scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air concentrations, hemoglobin changes, and anemia cases in respirator protected TNT munitions demilitarization workers

01 Mar 2011-International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (Springer-Verlag)-Vol. 84, Iss: 3, pp 239-250

TL;DR: Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia, and evidence is contributed that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL.

Abstract2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive used in munitions production that is known to cause both aplastic and hemolytic anemia in exposed workers Anemia in a TNT worker is considered a sentinel health event (occupational) (SHE(O)) in the United States (US) Deaths have been reported secondary to aplastic anemia Studies have shown that TNT systemic absorption is significant by both the respiratory and dermal routes No studies encountered looked at hemoglobin change or anemia cases in respiratory protected workers It is hypothesized that respiratory protection is insufficient to protect TNT workers from the risk of anemia development and hemoglobin concentration drop A records review of eight groups of respiratory protected TNT workers’ pre-exposure hemoglobin levels were compared with their during-exposure hemoglobin levels for statistically significant (alpha level 005) hemoglobin level changes, and anemia cases were recorded A curve estimation analysis was performed between mean TNT air concentrations and mean hemoglobin change values Statistically significant hemoglobin level drops and anemia cases were apparent at TNT air concentrations about the REL and PEL in respiratory protected workers There were no anemia cases or statistically significant hemoglobin level drops at concentrations about the TLV, however A statistically significant inverse non-linear regression model was found to be the best fit for regressing hemoglobin change on TNT air concentration Respiratory protection may be inadequate to prevent workers who are at risk for TNT skin absorption from developing anemia This study contributes evidence that the TLV should be considered for adoption as the new PEL

Topics: Anemia (57%), Hemolytic anemia (53%), Hemoglobin (52%)

Summary (1 min read)

Jump to:  and [Results]

Results

  • The results of the statistical analyses performed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software showed no statistically significant mean hemoglobin changes and no anemia cases at the following mean TNT air concentration values: 0.12mg/m^3, 0.23mg/m^3, and 0.27mg/m^3 (median values respectively, 0.07mg/m^3, 0.16mg/m^3, and 0.10mg/m^3).
  • When mean hemoglobin changes were regressed on mean TNT air concentrations utilizing a simple linear regression model, a statistically significant linear association was revealed for mean TNT air concentrations from 0.12mg/m^3 to 0.31mg/m^3.
  • The following are the results and analyses for each of the 8 groups of workers.

Did you find this useful? Give us your feedback

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

University of South Florida University of South Florida
Scholar Commons Scholar Commons
Graduate Theses and Dissertations Graduate School
1-30-2009
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin
Changes, and Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Changes, and Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT
Munitions Demilitarization Workers Munitions Demilitarization Workers
Melville D. Bradley M.D.
University of South Florida
Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd
Part of the American Studies Commons
Scholar Commons Citation Scholar Commons Citation
Bradley, Melville D. M.D., "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin Changes, and
Anemia Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Munitions Demilitarization Workers" (2009).
Graduate Theses
and Dissertations.
https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/etd/1871
This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Graduate School at Scholar Commons. It has been
accepted for inclusion in Graduate Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons.
For more information, please contact scholarcommons@usf.edu.

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) Air Concentrations, Hemoglobin Changes, and Anemia
Cases in Respirator Protected TNT Munitions Demilitarization Workers
by
Melville D. Bradley, M.D.
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Public Health
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
College of Public Health
University of South Florida
Major Professor: Stuart Brooks, M.D.
Thomas Truncale, D.O.
Daisy Chang, Ph.D.
Date of Approval:
January 30, 2009
Keywords: Reticulocytosis, 4-Aminodinitrotoluene, Aplastic Anemia, Breathing Zone,
Methemoglobin, Extravascular Hemolysis, Time Weighted Average.
© Copyright 2009, Melville Bradley

The stated views are those of the author and do not represent the views or the
policy of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.

Dedication
To my loving wife, if not for her support this project would not have come to
fruition.

i
Table of Contents
List of Tables...................................................................................................................ii
List of Figures ................................................................................................................iii
Abstract..........................................................................................................................iv
Introduction ....................................................................................................................1
Materials and Methods ..................................................................................................11
Results ..........................................................................................................................19
Discussion .....................................................................................................................27
References.....................................................................................................................37

