the best integration of ERP with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) by using MADAR data and implemented Apriori Algorithm on it, which helps the organization for solving the problem of customers in future correspondence.
Abstract: As Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation has become more popular and suitable for every business organization, it has become a essential factor for the success of a business. This paper shows the best integration of ERP with Customer Relationship Management (CRM). Data Mining is overwhelming the integration in this model by giving support for applying best algorithm to make the successful result. This model has three major parts, outer view-CRM, inner view-ERP and knowledge discovery view. The CRM collect the customer's queries, EPR analyze and integrate the data and the knowledge discovery gave predictions and advises for the betterment of an organization. For the practical implementation of presented model, we use MADAR data and implemented Apriori Algorithm on it. Then the new rules and patterns suggested for the organization which helps the organization for solving the problem of customers in future correspondence.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A model which traces design decisions and the possible alternatives is proposed, which is possible to minimize the cost of switching between design alternatives, when the current choice cannot fulfill the quality constraints.
Abstract: There are many definitions of quality being given by experts that explains quality for manufacturing industry but still unable to define it with absolute clarity for software engineering. To enable software designers to achieve a higher quality for their design, a better insight into quality predictions for their design choices is given. In this paper we propose a model which traces design decisions and the possible alternatives. With this model it is possible to minimize the cost of switching between design alternatives, when the current choice cannot fulfill the quality constraints. With this model we do not aim to automate the software design process or the identification of design alternatives. Much rather we aim to define a method with which it is possible to assist the software engineer in evaluating design alternatives and adjusting design decisions in a systematic manner. As of today there is very little knowledge is available about the economics of software quality. The costs incurred and benefits of implementing different quality practices over the software development life cycle are not well understood. There are some prepositions, which are not being tested comprehensively, but some useful Economic Model of Software Quality Costs (CoSQ) and data from industry are described in this article. Significant research is needed to understand the economics of implementing quality practices and its behaviour. Such research must evaluate the cost benefit trade-offs in investing in quality practices where the returns are maximized over the software development life cycle. From a developer's perspective, there are two types of benefits that can accrue from the implementation of good software quality practices and tools: money and time. A financial ROI calculation of cost savings and the schedule ROI calculation of schedule savings are given.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the structural damage of a steel truss bridge subjected to blast loading with the aid of a hydrocode was modeled by using a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of an actual bridge.
Abstract: The numerical simulation of the structural damage of a steel truss bridge subjected to blast loading with the aid of a hydrocode is presented in this paper. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model of an actual bridge has been developed based on the drawing design of the Minpu II Bridge in Shanghai. The effects of mesh size on pressure distribution produced by explosions are also studied. Through the comparison between the calculation results and the experimental values, the reliability of the calculation is validated. All the process from the detonation of the explosive charge to deck crack, including the propagation of the blast wave and its interaction with the structure is reproduced. The numerical results show the damage of bridge parts and provide a global understanding of bridge under blast loads. It may be generated to supplement experimental studies for developing appropriate blast-resistant design guidelines for bridges in the future.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The use of knowledge for a Mediation System, developed to give support to participants in mechanical-system-designer activities, and the use of memorized knowledge by the Mediator during an activity of technical functional analysis are presented.
Abstract: In this article we present the use of knowledge for a Mediation System, developed to give support to participants in mechanical-system-designer activities. To use a cooperative system sufficient assistance is needed to facilitate and coordinate actors' activities. To accomplish this goal we introduce an artificial actor: Mediator. The Mediator forms part of the group of collaborative, with the specific role of facilitating the cooperative activity. This role of assistance, differentiate the Mediator from other actors. This one is endowed with specific skills of cooperation (communication; awareness, coordination, co-memorization), requiring some acquired knowledge, which allow them to give assistance to the human actors. We will define the types of knowledge defined for our proposed Mediation System. Then we will illustrate the use of memorized knowledge by the Mediator during an activity of technical functional analysis.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An investigation for evaluating aspects of knowledge management practice in Romanian software engineering industry is conducted and the major findings are discussed.
