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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D0SC05172A

2-Mercaptomethyl-thiazolidines use conserved aromatic–S interactions to achieve broad-range inhibition of metallo-β-lactamases

04 Mar 2021-Chemical Science (Royal Society of Chemistry)-Vol. 12, Iss: 8, pp 2898-2908
Abstract: Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are a major public health threat. Carbapenems are among the most potent antimicrobial agents that are commercially available to treat MDR bacteria. Bacterial production of carbapenem-hydrolysing metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) challenges their safety and efficacy, with subclass B1 MBLs hydrolysing almost all β-lactam antibiotics. MBL inhibitors would fulfil an urgent clinical need by prolonging the lifetime of these life-saving drugs. Here we report the synthesis and activity of a series of 2-mercaptomethyl-thiazolidines (MMTZs), designed to replicate MBL interactions with reaction intermediates or hydrolysis products. MMTZs are potent competitive inhibitors of B1 MBLs in vitro (e.g., Ki = 0.44 μM vs. NDM-1). Crystal structures of MMTZ complexes reveal similar binding patterns to the most clinically important B1 MBLs (NDM-1, VIM-2 and IMP-1), contrasting with previously studied thiol-based MBL inhibitors, such as bisthiazolidines (BTZs) or captopril stereoisomers, which exhibit lower, more variable potencies and multiple binding modes. MMTZ binding involves thiol coordination to the Zn(II) site and extensive hydrophobic interactions, burying the inhibitor more deeply within the active site than D/L-captopril. Unexpectedly, MMTZ binding features a thioether–π interaction with a conserved active-site aromatic residue, consistent with their equipotent inhibition and similar binding to multiple MBLs. MMTZs penetrate multiple Enterobacterales, inhibit NDM-1 in situ, and restore carbapenem potency against clinical isolates expressing B1 MBLs. Based on their inhibitory profile and lack of eukaryotic cell toxicity, MMTZs represent a promising scaffold for MBL inhibitor development. These results also suggest sulphur–π interactions can be exploited for general ligand design in medicinal chemistry.

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Topics: Multiple drug resistance (50%)
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.CHEMREV.1C00138
15 Jun 2021-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major problems in current practical medicine. The spread of genes coding for resistance determinants among bacteria challenges the use of approved antibiotics, narrowing the options for treatment. Resistance to carbapenems, last resort antibiotics, is a major concern. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) hydrolyze carbapenems, penicillins, and cephalosporins, becoming central to this problem. These enzymes diverge with respect to serine-β-lactamases by exhibiting a different fold, active site, and catalytic features. Elucidating their catalytic mechanism has been a big challenge in the field that has limited the development of useful inhibitors. This review covers exhaustively the details of the active-site chemistries, the diversity of MBL alleles, the catalytic mechanism against different substrates, and how this information has helped developing inhibitors. We also discuss here different aspects critical to understand the success of MBLs in conferring resistance: the molecular determinants of their dissemination, their cell physiology, from the biogenesis to the processing involved in the transit to the periplasm, and the uptake of the Zn(II) ions upon metal starvation conditions, such as those encountered during an infection. In this regard, the chemical, biochemical and microbiological aspects provide an integrative view of the current knowledge of MBLs.

