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Showing papers in "Zeitschrift Fur Germanistische Linguistik in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparative study of heuristic textual practices in various scientific disciplines, based on a corpus of 65 dissertations from the 13 different faculties of the TU Darmstadt, which derived a basic annotation scheme, which has been developed and refined in a collaborative process of guideline creation.
Abstract: Abstract This article contains a comparative study of heuristic textual practices in various scientific disciplines. By this we mean formulation practices with which new knowledge is generated in institutionally influenced routines and connected to existing knowledge, e. g. ‚highlighting the relevance of a research topic‘, ‚defining a concept‘ or ‚supporting a statement argumentatively‘. The aim is to find out to what extent such textual practices occur in different scientific disciplines, how they are distributed and combined. Furthermore, we study the effects domain-specific contexts have on heuristic textual practices. The data basis of our study is a corpus of 65 dissertations from the 13 different faculties of the TU Darmstadt. In the pilot study we report here, we examined the introductory chapters of the dissertations. Methodologically, it is an annotation study: Based on the current state of research on the subject, we have derived a basic annotation scheme, which we have developed and refined in a collaborative process of guideline creation. Our study affiliates on socio-pragmatic research on text production and formulation routines in the sciences. It is theoretically informed by the philosophy of science research on heuristics, methodically we make a contribution to the scientific debate on collaborative annotation procedures.

29 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the tension between first and second language in terms of grammar lessons at school and sketched school grammar as a basis for error correction and evaluation, and outlined the essential linguistic foundations which have been neglected in school grammar for far too long.
Abstract: Abstract In this essay I understand school grammar as academic grammar for future teachers. It aims at linguistic awareness, not linguistic knowledge, which is an essential common ground with grammar lessons at school. It is about exciting insights into the structure of language. In the first section, the discourse on school grammar is examined. I will put a focus on the cultivated negative image of school grammar in history and then contrast it with practical expectations of use. Thereafter the essential linguistic foundations are outlined, which have been neglected in school grammar for far too long, being afraid of linguistic theory: valency and constituency. Afterwards, the area of tension between first and second language in terms of school grammar will be explored. Finally, I sketch school grammar as a basis for error correction and evaluation.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the functional and sociosymbolic development of subordinate clause constructions introduced by the subjunctor da ‘since' in different text genres is studied.
Abstract: Abstract Based on a corpus study conducted using the GerManC corpus (1650–1800), the paper sketches the functional and sociosymbolic development of subordinate clause constructions introduced by the subjunctor da ‘since’ in different text genres. In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, the da clauses were characterized by semantic vagueness: Besides temporal, spatial and causal relations, the subjunctor established conditional, concessive, and adversative links between clauses. The corpus study reveals that different genres are crucial to the readings of da clauses. Spatial and temporal usages, for example, occur more often in sermons than in other genres. The conditional reading, in contrast, strongly tends to occur in legal texts, where it displays very high frequency. This could be the reason why da clauses carry indexical meaning in contemporary German and are associated with formal language. Over the course of the 18th century, the causal usages increase in all genres. Surprisingly, these causal da clauses tend to be placed in front of the matrix clause despite the overall tendency of causal clauses to follow the matrix clause.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on case marking in informal Namibian German (so called Namdeutsch) and find that the use of nominative and accusative case is stable and similar to Standard German, there is a considerable amount of variation with regard to the dative case.
Abstract: Abstract This paper focusses on case marking in informal Namibian German (so called Namdeutsch). Whilst the use of nominative and accusative case is stable and similar to Standard German, there is a considerable amount of variation with regard to the dative case. This phenomenon is analysed in detail using corpus and questionnaire data. Multifactorial analyses reveal that several sociolinguistic and grammatical factors have a significant impact on the language use in this particular domain. Subsequently, the results are compared with other extraterritorial varieties of German and various similarities are found. This supports the idea that there are variety/language overarching principles at work.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the grammatical characteristics of narrative discourse mode and their implications for a linguistic theory of narration have been investigated, and three central questions within the intersection between narrative micro- and macro-structures, namely the definition of narrativity, the status of the narrator, and the relation between narration and fictionality are discussed.