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Feb 2013-Analyst
TL;DR: A gold monolayer film and cysteine layer-by-layer self-assemble onto modified glasses, and through the use of optical waveguide spectroscopy and a dynamic SERS technique for the first time, this strategy can detect TNT down to 1 nM with high sensitivity and selectivity.
Abstract: A gold monolayer film and cysteine layer-by-layer self-assemble onto modified glasses, and through the use of optical waveguide spectroscopy (OWGS) and a dynamic SERS technique for the first time to study the dynamic generation process of the Meisenheimer complex between TNT and cysteine. This strategy can detect TNT down to 1 nM with high sensitivity and selectivity.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The rapid excretion and estimated bioconcentration factors (range of 2-18 after 48h in gills, blood, liver, kidney, muscle and brain) indicated a low potential for bioaccumulation of TNT.
Abstract: Organ specific uptake and depuration, and biological effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were studied. Two experiments were conducted, the first using radiolabeled TNT (14C-TNT, 0.16mg/L) to study uptake (48h) and depuration (48h), while the second experiment focused on physiological effects in fish exposed to increasing concentrations of unlabeled TNT (1μg-1mg/L) for 48h. The uptake of 14C-TNT in the gills and most of the organs increased rapidly during the first 6h of exposure (12h in the brain) followed by a rapid decrease even though the fish were still exposed to TNT in the water. The radioactivity in the gall bladder reached a maximum after 55h, 7h after the transfer to the clean water. A high concentration of 14C-TNT in the gall bladder indicates that TNT is excreted through the gall bladder. Mortality (2 out of 14) was observed at a concentration of 1mg/L, and the surviving fish had hemorrhages in the dorsal muscle tissue near the spine. Analysis of the physiological parameters in blood from the high exposure group revealed severe effects, with an increase in the levels of glucose, urea and HCO3, and a decrease in hematocrit and the levels of Cl and hemoglobin. No effects on blood physiology were observed in fish exposed to the lower concentrations of TNT (1-100μg/L). TNT and the metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) were found in the muscle tissue, whereas only 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT were found in the bile. The rapid excretion and estimated bioconcentration factors (range of 2-18 after 48h in gills, blood, liver, kidney, muscle and brain) indicated a low potential for bioaccumulation of TNT.

14 citations


Cites background from "2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..."

  • ...One of the most pronounced symptoms of severe TNT intoxication in mammals is anemia (Crawford 1954; Dilley et al., 1982; Ryon and Ross, 1990; Bradley 2011)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: TNT levels rose at a munitions plant until ventilation changes reduced exposures, and anemia cases continued to rise until the commander held workers accountable for failing to wear PPE and motivated them to wear respirators to avoid a loss in pay.
Abstract: Objective: Investigate an outbreak of anemia that occurred at an Army trinitrotoluene (TNT) munitions production facility in 2004–2005 and describe subsequent medical surveillance efforts between 2005 and 2013. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional investigation of anemia cases and exposure levels was conducted to target corrective engineering and administrative changes needed to reduce TNT levels and anemia cases. Results: Mean TNT exposure levels decreased from 1.2 to 0.08 mg/m3 between 2004 and 2012, but the trend was not statistically significant. Anemia cases rose from 17 to 38 between 2004 and 2011 and cases declined from 4 to 0 between 2012 and 2013. The overall trend in cases was not statistically significant. Conclusions: TNT levels rose at a munitions plant until ventilation changes reduced exposures. Despite this, anemia cases continued to rise until the commander held workers accountable for failing to wear PPE and motivated them to wear respirators to avoid a loss in pay. The cas...

