2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air concentrations, hemoglobin changes, and anemia cases in respirator protected TNT munitions demilitarization workers
TL;DR: Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia, and evidence is contributed that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL.
Abstract: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in munitions production that is known to cause both aplastic and hemolytic anemia in exposed workers Anemia in a TNT worker is considered a sentinel health event (occupational) (SHE(O)) in the United States (US) Deaths have been reported secondary to aplastic anemia Studies have shown that TNT systemic absorption is significant by both the respiratory and dermal routes No studies encountered looked at hemoglobin change or anemia cases in respiratory protected workers It is hypothesized that respiratory protection is insufficient to protect TNT workers from the risk of anemia development and hemoglobin concentration drop A records review of eight groups of respiratory protected TNT workers’ pre-exposure hemoglobin levels were compared with their during-exposure hemoglobin levels for statistically significant (alpha level 005) hemoglobin level changes, and anemia cases were recorded A curve estimation analysis was performed between mean TNT air concentrations and mean hemoglobin change values Statistically significant hemoglobin level drops and anemia cases were apparent at TNT air concentrations about the REL and PEL in respiratory protected workers There were no anemia cases or statistically significant hemoglobin level drops at concentrations about the TLV, however A statistically significant inverse non-linear regression model was found to be the best fit for regressing hemoglobin change on TNT air concentration Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia This study contributes evidence that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL
Summary (1 min read)
- The results of the statistical analyses performed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software showed no statistically significant mean hemoglobin changes and no anemia cases at the following mean TNT air concentration values: 0.12mg/m^3, 0.23mg/m^3, and 0.27mg/m^3 (median values respectively, 0.07mg/m^3, 0.16mg/m^3, and 0.10mg/m^3).
- When mean hemoglobin changes were regressed on mean TNT air concentrations utilizing a simple linear regression model, a statistically significant linear association was revealed for mean TNT air concentrations from 0.12mg/m^3 to 0.31mg/m^3.
- The following are the results and analyses for each of the 8 groups of workers.
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Cites background from "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..."
...One of the most pronounced symptoms of severe TNT intoxication in mammals is anemia (Crawford 1954; Dilley et al., 1982; Ryon and Ross, 1990; Bradley 2011)....
"2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..." refers background in this paper
...…will clear within 48 hours of exposure cessation, and usually impart a dark red discoloration to the urine (which may be confused with hematuria / hemoglobinuria unless a UA rules this out) (Sabbioni, 2005; Richter-Torres, 1995; Channon & Mills, 1944; Lemberg & Callaghan, 1945; Bodeau 1993)....
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