Abstract: Knowledge plays an increasingly larger role in organizations and many consider it the most important factor of production in a knowledge economy. Knowledge is dynamic and evolves with technology, organizational culture and the changing needs of organization's software development practices. In this paper I frame my research by discussing the importance of knowledge management in software engineering. After presenting the landscape inspiring the study research questions I conduct an investigation for evaluating aspects of knowledge management practice in Romanian software engineering industry and discuss the major findings.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results suggest that this decision support system for land-use structure optimization and land use allocation can be a useful tool to support management decisions.
Abstract: This article describes a decision support system for land-use structure optimization and land-use allocation. This system was established for the rural land managers to explore their land use options. It integrated database technology, expert system technology and spatial decision support system technology. The DSS consist of four components: a geographic information system (GIS), land use modules, a graphical user interface and land use planning tools. The linear programming, fuzzy clustering, and other land-use structure optimization algorithms are implemented on the ArcEngine software platform. The system has been applied in Beijing Pinggu area. The results suggest that this system can be a useful tool to support management decisions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A domain ontological model is presented as support to the student's decision making for opportunities of University studies level of the Venezuelan education system, aiming towards to a Semantic Recommendation System under Multiagent approach in the future, that could be useful to support students decision making process for career selection.
Abstract: A professional career selection is a complicated process for university student candidates and often little technical tolls are available for who aim to enter to the superior education system, since it is necessary to consider the incidence of a multiplicity of variables to obtain a "satisfactory answer" that comes near to the idea that they have preconceived. These variables build up a complex relations map that requires the formulation of an exhaustive and rigorous conceptual scheme. In this research a domain ontological model is presented as support to the student's decision making for opportunities of University studies level of the Venezuelan education system. For the declaration of the domain ontological model developed, the information provided by two organisms (OPSU & CNU) is used. Both are responsible to design the policies and strategies for the superior education in Venezuela. The ontology is designed and created using Methontology approach, since this methodology offers the possibility of improving the progressive creation or captures and knowledge articulation, its elements and relations. In order to represent the ontology Protege 3.1.1 tool is used, based on the ontological language for the Web: OWL (Web Ontology Language) and; finally, to accede and to visualize the ontology, an application based on the Semantic Web is developed. In the field of the computation, computer science and systems, the concept of profiles or users models has many meanings and connotations, its first and greater diffusion arise with the development and use of on-line increasing systems; however, they have gain great preponderance recently, not only to refer and/or to respond to the passive user who approaches "the system", but for the possibility of taking care of a user stimulated and attracted by "the system". In that sense, the possibility of this "personalized attention" and/or recommendations from "the system" will be obviously conditioned by the user context. Centered on the possibility of giving that "customized attention" from which they must select an option between many, it is tried in the future to construct a meta-ontology that integrates the domain ontology with a user profile ontology, thus aiming towards to a Semantic Recommendation System under Multiagent approach in the future, that could be useful to support students decision making process for career selection over different study opportunities in Higher Education level in Venezuela.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a flexibility solution and new mashup platforms for e-applications and interactive services based on service-oriented principles of loose coupling, encapsulation and reuse that are the heart and soul of SOA.
Abstract: Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) can be viewed as a philosophy that drives the development of components by defining their interfaces clearly and in a way that relates to real needs. It is the key to IT and business flexibility and receives a lot of attention from academia and industry as a means to develop flexible and dynamic software solutions. Web 2.0 world is wide and rich. Although significant progress is being made in several fronts, many other researchers speak of Web 2.0 applications; they tend to focus on the technology aspects of the environment. However, the real impact of integrating Web 2.0 technologies is to tie the flexibility of Web 2.0 to service-oriented principles of loose coupling, encapsulation, and reuse that are the heart and soul of SOA. Today's sites are no longer limited to exchanging links and interacting via hypertext; instead, the interconnectedness of the Internet has become progressively more important with the rise of web services. This paper presents web 2.0 mashups remixing data and Web Services. The purpose of this paper is to propose a flexibility solution and new mashup platforms for e-applications and interactive services. Flexibility is the key driver of Web 2.0 success--the flexible delivery of data through the combination of services and disparate data sources through mash-ups, real-time data feeds, and rich interactions. In this paper we also explore the architectural basis, technologies, frameworks and tools considered necessary to face this novel vision of Web 2.0--all of which adds business value and helps companies utilizes the rich collaboration and communication of the Internet today.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A dynamic-balanced scheduler for grid computing is presented that solves two typical kinds of problems of grid computing, using for them the cycles of some resources of the grid, and enables to execute all the tasks in a shorter time.
