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Journal ArticleDOI

2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km range Brillouin optical fiber sensor using a transient differential pulse pair.

20 Mar 2012-Applied Optics (Optical Society of America)-Vol. 51, Iss: 9, pp 1229-1235
TL;DR: A high-spatial-resolution and long-range distributed temperature sensor through optimizing differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) is reported.
Abstract: We report a high-spatial-resolution and long-range distributed temperature sensor through optimizing differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA). In DPP-BOTDA, the differential signal suffers from a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction with respect to the original signals, and for a fixed pulse-width difference the SNR reduction increases with the pulse width. Through reducing the pulse width to a transient regime (near to or less than the phonon lifetime) to decrease the SNR reduction after the differential process, the optimized 8/8.2 ns pulse pair is applied to realize a 2 cm spatial resolution, where a pulse generator with a 150 ps fall-time is used to ensure the effective resolution of DPP-BOTDA. In the experiment, a 2 cm spatial-resolution hot-spot detection with a 2 °C temperature accuracy is demonstrated over a 2 km sensing fiber.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
26 Jun 2012-Sensors
TL;DR: A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.
Abstract: Rayleigh, Brillouin and Raman scatterings in fibers result from the interaction of photons with local material characteristic features like density, temperature and strain. For example an acoustic/mechanical wave generates a dynamic density variation; such a variation may be affected by local temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence. By detecting changes in the amplitude, frequency and phase of light scattered along a fiber, one can realize a distributed fiber sensor for measuring localized temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence over lengths ranging from meters to one hundred kilometers. Such a measurement can be made in the time domain or frequency domain to resolve location information. With coherent detection of the scattered light one can observe changes in birefringence and beat length for fibers and devices. The progress on state of the art technology for sensing performance, in terms of spatial resolution and limitations on sensing length is reviewed. These distributed sensors can be used for disaster prevention in the civil structural monitoring of pipelines, bridges, dams and railroads. A sensor with centimeter spatial resolution and high precision measurement of temperature, strain, vibration and birefringence can find applications in aerospace smart structures, material processing, and the characterization of optical materials and devices.

1,011 citations


Cites background from "2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km ra..."

  • ...Broadband source based OTDR is commonly used in conventional OTDR instrumentation as described above....

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  • ...(a) Differential Brillouin signal (intensity) [32]; and (b) Brillouin signal loss as a...

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  • ...However, it is still rather far from practical application, especially considering the advancement of Brillouin scattering based technology, which can obtain 2 cm spatial resolution with a sensing length of 2 km and temperature resolution of 2 °C [32]....

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  • ...Thanks to the innovative approaches of pre-pumping [90,95], differential Brillouin gain [91], and Brillouin echoes [97], distributed Brillouin sensors have achieved comparable spatial resolution to that of OFDR: 2 cm over 2 km and 2 °C temperature resolution [32] while the Rayleigh or stimulated Brillouin scattering based OFDR sensors have limited sensing length of less than 100 m [6,89]....

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  • ...Detectors Broadband [32] Broadband High...

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Journal ArticleDOI
23 May 2016-Sensors
TL;DR: The latest developments related with the improvement of these products are presented by presenting a wide range of laboratory experiments as well as an extended review of their diverse applications in civil engineering structures.
Abstract: The application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures has been a developing studied and practiced topic, that has allowed for a better understanding of structures’ conditions and increasingly lead to a more cost-effective management of those infrastructures In this field, the use of fiber optic sensors has been studied, discussed and practiced with encouraging results The possibility of understanding and monitor the distributed behavior of extensive stretches of critical structures it’s an enormous advantage that distributed fiber optic sensing provides to SHM systems In the past decade, several R & D studies have been performed with the goal of improving the knowledge and developing new techniques associated with the application of distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) in order to widen the range of applications of these sensors and also to obtain more correct and reliable data This paper presents, after a brief introduction to the theoretical background of DOFS, the latest developments related with the improvement of these products by presenting a wide range of laboratory experiments as well as an extended review of their diverse applications in civil engineering structures

572 citations


Cites background from "2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km ra..."

  • ...BOTDA Distributed 150–200 km [13] 2 cm (2 km) [75] Temperature and Strain 2 m (150 km) [76]...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems and offers the research community and potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.
Abstract: A thorough analysis of the key factors impacting on the performance of Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors is presented. An analytical expression is derived to estimate the error on the determination of the Brillouin peak gain frequency, based for the first time on real experimental conditions. This expression is experimentally validated, and describes how this frequency uncertainty depends on measurement parameters, such as Brillouin gain linewidth, frequency scanning step and signal-to-noise ratio. Based on the model leading to this expression and considering the limitations imposed by nonlinear effects and pump depletion, a figure-of-merit is proposed to fairly compare the performance of Brillouin distributed sensing systems. This figure-of-merit offers to the research community and to potential users the possibility to evaluate with an objective metric the real performance gain resulting from any proposed configuration.