Abstract: Abstract Is there a ‚narrative syntax‘, i. e. a special grammar restricted to narrative fiction? Starting from this question which has been investigated since early structuralism, the paper focusses on grammatical characteristics of narrative discourse mode and their implications for a linguistic theory of narration. Its goal is two-fold: In a first step, the traditional accounts by Benveniste, Hamburger, Kuroda and recent typological studies are brought together in order to support the claim that the distinction between narrative and non-narrative discourse mode is a fundamental one that has consequences for the use of grammar. In a second step, I discuss three central questions within the intersection between narrative micro- and macro-structures, namely (i) the definition of narrativity, (ii) the status of the narrator, and (iii) the relation between narration and fictionality. In sum, the article argues that investigations on the ‘grammar of narration’ do not just offer insights into a specific text configuration next to others, but are deeply linked to fundamental theoretical questions concerning the architecture of language – and that the comparison between linguistic and narratological categories offers a potential for addressing them.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the acquisition of German as the weaker language in the cases of German-Polish bilingual children and found that German is their weaker language due to the constrained input, while German is the stronger language.
Abstract: Abstract This article examines the acquisition of German as the weaker language in the cases of German-Polish bilingual children. Focusing on negation and verb position, phenomena that have frequently been taken as diagnostic when distinguishing between the course of language development characteristic for first (L1) and second language acquisition (L2), we analyse experimental and productive data from six simultaneously bilingual children. Due to the constrained input, German is their weaker language. The results in Forced Choice and Grammaticality Judgements tasks are compared with the results of monolingual children. We show that in the area of negation the acquisition of German as the weaker language resembles L1, and in the area of inversion and verb final position the development of the weaker language is delayed. The striking difference between bilinguals’ results in the experimental vs. productive tasks points to specific processing mechanisms in bilingual language use. In narrative contexts of the production tasks the language of the performance is activated, while the other is inhibited, which leads to a target-like performance. Structural properties of the stronger language tend to be activated, however, in the experimental tasks involving the weaker language, resulting in non-target-like responses.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that the capacity of pragmatic enrichment can be abused to understand paradoxical content, even though the literal content of the text seems coherent at the surface level, and that pragmatic enrichment in narration is a genuine part of language processing and must not be equated with commonsense reasoning.
Abstract: Abstract Text comprehension is based on the literal content of sentences and pragmatic enrichment. Theories of pragmatic enrichment in the literature include enrichment of narrative texts, but also pragmatic content conveyed by presupposition triggers. Taking texts by Ror Wolf as my test case, I illustrate that our capacity of pragmatic enrichment can be abused to understand paradoxical content, even though the literal content of the text seems coherent at the surface level. This shows that pragmatic enrichment in narration is a genuine part of language processing and must not be equated with commonsense reasoning.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of rule-governed operations over constructions is proposed, which is based on the patterns evinced by grammatical operations and not on idiomaticity and non-or restricted compositionality.
Abstract: Abstract Starting out from a critical questioning of Construction Grammar’s basic tenets I am advocating a version of Construction Grammar that should be primarily understood as based on the patterns evinced by grammatical operations. This approach aims for a theory of rule-governed operations over constructions and not for a theory of idiomaticity and non-(or restricted) compositionality.

6 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a genre-based approach to Folk Narrative Grammar (FG) which is based on the idea that linguistic practices like narratives are controlled by a corresponding genre-knowledge just as it holds for most types of human actions.
Abstract: Abstract The following essay aims at elaborating some aspects of the genre grammar of linguistic practices embodied in folk narratives. It starts from the idea that linguistic practices like narratives are controlled by a corresponding genre-knowledge just as it holds for most types of human actions in general. Individual linguistic practices are thus sequenced and arranged according to a corresponding knowledge frame that is related to the situationally activated genre. The term text is used to denote this sequence of situationally and interactionally coherent linguistic practices that are construed according to the grammar of a ‘genre in action’. A genre will be understood as a semiotic unit whose signifiant corresponds to a set of types of lexical and grammatical patterns ultimately represented by the micro-structure of the text. Its signifié will be interpreted as a text world model (TWM) that is internally invoked by the functionality, semantics, and quantification of the types of construction that occur in a text together with their syntax as well as by corresponding world knowledge. The essay first discusses some theoretical aspects of a genre-based approach to one kind of linguistic practices, namely narratives before turning to an illustration of the approach by referring to some selected aspects of two folk narratives, one taken from Grimms’ collection of folk narratives, the other stemming from the Udi community in the Eastern Caucasus (Northwestern Azerbaijan).