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PROT.26227
29 Aug 2021-Proteins
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to global public health. β-lactamases, which catalyze breakdown of β-lactam antibiotics, are a principal cause. Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) represent a particular challenge because they hydrolyze almost all β-lactams and to date no MBL inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. Molecular simulations can aid drug discovery, e.g. predicting inhibitor complexes, but empirical molecular mechanics (MM) methods often perform poorly for metalloproteins. Here we present a multiscale approach to model thiol inhibitor binding to IMP-1, a clinically important MBL containing two catalytic zinc ions, and predict the binding mode of a 2-mercaptomethyl thiazolidine (MMTZ) inhibitor. Inhibitors were first docked into the IMP-1 active site, testing different docking programs and scoring functions on multiple crystal structures. Complexes were then subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and subsequently refined through QM/MM optimization with a density functional theory (DFT) method, B3LYP/6-31G(d), increasing the accuracy of the method with successive steps. This workflow was tested on two IMP-1:MMTZ complexes, for which it reproduced crystallographically observed binding, and applied to predict the binding mode of a third MMTZ inhibitor for which a complex structure was crystallographically intractable. We also tested a 12-6-4 non-bonded interaction model in MD simulations and optimization with a SCC-DFTB QM/MM approach. The results show the limitations of empirical models for treating these systems and indicate the need for higher level calculations, e.g. DFT/MM, for reliable structural predictions. This work demonstrates a reliable computational pipeline that can be applied to inhibitor design for MBLs and other zinc-metalloenzyme systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSINFECDIS.1C00194
Abstract: Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production in Gram-negative bacteria is an important contributor to β-lactam antibiotic resistance. Combining β-lactams with β-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) is a validated route to overcoming resistance, but MBL inhibitors are not available in the clinic. On the basis of zinc utilization and sequence, MBLs are divided into three subclasses, B1, B2, and B3, whose differing active-site architectures hinder development of BLIs capable of "cross-class" MBL inhibition. We previously described 2-mercaptomethyl thiazolidines (MMTZs) as B1 MBL inhibitors (e.g., NDM-1) and here show that inhibition extends to the clinically relevant B2 (Sfh-I) and B3 (L1) enzymes. MMTZs inhibit purified MBLs in vitro (e.g., Sfh-I, Ki 0.16 μM) and potentiate β-lactam activity against producer strains. X-ray crystallography reveals that inhibition involves direct interaction of the MMTZ thiol with the mono- or dizinc centers of Sfh-I/L1, respectively. This is further enhanced by sulfur-π interactions with a conserved active site tryptophan. Computational studies reveal that the stereochemistry at chiral centers is critical, showing less potent MMTZ stereoisomers (up to 800-fold) as unable to replicate sulfur-π interactions in Sfh-I, largely through steric constraints in a compact active site. Furthermore, in silico replacement of the thiazolidine sulfur with oxygen (forming an oxazolidine) resulted in less favorable aromatic interactions with B2 MBLs, though the effect is less than that previously observed for the subclass B1 enzyme NDM-1. In the B3 enzyme L1, these effects are offset by additional MMTZ interactions with the protein main chain. MMTZs can therefore inhibit all MBL classes by maintaining conserved binding modes through different routes.

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Topics: Active site (50%), Thiazolidine (50%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JCIM.1C01109
Abstract: Zinc metalloproteins are ubiquitous, with protein zinc centers of structural and functional importance, involved in interactions with ligands and substrates and often of pharmacological interest. Biomolecular simulations are increasingly prominent in investigations of protein structure, dynamics, ligand interactions, and catalysis, but zinc poses a particular challenge, in part because of its versatile, flexible coordination. A computational workflow generating reliable models of ligand complexes of biological zinc centers would find broad application. Here, we evaluate the ability of alternative treatments, using (nonbonded) molecular mechanics (MM) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) at semiempirical (DFTB3) and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory, to describe the zinc centers of ligand complexes of six metalloenzyme systems differing in coordination geometries, zinc stoichiometries (mono- and dinuclear), and the nature of interacting groups (specifically the presence of zinc-sulfur interactions). MM molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can overfavor octahedral geometries, introducing additional water molecules to the zinc coordination shell, but this can be rectified by subsequent semiempirical (DFTB3) QM/MM MD simulations. B3LYP/MM geometry optimization further improved the accuracy of the description of coordination distances, with the overall effectiveness of the approach depending upon factors, including the presence of zinc-sulfur interactions that are less well described by semiempirical methods. We describe a workflow comprising QM/MM MD using DFTB3 followed by QM/MM geometry optimization using DFT (e.g., B3LYP) that well describes our set of zinc metalloenzyme complexes and is likely to be suitable for creating accurate models of zinc protein complexes when structural information is more limited.