318 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors review recent progress in inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in integrated photonic circuits, with special attention paid to photonic integration of applications such as narrow-linewidth lasers, slow-and fast-light, microwave signal processing, and non-reciprocal devices.
Abstract: We review recent progress in inducing and harnessing stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in integrated photonic circuits. Exciting SBS in a chip-scale device is challenging due to the stringent requirements on materials and device geometry. We discuss these requirements, which include material parameters, such as optical refractive index and acoustic velocity, and device properties, such as acousto-optic confinement. Recent work on SBS in nano-photonic waveguides and micro-resonators is presented, with special attention paid to photonic integration of applications such as narrow-linewidth lasers, slow- and fast-light, microwave signal processing, Brillouin dynamic gratings, and nonreciprocal devices.

291 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review focused on real world applications of Brillouin distributed fiber sensors is presented and some works to face the two main technical challenges (large dynamic range and higher spatial resolution) are commented.
Abstract: A review focused on real world applications of Brillouin distributed fiber sensors is presented in this paper. After a brief overview of the theoretical principles, some works to face the two main technical challenges (large dynamic range and higher spatial resolution) are commented. Then an overview of some real and on-field applications is done.

175 citations


Cites methods from "2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km ra..."

  • ...In the timedomain pumping schemes, the more significant methods are (1) prepumping [30, 31], (2) differential pulse-width pairs (DPP-BOTDA) with or without phase shift [32–35], (3) dark pulses [36] (by these methods, cm or even mm scale spatial resolution has been demonstrated [37, 38]), and (4) dynamic Brillouin gratings (DBGs) [39]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel configuration of a distributed fiber sensor by Brillouin gain analysis using a single laser source, and the required light signals are all generated with an electro-optic modulator, resulting in high stability and excellent reliability of the measuring setup.
Abstract: A novel configuration of a distributed fiber sensor by Brillouin gain analysis has been developed for temperature and strain monitoring. It uses a single laser source, and the required light signals are all generated with an electro-optic modulator, resulting in high stability and excellent reliability of the measuring setup. Measurement of the induced strain in a wound fiber is presented as a demonstration of the system performance.

472 citations


"2 cm spatial-resolution and 2 km ra..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) [1–3] and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) [4,5] have been proposed for effective distributed sensing....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) for centimeter spatial resolution sensing using meter equivalent pulses is proposed.
Abstract: A differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) for centimeter spatial resolution sensing using meter equivalent pulses is proposed. This scheme uses the time domain waveform subtraction at the same scanned Brillouin frequency obtained from pulse lights with different pulse-widths (e.g. 50ns and 49ns) to form the differential Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) at each fiber location. The spatial resolution is defined by the average of the rise and fall time equivalent fiber length for a small stress section rather than the pulse-width difference equivalent length. The spatial resolution of 0.18m for the 50/49ns pulse pair and 0.15m for 20/19ns pulse pair over 1km sensing length with Brillouin frequency shift accuracy of 2.6MHz are demonstrated.

376 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Distributed strain sensing with millimeter-order spatial resolution is demonstrated in optical fibers based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis and a novel beat lock-in detection scheme is introduced to suppress background noises coming from the reflection of BrillouIn pump waves.
Abstract: Distributed strain sensing with millimeter-order spatial resolution is demonstrated in optical fibers based on Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. A novel beat lock-in detection scheme is introduced to suppress background noises coming from the reflection of Brillouin pump waves. The Brillouin frequency shifts of 3 mm fiber sections are successfully measured with a theoretical spatial resolution of 1.6 mm.

262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work demonstrates, for what it believes to be the first time, the feasibility of a simultaneous temperature and strain sensor based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering.
Abstract: The strain dependence of the optical power of Brillouin scattering in optical fibers has been measured for the first time to our knowledge. Together with measurements of the dependence of Brillouin power on temperature and the variation of Brillouin frequency with temperature and strain, we demonstrate, for what we believe to be the first time, the feasibility of a simultaneous temperature and strain sensor based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering.

194 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An experimental distributed temperature sensor that uses the temperature dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift and has observed a temperature resolution of 1 degrees C and obtained a spatial resolution of 10 m.
Abstract: We describe an experimental distributed temperature sensor that uses the temperature dependence of the Brillouin frequency shift. When a 22.2-km sensing length is used, we have observed a temperature resolution of 1°C and have obtained a spatial resolution of 10 m.

166 citations