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Lehmann et al. show that the narrative Kontext für den Gebrauch grammatischer Kategorien wie Aspekt und Tempus von grundlegender Relevanz is verglichen.
Abstract: Die Linguistik hat sich seit jeher in all ihren Subdisziplinen mit narrativen Texten beschäftigt: Die historische Sprachwissenschaft beruht traditionell auf der philologischen Bearbeitung von althochdeutschen, mittelhochdeutschen und frühneuhochdeutschen Textquellen, die zu einem Großteil aus narrativen Texten bestehen. Textlinguistische Kategorien wie Kohärenz und Kohäsion werden bevorzugt an narrativen Texten untersucht. Übereinzelsprachlich ist gezeigt worden, dass der narrative Kontext für den Gebrauch grammatischer Kategorien wie Aspekt und Tempus von grundlegender Relevanz ist (vgl. das obige Zitat von Dahl 1985: 112; zu einem Überblick zur Verwendung der Verbalkategorien in narrativen Texten Lehmann 2012; vgl. auch Eckardt, in diesem Themenheft). In der Sprachtypologie werden sowohl die Verwendung grammatischer Elemente in narrativen Texten als auch der Aufbau narrativer Texte verglichen (vgl.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a close look at the use of demonstrative pronouns (DPros) of the der/die/das paradigm in the crime novel Auferstehung der Toten (‘Resurrection of the dead’) by Wolf Haas allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the interplay of the narrator's and the main protagonist's perspective in narrative texts.
Abstract: Abstract In this paper I show that a close look at the use of demonstrative pronouns (DPros) of the der/die/das paradigm in the crime novel Auferstehung der Toten (‘Resurrection of the dead’) by Wolf Haas allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the interplay of the narrator’s and the main protagonist’s perspective in narrative texts. At the same time, it provides an indirect argument against the assumption that the distribution of DPros can be fully derived from anti-logophoricity (Hinterwimmer and Bosch 2017) and in favor of an analysis sketched as an alternative in that paper: DPros avoid maximally prominent discourse referents as antecedents, where not only protagonists, but also narrators can be discourse referents. In text segments where the narrator’s perspective becomes prominent in virtue of evaluations, comments etc., the narrator is the maximally prominent discourse referent, while in text segments involving Free Indirect Discourse or other forms of protagonist’s perspective-taking such as Protagonist Projection (Holton 1997, Stokke 2013) or Viewpoint Shifting (Hinterwimmer 2017), the respective protagonist is the maximally prominent discourse referent. Finally, in text segments involving neutral narration where neither the narrator’s nor a protagonist’s perspective is salient, the respective discourse topic is the maximally prominent discourse referent.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the reasons underlying the capital eszett orthographic change in German and found that it was due to a suggestion of the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung (Council for German Orthography).
Abstract: Abstract In June 2017, a new letter was officially introduced into the German language: the capital eszett . Following a suggestion of the Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung (Council for German Orthography), the letter was included in the revised version of the official spelling rules, and also the new 2017 edition of the Duden mentions the capital eszett. The present article investigates the reasons underlying this orthographic change.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a tagung zum Thema "Natur - Kultur - Mensch" was organisiert, in which Sprachliche Praktiken um ökologische Nachhaltigkeit were discussed.
Abstract: Zwischen Natur und Mensch sowie Natur und Kultur besteht ein besonderes Spannungsverhältnis. Immer mehr Menschen engagieren sich für einen effektiven Klimaschutz und erzeugen gesellschaftlichen Druck auf politische und wirtschaftliche Akteurinnen und Akteure. Wissenschaft, Politik, Wirtschaft und andere Bereiche sehen sich vor viele Herausforderungen gestellt, wie beispielsweise die Vermittlung von (natur-)wissenschaftlichen und sozialen Fakten oder die Aushandlung der damit verbundenen Komplexität. Immer wieder wird deutlich: Sprache spielt eine zentrale Rolle in Aushandlungen um Natur, Nachhaltigkeit oder den Klimawandel. Die Jahrestagung des internationalen sowie interdisziplinären Forschungsnetzwerks Sprache und Wissen (SuW) veranstaltete deshalb eine Tagung zum Thema „Natur – Kultur – Mensch. Sprachliche Praktiken um ökologische Nachhaltigkeit“, die vom 30.09.2019 bis 02.10.2019 in der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften stattfand und von Anna Mattfeldt (Heidelberg), Carolin Schwegler (Koblenz) und Berbeli Wanning (Siegen) organisiert wurde.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper argued that the development of proper name compounds can only be properly described if proper name compound that are names themselves (e.g. Martin-Luther-Universität ‘Martin Luther University’) are strictly distinguished from those that are common nouns (i.e. Nilfahrt ‘Nile ride’).
