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Journal ArticleDOI

1.53 [micro sign]m GaInNAsSb laser diodes grown on GaAs(100)

James A. Gupta1, Pedro Barrios1, Xia Zhang1, G. Pakulski1, Xiaohua Wu1 
22 Feb 2005-Electronics Letters (IET)-Vol. 41, Iss: 2, pp 71-72

AbstractGaInNAsSb/GaNAs double quantum well ridge waveguide laser diodes with room temperature lasing wavelength of 1532 nm are reported. The devices exhibit leakage-corrected threshold current densities as low as 969 A cm−2 per quantum well in pulsed mode, with characteristic temperatures as high as 90 K.

Topics: Quantum well (58%), Laser (53%), Diode (53%)

Summary (1 min read)

1.53m GaInNAsSb laser diodes grown on GaAs(100)

  • J.A. Gupta, P.J. Barrios, X. Zhang, G. Pakulski and X. Wu GaInNAsSb=GaNAs double quantum well ridge waveguide laser diodes with room temperature lasing wavelength of 1532 nm are reported.
  • After accounting for lateral leakage current, the threshold current densities for sets of devices with cavity lengths of 1202 and 444 mm were found to be 1.94 and 2.66 kA cm 2.
  • The lasers were cleaved into bars with FabryPerot cavity lengths of 1202, 894 and 444 mm and mounted p-side up onto alumina carriers.
  • The authors are grateful for the technical support of P. Chow-Chong, G.I. Sproule, R. Wang, M. Beaulieu, M. Bresee and helpful discussions with Z.R. Wasilewski.

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1.53µm GaInNAsSb laser diodes grown on GaAs(100)
Gupta, J. A.; Barrios, P. J.; Zhang, X.; Pakulski, G.; Wu, X.
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1.53 m GaInNAsSb laser diodes
grown on GaAs(100)
J.A. Gupta, P.J. Barrios, X. Zhang, G. Pakulski and X. Wu
GaInNAsSb=GaNAs double quantum well ridge waveguide laser
diodes with room temperature lasing wavelength of 1532 nm are
reported. The devices exhibit leakage-corrected threshold current
densities as low as 969 A cm
2
per quantum well in pulsed mode,
with characteristic temperatures as high as 90 K.
Introduction: In the past decade, GaInNAs vertical cavity and edge-
emitting laser diodes ha v e been used for 1.3 mm emission with promising
results
[1]. Although early efforts at wav elengths suitable for long-haul
fibre transmission yielded devices with very high laser threshold currents
[2, 3], the most recent devices ha v e had more reasonable characteristics.
These latest devices have used GaInNAs
[4] or GaInN AsSb [5, 6] active
regions, producing emission in the 1.5 mmrange.
In this Letter we present results of GaInNAsSb=GaNAs double
quantum well lasers with record lasing wavelength of 1532 nm. The
structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a novel
method of Ar gas dilution in a radio frequency (RF) plasma to control
the active nitrogen flux for MBE growth. Narrow, single-lateral-mode
ridge waveguide (RWG) devices were tested in pulsed mode and exhibit
threshold currents as low as 115 mA (w ¼ 3 mm) at room temperature
(RT), while wider (w ¼ 10 mm) devices exhibit high characteristic
temperatures of 90 K. After accounting for lateral leakage current, the
threshold current densities for sets of devices with cavity lengths of
1202 and 444 mm were found to be 1.94 and 2.66 kA cm
2
. These
results provide clear confirmation of the promise of GaInNAsSb active
regions for GaAs-based 1550 nm laser diodes.
Fabrication: The lasers w ere grown on an n þ GaAs substrate in a custom
VG V90 MBE system. Flux es were pro vided by group-III and dopant
effusion cells with valved cracker cells for As
2
and Sb
2
. Active nitrogen w as
pro vided by a VEECO RF plasma source using N
2
=Ar dynamic
gas switching, as described previousl y
[7]. The active region, grown at
415
C, nominally consists of two 7 nm Ga
0.61
In
0.39
N
0.027
As
0.962
Sb
0.011
quantum we lls with 20 nm GaN
0.044
As
0.956
barriers, within a 371 nm GaAs
waveguide. 1.5 mmAl
0.33
Ga
0.67
As:Be (1 10
18
cm
3
) and 1.8 mm
Al
0.33
Ga
0.67
As:Si (2 10
18
cm
3
) cladding layers were grown at 600
C.
After each 97 nm of n-cladding growth, a 3 nm GaAs:Si la y er was grow n
to smooth the surface. The top 100 nm GaAs:Be contact la yer was doped to
1 10
19
cm
3
, while the bottom GaAs:Si buffer la y er was doped to
2 10
18
cm
3
. Before fabrication, the wafer was annealed at 700
C, for
300 s under flowing N
2
with GaAs proximity capping.
RWG lasers were fabricated using chemically-assisted ion beam
etching with standard Ti-Pt-Au and Au-Ge-Ni p- and n-contact metal-
lisations, respectively. The lasers were cleaved into bars with Fabry-
Perot cavity lengths of 1202, 894 and 444 mm and mounted p-side up
onto alumina carriers. Each bar contains devices with ridge widths from
2to10mm. Measurements were made in pulsed mode with a 1% duty
cycle and the output power was measured using a calibrated Ge
detector. The emission spectra were measured using an optical spectrum
analyser.
Results:
Fig. 1 shows the light output wi th input curre nt (LI )curve
for a nar row, 2 mm-wide RWG d evice wi th cavity length 1202 mm.
The RT threshold current was found to be 157 mA with stimulated
emission wavelength near 1532 nm at low current injection, as shown.
Temperature-dependent measurements of this device yi elded a charac-
teristic temperature, T
0
,of66K,whilea10mm-wide device with the
same cavity length exhibited T
0
¼ 90 K. The lowest threshold current
measured in this s tudy was 115 mA f or a nar row RWG d evice
measuring 3 by 444 mm, and the same device exhibited the highest
external differential efficiency, Z
D
,of35%.
The lateral leakage current in these devices was estimated using the
method of
[8]. Fig. 2 shows the dependence of threshold current on
ridge width for the complete set of devices. For each cavity length, the
leakage current was determined from the expression I
th
¼ J
th
wL þ I
leak
,
via a linear regression of the data in
Fig. 2 for widths longer than 4 mm.
The narrowest devices (2 and 3 mm) were excluded because these
dimensions are close to the estimated carrier diffusion length. Note
that this analysis yields a single value of threshold current density for
each cavity length, as well as the leakage current estimate.
Fig. 1 Light output per facet (L) against applied current (I) for laser diode
(width 2 mm, length 1202 mm)
Inset: Spectrum at 165 mA (1.05I
th
)
Fig. 2 Threshold current (I) dependence on ridge width for several cavity
lengths as indicated
Fig. 3 Inverse differential quantum efficiency dependence on cavity length
for 5 and 9 mm ridge widths as indicated
For device widths of 5 and 9 mm, the internal quantum efficiency, Z
i
,
and internal loss, a
i
, were determined from Fig. 3. For the 5 mm-wide
devices we found Z
i
¼ 0.66 0.13 and a
i
¼ 25 7cm
1
, while the
9 mm-wide devices had Z
i
¼ 0.61 0.07 and a
i
¼ 29 5cm
1
.
In
Fig. 4 we plot the relationship between threshold current density,
J
th
, and cavity length. The current density for infinite cavity length was
ELECTRONICS LETTERS 20th January 2005 Vol. 41 No. 2

