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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.634176

1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloyl Glucose, a RBD-ACE2 Binding Inhibitor to Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Infection

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Pharmacology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 634176-634176
Abstract: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 virus caused more than 80,155,187 confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide, which has posed a serious threat to global public health and the economy. The development of vaccines and discovery of novel drugs for COVID-19 are urgently needed. Although the FDA-approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has been launched in many countries recently, the strength of safety, stringent storage condition and the possibly short-term immunized efficacy remain as the major challenges in the popularity and recognition of using vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. With the spike-receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 being responsible for binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor (hACE2), ACE2 is identified as the receptor for the entry and viral infection of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, molecular docking and biolayer interferometry (BLI) binding assay were adopted to determine the direct molecular interactions between natural small-molecule, 1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloyl glucose (PGG) and the spike-RBD of the SARS-CoV-2. Our results showed that PGG preferentially binds to a pocket that contains residues Glu 340 to Lys 356 of spike-RBD with a relatively low binding energy of -8 kcal/mol. BLI assay further confirmed that PGG exhibits a relatively strong binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD protein in comparison to hACE2. In addition, both ELISA and immunocytochemistry assay proved that PGG blocks SARS-CoV-2-RBD binding to hACE2 dose dependently in cellular level. Notably, PGG was confirmed to abolish the infectious property of RBD-pseudotyped lentivirus in hACE2 overexpressing HEK293 cells, which mimicked the entry of wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus in human host cells. Finally, maximal tolerated dose (MTD) studies revealed that up to 200 mg/kg/day of PGG was confirmed orally safe in mice. Our findings suggest that PGG may be a safe and potential antiviral agent against the COVID-19 by blockade the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD to hACE2 receptors. Therefore, PGG may be considered as a safe and natural antiviral agent for its possible preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products such as a disinfectant spray or face mask.

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Topics: Binding domain (50%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHYMED.2021.153591
Li Jun Yang1, Rui Hong Chen1, Sami Hamdoun1, Paolo Coghi1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
05 May 2021-Phytomedicine
Abstract: Background The outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease caused more than 100,000,000 people get infected and over 2,200,000 people being killed worldwide. However, the current developed vaccines or drugs may be not effective in preventing the pandemic of COVID-19 due to the mutations of coronavirus and the severe side effects of the newly developed vaccines. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components play important antiviral activities. Corilagin exhibited antiviral effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, whether it blocks the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and hACE2 has not been elucidated. Purpose To characterize an active compound, corilagin derived from Phyllanthus urinaria as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors for its possible preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products. Methods Computational docking coupled with bio-layer interferometry, BLI were adopted to screen more than 1800 natural compounds for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD inhibitors. Corilagin was confirmed to have a strong binding affinity with SARS-CoV-2-RBD or human ACE2 (hACE2) protein by the BLI, ELISA and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of viral infection of corilagin was assessed by in vitro pseudovirus system. Finally, the toxicity of corilagin was examined by using MTT assay and maximal tolerated dose (MTD) studies in C57BL/6 mice. Results Corilagin preferentially binds to a pocket that contains residues Cys 336 to Phe 374 of spike-RBD with a relatively low binding energy of -9.4 kcal/mol. BLI assay further confirmed that corilagin exhibits a relatively strong binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2-RBD and hACE2 protein. In addition, corilagin dose-dependently blocks SARS-CoV-2-RBD binding and abolishes the infectious property of RBD-pseudotyped lentivirus in hACE2 overexpressing HEK293 cells, which mimicked the entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus in human host cells. Finally, in vivo studies revealed that up to 300 mg/kg/day of corilagin was safe in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest that corilagin could be a safe and potential antiviral agent against the COVID-19 acting through the blockade of the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 spike-RBD to hACE2 receptors. Conclusion Corilagin could be considered as a safe and environmental friendly anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent for its potential preventive application in daily anti-virus hygienic products.

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Topics: Corilagin (76%)

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1925894
Giovanni Ribaudo1, Paolo Coghi2, Li Jun Yang2, Jerome P.L. Ng2  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The mechanism of host cell invasion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 SARS-CoV-2 is connected with the interaction of spike protein (S) with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through receptor-binding domain (RBD). Small molecules targeting this assembly are being investigated as drug candidates to contrast SARS-CoV-2. In this context, chloroquine, an antimalarial agent proposed as a repurposed drug to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), was hypothesized to bind RBD among its other mechanisms. Similarly, artemisinin and its derivatives are being studied as potential antiviral agents. In this work, we investigated the interaction of artemisinin, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine with RBD by means of computational tools and in vitro. Docking studies showed that the compounds interfere with the same region of the protein and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrated the stability of the predicted complexes. Bio-layer interferometry showed that chloroquine dose-dependently binds RBD (KD = 35.9 µM) more efficiently than artemisinins.