Abstract: Abstract Despite their high frequency in present-day language, German proper name compounds have received little attention in the linguistic literature. It has been assumed that this pattern is rather recent, and possibly a loan from English. Focusing on the period between 1600 and 1900, the paper provides evidence against this claim. More specifically, I argue that the development of proper name compounds can only be properly described if proper name compounds that are names themselves (e. g., Martin-Luther-Universität ‘Martin Luther University’) are strictly distinguished from those that are common nouns (e. g., Nilfahrt ‘Nile ride’). It is shown that both types develop differently, and in particular that common noun compounds undergo a functional extension in this period. In this connection the paper also discusses the idea of proper name compounds as competitors of the genitive and it compares proper name compounds and alternative constructions with respect to the concept of the “Nominalklammer” (nominal frame).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the modal semi-schematic construction with verstehen in written German during the 20th century is analyzed using a simple collexeme analysis for each time span, which ascertains which lexical verbs appear as typical items in a schematic slot constituting its collostructional profile.
Abstract: Abstract The present paper deals with item- and feature-based changes of the modal semi-schematic construction with verstehen in written German during the 20th century. To understand this development, the century is divided into four equal periods. Applying a simple collexeme analysis for each time span, the study ascertains which lexical verbs appear as typical items in a schematic slot constituting its collostructional profile. Comparing the distributional behavior manually in a pairwise fashion, the analysis reveals that solely three verbs, namely machen, umgehen and meistern, stay constantly highly attracted within the top collexemes of the verstehen-construction during the 20th century. Using a dependency-based semantic space model, the study demonstrates that the collostructional profile of the fourth period differs considerably from the previous time span. Utilizing random forest of conditional inference trees, changes in terms of usage features of the modal construction are pinpointed. As a result, its grammaticality degree has not increased demonstrating solely minor changes in temporal functionality as well as in realization of subject forms.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used word embeddings to detect typical topics and actors in serially occurring narrations of "everyday" life, more specifically on birthing as narrated by mothers on online forums; the underlying idea being that these narratives happen against the background of cultural narratives.
Abstract: The present study focuses on serially occurring narrations of ‘everyday’ life, more specifically on birthing as narrated by mothers on online forums; the underlying idea being that these narrations happen against the background of cultural narratives.The present paper uses word embedding models to detect typical topics and actors in these narrations. The calculation of word embeddings automatically constructs semantic spaces, where semantic relations (synonymy in particular) can be modeled. This method offers a way to think of synonymy as ‘functional equivalence in discourse’.The present study relies on previous work with n-grams (Bubenhofer, 2018). N-grams are sequences of words that often appear together; their sequential order in different narrations gives insight in narrative patterns. A further step in the analysis is the construction of ‘narrative topoi’, which is achieved through clustering neighboring vectors. The emerging clusters can in turn be grouped into five narrative elements of ‘telling a birth story’: 1) disruption of daily life, 2) personnel, 3) body, 4) fear, 5) joy. While it seems obvious that certain themes ‘belong’ into the narration of a delivery, it is less obvious with what vocabulary these themes are expressed.The presented method of clustering word-embedding-profiles adds tremendously to the modelling of a narrative. Its advantages lie in its potential to show lexical variation, as it also includes rare, non-conformative orthographical variants. Furthermore, it allows for a discourse-specific (and usage-based) view on semantic relations. The same applies to relations between semantic clusters. Seen from a discourse linguistics or cultural analysis perspective, word embeddings renew our understanding of semantics. This shows particularly fruitful if used to analyze (discourse dependent) derivations between semantic spaces.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on the contrastive (Chinesisch-Deutsch) Analysen der Hochschulkommunikation in Wissenschaftssprachen, den universitären Kommunications, den entsprechenden Fachsprachen and wissenschlichen Gattungen.