Abstract: The new paradigm of distributed computation, grid computing, has given rise to a large amount of research on resource scheduling. Unlike the distributed computation, grid computing uses heterogeneous resources, for what grid computing entails new challenges as the adaptation of parallel algorithms before developed for homogeneous resources cluster to the dynamic and heterogeneous resources. In this paper we present a dynamic-balanced scheduler for grid computing that solves two typical kinds of problems of grid computing, using for them the cycles of some resources of the grid. The first problem is based on iterative tasks that usually appear in optimization problems. The second problem is a directed acyclic graph (DAG) problem. Experimental results using dynamic-balanced scheduler show that it is possible to obtain an improved use of the resources in the grid. This strategy enables to adapt the length of a task to the computing capacity of each resource at any given moment. Furthermore, this scheduling strategy enables to execute all the tasks in a shorter time.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The definition, basic characteristics, structure and the key technologies of embedded database are described, the features, architecture and the main interface functions of SQLite are analyzed, and a detailed porting process from SQLite to ARM-Linux platform is given.
Abstract: The embedded database SQLite is widely applied in the data management of embedded environment such as mobile devices, industrial control, information appliance etc., it has become the focus of the development of related areas. For its advantages of stability and reliability, fast and high efficiency, portability and so on, which occupies the unique advantages among many of the main embedded databases. This paper first describes the definition, basic characteristics, structure and the key technologies of embedded database, analyses the features, architecture and the main interface functions of SQLite, gives a detailed porting process from SQLite to ARM-Linux platform, and discusses concrete application of SQLite in embedded system through a development case about the home gateway based on ARM-Linux.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The proposed method to incorporate both size and cost drivers together, with a fuzzy set using Gaussian membership function, is found that the proposed method is performing better than ordinal COCOMO and the achieved results were closer to the actual effort.
Abstract: In this research, it is investigated the precision of size and cost drivers in the estimation of effort using Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO). It is imperative to stress that uncertainty at the input level of the COCOMO yields uncertainty at the output, which leads to gross estimation error in the effort estimation. Instead of using a single number to represent the size, it can be characterized as a fuzzy value. Cost drivers also expressed through an unclear category which needs subjective assessment. Fuzzy logic has been applied to the COCOMO using the symmetrical triangles and trapezoidal membership functions to represent the cost drivers and size. Using trapezoidal membership function for the size and cost drivers, a few attributes are assigned the maximum degree of compatibility when they should be assigned lower degrees. To overcome the above limitations, in this work, it is concentrated to use Gaussian membership function for the COCOMO parameters. In addition, this paper proposes to incorporate both size and cost drivers together, with a fuzzy set using Gaussian membership function. The present work is based on COCOMO dataset and the experimental part of the study illustrates the approach and compares it with the standard version of the COCOMO. It has been found that the proposed method is performing better than ordinal COCOMO and the achieved results were closer to the actual effort.

Journal Article
TL;DR: A clear causality between quality of the taught semantic networks in game world and players' knowledge in real life and an evidence that learning away is an important feature when trying to enable conceptual change in educational games are found.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to apply teachable agents into educational game meant for children less than 12 years of age and evaluate the outcome in context of cognitive psychology of learning. The study was done in two phases: design phase and evaluation phase (N=300). The design of the game was done in order to support relatively free use of teachable agents in an easy-to-use environment. The main findings of the study were a clear causality between quality of the taught semantic networks in game world and players' knowledge in real life and an evidence that learning away is an important feature when trying to enable conceptual change in educational games.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The paper finds that the choice of auction method makes a substantial difference in the time to complete tasks and in total energy consumption.