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Positive matrix factorization (PMF) is demonstrated to provide a valuable analysis route to allow processing of increasingly large and complex data sets and can well record the absorption/desorption of R6G onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic formation process of Meisenheimer complexes.
Abstract: Time-resolved optical waveguide absorption spectroscopy (OWAS) makes use of an evanescent field to detect the polarized absorption spectra of sub-monomolecular adlayers. This technique is suitable for the investigation of kinetics at the solid/liquid interface of dyes, pigments, fluorescent molecules, quantum dots, metallic nanoparticles, and proteins with chromophores. In this work, we demonstrate the application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) to analyze time-resolved OWAS for the first time. Meanwhile, PCA is researched to compare with PMF. The absorption/desorption kinetics of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic process of Meisenheimer complex between Cysteine and TNT are selected as samples to verify experimental system and analytical methods. The results are shown that time-resolved OWAS can well record the absorption/desorption of R6G onto a hydrophilic glass surface and the dynamic formation process of Meisenheimer complexes. The feature of OWAS extracted by PMF is dynamic and consistent with the results analyzed by the traditional function of time/wavelength-absorbance. Moreover, PMF prevents the negative factors from occurring, avoids contradicting physical reality, and makes factors more easily interpretable. Therefore, we believe that PMF will provide a valuable analysis route to allow processing of increasingly large and complex data sets.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall, munitions showed the potential to alter tadpole skin microbiome composition and affect transcriptional profiles in the amphibian host, some suggestive of potential impacts on host health and immune status relevant to disease susceptibility.
Abstract: Natural communities of microbes inhabiting amphibian skin, the skin microbiome, are critical to supporting amphibian health and disease resistance. To enable the pro-active health assessment and management of amphibians on Army installations and beyond, we investigated the effects of acute (96h) munitions exposures to Rana pipiens (leopard frog) tadpoles and the associated skin microbiome, integrated with RNAseq-based transcriptomic responses in the tadpole host. Tadpoles were exposed to the legacy munition 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), the new insensitive munition (IM) formulation, IMX-101, and the IM constituents nitroguinidine (NQ) and 1-methyl-3-nitroguanidine (MeNQ). The 96h LC50 values and 95% confidence intervals were 2.6 (2.4, 2.8) for ΣTNT and 68.2 (62.9, 73.9) for IMX-101, respectively. The NQ and MeNQ exposures caused no significant impacts on survival in 96h exposures even at maximum exposure levels of 3560 and 5285 mg/L, respectively. However, NQ and MeNQ, as well as TNT and IMX-101 exposures, all elicited changes in the tadpole skin microbiome profile, as evidenced by significantly increased relative proportions of the Proteobacteria with increasing exposure concentrations, and significantly decreased alpha-diversity in the NQ exposure. The potential for direct effects of munitions exposure on the skin microbiome were observed including increased abundance of munitions-tolerant phylogenetic groups, in addition to possible indirect effects on microbial flora where transcriptional responses suggestive of changes in skin mucus-layer properties, antimicrobial peptide production, and innate immune factors were observed in the tadpole host. Additional insights into the tadpole host's transcriptional response to munitions exposures indicated that TNT and IMX-101 exposures significantly enriched transcriptional expression within type-I and type-II xenobiotic metabolism pathways, where dose-responsive increases in expression were observed. Significant enrichment and increased transcriptional expression of heme and iron binding functions in the TNT exposures served as likely indicators of known mechanisms of TNT toxicity including hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. The significant enrichment and dose-responsive decrease in transcriptional expression of cell cycle pathways in the IMX-101 exposures was consistent with previous observations in fish, while significant enrichment of immune-related function in response to NQ exposure were consistent with potential immune suppression at the highest NQ exposure concentration. Finally, the MeNQ exposures elicited significantly decreased transcriptional expression of keratin 16, type I, a gene likely involved in keratinization processes in amphibian skin. Overall, munitions showed the potential to alter tadpole skin microbiome composition and affect transcriptional profiles in the amphibian host, some suggestive of potential impacts on host health and immune status relevant to disease susceptibility.

3 citations


References
More filters

Book ChapterDOI
31 Dec 1941

4,860 citations



Book
01 Jan 1975

281 citations


Book
10 Nov 2003
TL;DR: A thorough, concise, up-to-date guide to the diagnosis and treatment of common occupational and environmental injuries and diseases.
Abstract: Section I. Practice of Occupational and Environmental Health OEM International OEM EMRs Workers' Compensation Disability Prevention and Managment Section II. Occupational Injuries Physical Exam Shoulder, Wrist, Hand Injuries Spinal Injuries Pain Management Eye Injuries Hearing Loss Physical Hazards Ergonomic and Prevention of Occupational Injuries Section III. Occupational and Environmental Illnesses Clinical Toxicology Clinical Immunology Hematology Cancer Infections Skin Disorders Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders Lung Diseases Liver Toxicology Renal Toxicology Neurotoxicology Female Reproductive Toxicology Male Reproductive Toxicology Section IV. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Metals Chemicals Solvents Gases and Other Airborne Toxicants Pesticides Section V. Program Management Stress & Violence Substance Abuse Drug Testing Safety Industrial Hygiene Biologic Monitoring Section VI. Occupational and Environmental Health Exposures and Controls International Chemical Policy Routine Industrial Emissions, Accidental & Intentional Releases and Hazardous Waste Outdoor Air Pollution Building Associated Illness Water Pollution Chemical Sensitivity Disease Surveillance Systems Health Risk Assessment

150 citations


Journal ArticleDOI

102 citations


"2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) air con..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…will clear within 48 hours of exposure cessation, and usually impart a dark red discoloration to the urine (which may be confused with hematuria / hemoglobinuria unless a UA rules this out) (Sabbioni, 2005; Richter-Torres, 1995; Channon & Mills, 1944; Lemberg & Callaghan, 1945; Bodeau 1993)....

    [...]