Abstract: Statistiken des deutschen Statistischen Bundesamtes (2019) zufolge waren im Wintersemester 2018/2019 394 665 internationale Studierende in Deutschland eingeschrieben. Die größte Gruppe mit 42 676 Studierenden stammt aus China. Doch bislang existieren kaum kontrastive Studien zu Unterschieden in den Wissenschaftskulturen bzw. der Wissenschaftsund Hochschulkommunikation Deutsch-Chinesisch. Wodurch unterscheiden sich die Lehrund Lerntraditionen an deutschen und chinesischen Universitäten? Inwiefern gibt es Unterschiede in den Wissenschaftssprachen, den universitären Kommunikationstraditionen, den entsprechenden Fachsprachen und wissenschaftlichen Gattungen? Diesen Fragestellungen widmete sich nun die internationale Germanistiktagung „Kontrastive (Chinesisch-Deutsche) Analysen der Hochschulkommunikation“, die im Rahmen der vom DAAD geförderten Germanistischen Institutspartnerschaft (GIP) zwischen der Xi’an International Studies University (Fakultät für Deutsch) und der WWU Münster (Germanistik) vom 11.–13. Oktober 2019 an

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose a method to deal with the terminologischen problem in the context of Sprachkomik and Humor in Online-Recherche.
Abstract: Bei der Suche nach Online-Ressourcen zur Sprachkomik muss zunächst (wie auch sonst in der Komik-Forschung) das terminologische Problem berücksichtigt werden. Im deutschsprachigen Raum wird oft der Ausdruck Sprachkomik verwendet, um auf sprachliche Produkte (und ihre mediale Einbettung jedweder Form) zu verweisen, wohingegen Humor meistens – aber nicht immer! – lediglich eine Haltung gegenüber diesen Komik-Produkten benennt. In der englischsprachigen Fachliteratur umfasst der Terminus humor (oder auch humour) in der Regel einen sehr weiten Begriff und umschließt sowohl die innere Disposition eines Kommunikationsteilnehmers als auch die Text-Produkte kommunikativer Akte. Bei der Online-Recherche sollte daher zunächst kein Unterschied bei der Schlagworteingabe gemacht werden, wenn es im weitesten Sinne um den Gegenstandsbereich Sprache und Humor geht. Des Weiteren handelt es sich bei Sprachkomik bzw. Humor um einen interdisziplinären Gegenstand, welcher neben der Sprachwissenschaft vor allem in der Psychologie, der Philosophie und der Soziologie eine Rolle spielt. In den älteren philosophischen Schriften wird der Gegenstandsbereich dann allerdings eher unter den Termini das Komische, das Lächerliche oder das Lachen abgehandelt. Ferner wird Humor auch in anderen Wissenschaften immer relevanter, etwa in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften (humorvolle Teamführung etc.)1 oder in der Pädagogik (humorvolles Unterrichten).2 Zudem gibt es auch viel pseudo-wissenschaftliche Literatur und auch eine Menge Primärquellen, wenn man die ganzen Witze-Seiten bedenkt.3 Aus den oben genannten Gründen sollte die Auswahl bzw. die Kombination der Suchbegriffe gut eingeschränkt werden. Im Folgenden

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the relevant paragraphs of the German Asylum Act from a functional sentence perspective were analyzed from the perspective of functional sentence theory. And the influencing factors of the communicative dynamics of the Asylum Act were analyzed.
Abstract: Abstract Under the background of the current refugee crisis in Europe, Germany is undoubtedly playing an increasingly decisive role, which is why the substantive changes to German Asylum Act have attracted attention worldwide. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the information delivery and communication of the Asylum Act, this article analyzes the relevant paragraphs of this Act from a functional sentence perspective (FSP). By scrutinizing the influencing factors of the communicative dynamics (CD) of the Asylum Act, this article examines and clarifies how FSP participates in the communication of the Act. Besides tracking and assessing the related approach, varied types of results that can be achieved by functional analysis are particularly presented. This article hopes to produce some new insights into the FSP theory and shed light on future research directions for the applications of FSP.