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Topics: Dihydroartemisinin (55%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MOLECULES26113213
27 May 2021-Molecules
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic The first step of viral infection is cell attachment, which is mediated by the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD), part of the virus spike protein, to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) Therefore, drug repurposing to discover RBD-ACE2 binding inhibitors may provide a rapid and safe approach for COVID-19 therapy Here, we describe the development of an in vitro RBD-ACE2 binding assay and its application to identify inhibitors of the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD to ACE2 by the high-throughput screening of two compound libraries (LOPAC®1280 and DiscoveryProbeTM) Three compounds, heparin sodium, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), and ellagic acid, were found to exert an effective binding inhibition, with IC50 values ranging from 06 to 55 µg/mL A plaque reduction assay in Vero E6 cells infected with a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus confirmed the inhibition efficacy of heparin sodium and ATA Molecular docking analysis located potential binding sites of these compounds in the RBD In light of these findings, the screening system described herein can be applied to other drug libraries to discover potent SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors

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Topics: Aurintricarboxylic acid (53%), Ligand binding assay (53%), Drug discovery (50%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105820
Dingqi Zhang1, Sami Hamdoun1, Ruihong Chen1, Li Jun Yang1  +8 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JTCME.2021.10.003
Abstract: Autophagy is a catabolic process that maintains internal homeostasis and energy balance through the lysosomal degradation of redundant or damaged cellular components. During virus infection, autophagy is triggered both in parenchymal and in immune cells with different finalistic objectives: in parenchymal cells, the goal is to destroy the virion particle while in macrophages and dendritic cells the goal is to expose virion-derived fragments for priming the lymphocytes and initiate the immune response. However, some viruses have developed a strategy to subvert the autophagy machinery to escape the destructive destiny and instead exploit it for virion assembly and exocytosis. Coronaviruses (like SARS-CoV-2) possess such ability. The autophagy process requires a set of proteins that constitute the core machinery and is controlled by several signaling pathways. Here, we report on natural products capable of interfering with SARS-CoV-2 cellular infection and replication through their action on autophagy. The present study provides support to the use of such natural products as adjuvant therapeutics for the management of COVID-19 pandemic to prevent the virus infection and replication, and so mitigating the progression of the disease.

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Topics: Virion assembly (60%), Autophagy (56%)

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39 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.052
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.

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Topics: Proteases (52%)

10,193 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.ABB2507
13 Mar 2020-Science
Abstract: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure development, we determined a 3.5-angstrom-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs) rotated up in a receptor-accessible conformation. We also provide biophysical and structural evidence that the 2019-nCoV S protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) with higher affinity than does severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV S. Additionally, we tested several published SARS-CoV RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies and found that they do not have appreciable binding to 2019-nCoV S, suggesting that antibody cross-reactivity may be limited between the two RBDs. The structure of 2019-nCoV S should enable the rapid development and evaluation of medical countermeasures to address the ongoing public health crisis.

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5,197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1211721
Abstract: A previously unknown coronavirus was isolated from the sputum of a 60-year-old man who presented with acute pneumonia and subsequent renal failure with a fatal outcome in Saudi Arabia. The virus (called HCoV-EMC) replicated readily in cell culture, producing cytopathic effects of rounding, detachment, and syncytium formation. The virus represents a novel betacoronavirus species. The closest known relatives are bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. Here, the clinical data, virus isolation, and molecular identification are presented. The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and reminds us that animal coronaviruses can cause severe disease in humans.

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4,019 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2001282
Bin Cao1, Yeming Wang1, Danning Wen2, Wen Liu2  +61 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Background No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involvin...

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Topics: Lopinavir/ritonavir (63%), Lopinavir (60%), Randomized controlled trial (53%) ... show more

3,577 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2179-Y
Jian Shang1, Gang Ye1, Ke Shi1, Yushun Wan1  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
30 Mar 2020-Nature
Abstract: A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged and is rapidly spreading in humans, causing COVID-191,2. A key to tackling this pandemic is to understand the receptor recognition mechanism of the virus, which regulates its infectivity, pathogenesis and host range. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—in humans3,4. Here we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (engineered to facilitate crystallization) in complex with ACE2. In comparison with the SARS-CoV RBD, an ACE2-binding ridge in SARS-CoV-2 RBD has a more compact conformation; moreover, several residue changes in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD stabilize two virus-binding hotspots at the RBD–ACE2 interface. These structural features of SARS-CoV-2 RBD increase its ACE2-binding affinity. Additionally, we show that RaTG13, a bat coronavirus that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2, also uses human ACE2 as its receptor. The differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and RaTG13 in ACE2 recognition shed light on the potential animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides guidance for intervention strategies that target receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with human ACE2, compared with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV, sheds light on the structural features that increase its binding affinity to ACE2.

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Topics: Coronavirus (52%)

2,028 Citations