found to be 806 A cm
2
per quantum well, and for devices of width
5 and 9 mm, the transparency current densities were J
tr
¼ 317 A cm
2
and 282 A cm
2
, using the internal parameters determined earlier.
Fig. 4 Threshold current density dependence on inverse cavity length
Conclusion: We have demonstrated 1.53 mm emission from
Ga InNAsSb RWG laser d iodes with relatively low threshold currents.
To our knowledge, this is the longest lasi ng wavelength achieved
for GaInNAs(Sb) lasers on GaAs substrates. Future work will focus
on refinement of the las er design to improve the internal parameters
and optimise the devices for 1.55 mm.
Acknowledgments: The authors are g rate ful for th e technical supp or t
ofP.Chow-Chong,G.I.Sproule,R.Wang,M.Beaulieu,M.Bresee
and helpful discussio ns with Z.R. Wasilewski.
# IEE 2005 28 October 2004
Electronics Letters o nline no : 20 05762 3
doi: 10.1049/ el:2 00576 23
J.A. Gupta, P.J. Bar r ios, X. Zhan g, G. Pakulski and X . Wu (Institute
for Microstructural Sc iences, Nation al Research Counc il of Canada ,
Ottawa, Canada K1A 0R6 )
E-mail: james.gupta@nrc.ca
X. Zhang: Also with the Sc hool of Information Technology and
Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Ave., Ottawa,
Canada K1N 6N5
References
1 Kondow, M., Kitatani, T., Nakatsuka, S., Larson, M.C., Nakahara, K.,
Yazawa, Y., Okai, M., and Uomi, K.: ‘GaInNAs: a novel material for
long-wavelength semiconductor lasers’, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum
Electron., 1997, 3, pp. 719–730
2 Fischer, M., Reinhardt, M., and Forchel, A.: ‘GaInAsN=GaAs laser
diodes operating at 1.52 mm’, Electron. Lett., 2000, 36, pp. 1208–1209
3 Fischer, M., Reinhardt, M., and Forchel, A.: ‘Room-temperature
operation of GaInAsN-GaAs laser diodes operating in the 1.5 mm
range’, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 2001, 7, pp. 149–151
4 Gollub, D., Moses, S., Fischer, M., Kamp, M., and Forchel, A.:
‘GaInNAs-based distributed feedback laser diodes emitting at 1.5 mm’,
Electron Lett., 2004, 40, pp. 427–428
5 Li, L.H., Sallet, V., Patriarche, G., Largeau, L., Bouchoule, S.,
Merghem, K., Travers, L., and Harmand, J.C.: ‘1.5 mm laser on GaAs
with GaInNAsSb quinary quantum well’, Electron. Lett., 2003, 39,
pp. 519–520
6 Bank, S.R., Wistey, M.A., Goddard, L.L., Yuen, H.B., Lordi, V., and
Harris, J.S.: ‘Low-threshold continuous-wave 1.5 mm GaInNAsSb lasers
grown on GaAs’, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 2004, 40, pp. 656–664
7 Gupta, J.A., Wasilewski, Z.R., Riel, B.J., Ramsey, J., Aers, G.C.,
Williams, R.L., Sproule, G.I., Perovic, A., Perovic, D.D.,
Garanzotis, T., and Springthorpe, A.J.: ‘Compositional control in
molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaN
y
As
1y
on GaAs(001) using an
Ar=N
2
RF Plasma’, J. Cryst. Growth, 2002, 242, pp. 141–154
8 Hu, S.Y., Young, D.B., Gossard, A.C., and Coldren, L.A.: ‘The effect of
lateral leakage current on the experimental gain=current-density curve in
quantum-well ridge-waveguide lasers’, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 1994,
30, pp. 2245–2250
ELECTRONICS LETTERS 20th January 2005 Vol. 41 No. 2
Citations
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: GaInNAs was proposed and created in 1995 by the authors. It can be grown pseudomorphically on a GaAs substrate and is a light-emitting material having a bandgap energy suitable for long-wavelength laser diodes (1.3-1.55 /spl mu/m and longer wavelengths). By combining GaInNAs with GaAs or other wide-gap materials that can be grown on a GaAs substrate, a type-I band lineup is achieved and, thus, very deep quantum wells can be fabricated, especially in the conduction band. Since the electron overflow from the wells to the barrier layers at high temperatures can he suppressed, the novel material of GaInNAs is very attractive to overcome the poor temperature characteristics of conventional long-wavelength laser diodes used for optical fiber communication systems. GaInNAs with excellent crystallinity was grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy in which a nitrogen radical was used as the nitrogen source. GaInNAs was applied in both edge-emitting and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) in the long-wavelength range. In edge-emitting laser diodes, operation under room temperature continuous-wave (CW) conditions with record high temperature performance (T/sub 0/=126 K) was achieved. The optical and physical parameters, such as quantum efficiency and gain constant, are also systematically investigated to confirm the applicability of GaInNAs to laser diodes for optical fiber communications. In a VCSEL, successful lasing action was obtained under room-temperature (RT) CW conditions by photopumping with a low threshold pump intensity and a lasing wavelength of 1.22 /spl mu/m.

