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Journal ArticleDOI

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air concentrations, hemoglobin changes, and anemia cases in respirator protected TNT munitions demilitarization workers

TL;DR: Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia, and evidence is contributed that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL.
Abstract: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in munitions production that is known to cause both aplastic and hemolytic anemia in exposed workers Anemia in a TNT worker is considered a sentinel health event (occupational) (SHE(O)) in the United States (US) Deaths have been reported secondary to aplastic anemia Studies have shown that TNT systemic absorption is significant by both the respiratory and dermal routes No studies encountered looked at hemoglobin change or anemia cases in respiratory protected workers It is hypothesized that respiratory protection is insufficient to protect TNT workers from the risk of anemia development and hemoglobin concentration drop A records review of eight groups of respiratory protected TNT workers’ pre-exposure hemoglobin levels were compared with their during-exposure hemoglobin levels for statistically significant (alpha level 005) hemoglobin level changes, and anemia cases were recorded A curve estimation analysis was performed between mean TNT air concentrations and mean hemoglobin change values Statistically significant hemoglobin level drops and anemia cases were apparent at TNT air concentrations about the REL and PEL in respiratory protected workers There were no anemia cases or statistically significant hemoglobin level drops at concentrations about the TLV, however A statistically significant inverse non-linear regression model was found to be the best fit for regressing hemoglobin change on TNT air concentration Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia This study contributes evidence that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL

Summary (1 min read)

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Results

  • The results of the statistical analyses performed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software showed no statistically significant mean hemoglobin changes and no anemia cases at the following mean TNT air concentration values: 0.12mg/m^3, 0.23mg/m^3, and 0.27mg/m^3 (median values respectively, 0.07mg/m^3, 0.16mg/m^3, and 0.10mg/m^3).
  • When mean hemoglobin changes were regressed on mean TNT air concentrations utilizing a simple linear regression model, a statistically significant linear association was revealed for mean TNT air concentrations from 0.12mg/m^3 to 0.31mg/m^3.
  • The following are the results and analyses for each of the 8 groups of workers.

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University of South Florida University of South Florida
Scholar Commons Scholar Commons
Graduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate School
1-30-2009
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin
Changes, and Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Changes, and Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT
Munitions Demilitarization Workers Munitions Demilitarization Workers
Melville D. Bradley M.D.
University of South Florida
Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd
Part of the American Studies Commons
Scholar Commons Citation Scholar Commons Citation
Bradley, Melville D. M.D., "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin Changes, and
Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Munitions Demilitarization Workers" (2009).
Graduate Theses
and Dissertations.
https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/1871
This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Scholar Commons. It has been
accepted for inclusion in Graduate Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons.
For more information, please contact scholarcommons@usf.edu.

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin Changes, and Anemia
Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Munitions Demilitarization Workers
by
Melville D. Bradley, M.D.
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Public Health
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
College of Public Health
University of South Florida
Major Professor: Stuart Brooks, M.D.
Thomas Truncale, D.O.
Daisy Chang, Ph.D.
Date of Approval:
January 30, 2009
Keywords: Reticulocytosis, 4-Aminodinitrotoluene, Aplastic Anemia, Breathing Zone,
Methemoglobin, Extravascular Hemolysis, Time Weighted Average.
© Copyright 2009, Melville Bradley

The stated views are those of the author and do not represent the views or the
policy of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.

Dedication
To my loving wife, if not for her support this project would not have come to
fruition.

i
Table of Contents
List of Tables...................................................................................................................ii
List of Figures ................................................................................................................iii
Abstract..........................................................................................................................iv
Introduction ....................................................................................................................1
Materials and Methods ..................................................................................................11
Results ..........................................................................................................................19
Discussion .....................................................................................................................27
References.....................................................................................................................37

Citations
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19 Feb 2013-Analyst
TL;DR: A gold monolayer film and cysteine layer-by-layer self-assemble onto modified glasses, and through the use of optical waveguide spectroscopy and a dynamic SERS technique for the first time, this strategy can detect TNT down to 1 nM with high sensitivity and selectivity.
Abstract: A gold monolayer film and cysteine layer-by-layer self-assemble onto modified glasses, and through the use of optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWGS) and a dynamic SERS technique for the first time to study the dynamic generation process of the Meisenheimer complex between TNT and cysteine. This strategy can detect TNT down to 1 nM with high sensitivity and selectivity.

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TL;DR: The rapid excretion and estimated bioconcentration factors (range of 2-18 after 48h in gills, blood, liver, kidney, muscle and brain) indicated a low potential for bioaccumulation of TNT.

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Cites background from "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..."

  • ...One of the most pronounced symptoms of severe TNT intoxication in mammals is anemia (Crawford 1954; Dilley et al., 1982; Ryon and Ross, 1990; Bradley 2011)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD)-based fluorometric probe with high quantum yield (73.10%) was developed for the selective determination of TNT.
Abstract: Fluorescent carbon quantum dots hold great promise for the determination of nitro-explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a potential environmental pollutant. Here, a nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dot (N-CQD)-based fluorometric probe with high quantum yield (73.10%) was developed for the selective determination of TNT. N-CQDs were synthesized by the reflux method using citric acid (CA) as a carbon precursor and ethylenediamine (EDA) with diaminocyclohexane (DACH) as nitrogen precursors. N-CQDs, with excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 and 460 nm, respectively, were highly selective toward TNT among different types of explosives [i.e., tetryl, 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (ADNT), HMX, 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN)]. As a result of the dominant FRET mechanism secondarily assisted by ground-state donor–acceptor complexation, the fluorescence of N-CQDs showed excellent quenching in the presence of TNT. The structure of N-CQDs was elucidated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, IR, Raman, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering techniques, and their interaction mechanism with TNT was resolved using the Gaussian (i.e., highest occupied molecular orbital–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels) program. The limit of detection and limit of quantification in aqueous media were 30.0 and 90.0 nM, respectively, while the Benesi–Hildebrand binding constant of N-CQDs was 2.22 × 103. In the presence of common soil ions, explosive mixtures, and camouflage materials, the N-CQDs could determine TNT with recoveries between 94.9 and 104.9%. In addition, sandy soil specimens were artificially contaminated with TNT as real samples, and the TNT extracted from these samples was determined by both N-CQDs and the reference liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method to validate the proposed fluorometric method. To design field detection techniques, two different support materials based on the thin layer chromatography-paper and hydrogel (N-CQD-gel) were developed, and TNT was determined visually at a μM level with both materials. The developed support materials make N-CQDs potentially useful in environmental sensor applications with their selective and sensitive sensing ability.

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, munitions showed the potential to alter tadpole skin microbiome composition and affect transcriptional profiles in the amphibian host, some suggestive of potential impacts on host health and immune status relevant to disease susceptibility.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is demonstrated to provide a valuable analysis route to allow processing of increasingly large and complex data sets and can well record the absorption/desorption of R6G onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic formation process of Meisenheimer complexes.

6 citations

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"2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…will clear within 48 hours of exposure cessation, and usually impart a dark red discoloration to the urine (which may be confused with hematuria / hemoglobinuria unless a UA rules this out) (Sabbioni, 2005; Richter-Torres, 1995; Channon & Mills, 1944; Lemberg & Callaghan, 1945; Bodeau 1993)....

    [...]