Abstract: This paper examines economic resource allocation through a number of auction types for a grid of e-waste computers. It examines the time to complete tasks and the energy usage of completing the tasks on a grid. A model of a simulated grid is developed and used to evaluate the resource allocation mechanisms. The model is an agent-based simulation where by user agents submit tasks to node agents that process these tasks. We evaluate three types of resource-allocator agents which all use a type of auction. The auction types are batch auction, continuous double auction and a pre-processed batch auction. The pre-processed batch auction is developed to try to have the advantages of both the continuous double auction and the batch auction. The simulated grid is calibrated to a real e-waste grid where each node has a performance index. This grid is a test grid of eight nodes of heterogenous computer hardware and with differing computational ability and energy usage. We simulate the auction types under the same task input streams. We consider a task impulse response stream on energy usage and time to complete all tasks and a input stream step response. Finally we consider the three auction allocation mechanisms under a random task stream. The paper finds that the choice of auction method makes a substantial difference in the time to complete tasks and in total energy consumption.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper is divided into four parts: the first introduces SADEX, a fuzzy Case Based Reasoning (CBR) System for fault diagnosis, and how equipment composition information can be used to generalize and adapt case solutions to new and unknown occurrences.
Abstract: This paper is divided into four parts: the first one introduces SADEX, a fuzzy Case Based Reasoning (CBR) System for fault diagnosis. The second focus on its observation relevance factors and shows how the results are in complete agreement with the relevance concept introduced by Robertson and Spark-Jones in their well known and proved technique for document retrieval. The third describes how equipment composition information can be used to generalize and adapt case solutions to new and unknown occurrences; this generalization is based on a taxonomic similarity between functionally autonomous modules (FAMs). Finally the MKM - Maintenance Knowledge Manager system is introduced.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The paper focuses on the execution semantics of the 61499 standard since this is one of the most important reasons that the industry has not yet accepted this standard.
Abstract: The Function Block (FB) model was first standardized by the 1131 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for programmable controllers. This standard was successfully adopted by the industry but it seems to have several constraints for the development of today's complex embedded control and automation systems. These constraints are mainly imposed by the procedural programming paradigm and the device centric approach that are adopted by the standard. The IEC to address these constraints proposed the 61499 standard that is an attempt to exploit object-orientation and the application-centric paradigm in the control and automation domain. In this paper, the FB models of 1131 and 61499 are briefly described and several unclear issues related to the programming paradigms adopted, interoperability, composability and execution semantics of these FB models are clarified. The paper focuses on the execution semantics of the 61499 standard since this is one of the most important reasons that the industry has not yet accepted this standard.

Journal Article
TL;DR: This paper points out the fatal error of the previous discrete curvature estimations, and proposes a new discrete sectional-curvature estimation to be able to overcome the error, and produces a normal vector computation algorithm that is able to compute the normal vectors more accurately and is available to meshes of arbitrary topology.
Abstract: The local geometric properties such as curvatures and normal vectors play important roles in analyzing the local shape of objects. The result of the geometric operations such as mesh simplification and mesh smoothing is dependent on how to compute the normal vectors and the curvatures of vertices, because there are no exact definitions of the normal vector and the discrete curvature in meshes. Therefore, the discrete curvature and normal vector estimation play the fundamental roles in the fields of computer graphics and computer vision. In this paper, we propose new methods for computing normal vector and curvature well, which are more intuitive than the previous methods. Our normal vector computation algorithm is able to compute the normal vectors more accurately and is available to meshes of arbitrary topology. It is due to the properties of local conformal mapping and the mean value coordinates. Secondly, we point out the fatal error of the previous discrete curvature estimations, and then propose a new discrete sectional-curvature estimation to be able to overcome the error. The method is based on the parabola interpolation and the geometric properties of Bezier curve. It is confirmed by experiment that the normal vector and the curvature generated by our algorithm are more accurate than that of the previous methods.