512 citations


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Abstract: GaInAsN/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) lasers have been grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Room-temperature pulsed operation is demonstrated for a ridge waveguide laser diode at a wavelength of 1517 nm. This is the first report of room-temperature laser emission in the 1.5 /spl mu/m range based on GaAs.

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Abstract: We present the first continuous-wave (CW) edge-emitting lasers at 1.5 /spl mu/m grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). These single quantum well (QW) devices show dramatic improvement in all areas of device performance as compared to previous reports. CW output powers as high as 140 mW (both facets) were obtained from 20 /spl mu/m /spl times/ 2450 /spl mu/m ridge-waveguide lasers possessing a threshold current density of 1.06 kA/cm/sup 2/, external quantum efficiency of 31%, and characteristic temperature T/sub 0/ of 139 K from 10/spl deg/C-60/spl deg/C. The lasing wavelength shifted 0.58 nm/K, resulting in CW laser action at 1.52 /spl mu/m at 70/spl deg/C. This is the first report of CW GaAs-based laser operation beyond 1.5 /spl mu/m. Evidence of Auger recombination and intervalence band absorption was found over the range of operation and prevented CW operation above 70/spl deg/C. Maximum CW output power was limited by insufficient thermal heatsinking; however, devices with a highly reflective (HR) coating applied to one facet produced 707 mW of pulsed output power limited by the laser driver. Similar CW output powers are expected with more sophisticated packaging and further optimization of the gain region. It is expected that such lasers will find application in next-generation optical networks as pump lasers for Raman amplifiers or doped fiber amplifiers, and could displace InP-based lasers for applications from 1.2 to 1.6 /spl mu/m.

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