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Topics: Zinc (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.15822
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global health concern and environmental bacteria are considered a source of resistance genes. Carbapenems are often used as the last antibiotic option to treat multidrug-resistant bacteria. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are able to render resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems. Unfortunately, there are no inhibitors against MBLs for clinical use. Subclass B2 MBLs are the only enzymes working as strict carbapenemases, under-represented, encoded in chromosome genes and only functional as mono-zinc enzymes. Despite current efforts in MBLs inhibitor development, B2 carbapenemase activity is especially difficult to suppress, even in vitro. In this study we characterized BioF, a novel subclass B2 MBL identified in a new environmental Pseudomonas sp. strain isolated from an on-farm biopurification system (BPS). Although blaBioF is most likely a chromosomal gene, it is found in a genomic island and may represent a step previous to the horizontal transmission of B2 genes. The new B2 MBL is active as a mono-zinc enzyme and is a potent carbapenemase with incipient activity against some cephalosporins. BioF activity is not affected by excess zinc and is only inhibited at high metal chelator concentrations. The discovery and characterization of B2 MBL BioF as a potent carbapenemase in a BPS bacterial isolate emphasizes the importance of exploring antibiotic resistances existing in the environmental microbiota under the influence of human activities before they could emerge clinically.

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Topics: Antibiotic resistance (50%)
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Open access
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: The supplemental information presented in this document is intended for use with the antimicrobial susceptibility testing procedures published in the following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)–approved standards: M02-A12—Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—Twelfth Edition; M07-A10—Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard—Tenth Edition; and M11-A8—Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard— Eighth Edition. The standards contain information about both disk (M02) and dilution (M07 and M11) test procedures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Clinicians depend heavily on information from the microbiology laboratory for treatment of their seriously ill patients. The clinical importance of antimicrobial susceptibility test results demands that these tests be performed under optimal conditions and that laboratories have the capability to provide results for the newest antimicrobial agents. The tabular information presented here represents the most current information for drug selection, interpretation, and QC using the procedures standardized in the most current editions of M02, M07, and M11. Users should replace the tables published earlier with these new tables. (Changes in the tables since the previous edition appear in boldface type.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 26th ed. CLSI supplement M100S (ISBN 1-56238-923-8 [Print]; ISBN 1-56238924-6 [Electronic]). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Road, Suite 2500, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087 USA, 2016. The data in the interpretive tables in this supplement are valid only if the methodologies in M02-A12—Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—Twelfth Edition; M07-A10—Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard—Tenth Edition; and M11-A8—Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Anaerobic Bacteria; Approved Standard— Eighth Edition are followed.

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14,630 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.200390319
17 Mar 2003-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Intermolecular interactions involving aromatic rings are key processes in both chemical and biological recognition. Their understanding is essential for rational drug design and lead optimization in medicinal chemistry. Different approaches—biological studies, molecular recognition studies with artificial receptors, crystallographic database mining, gas-phase studies, and theoretical calculations—are pursued to generate a profound understanding of the structural and energetic parameters of individual recognition modes involving aromatic rings. This review attempts to combine and summarize the knowledge gained from these investigations. The review focuses mainly on examples with biological relevance since one of its aims it to enhance the knowledge of molecular recognition forces that is essential for drug development.

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2,897 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30753-3
Abstract: Summary Background The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a substantial threat to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to its large public health and societal implications, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been long regarded by WHO as a global priority for investment in new drugs. In 2016, WHO was requested by member states to create a priority list of other antibiotic-resistant bacteria to support research and development of effective drugs. Methods We used a multicriteria decision analysis method to prioritise antibiotic-resistant bacteria; this method involved the identification of relevant criteria to assess priority against which each antibiotic-resistant bacterium was rated. The final priority ranking of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria was established after a preference-based survey was used to obtain expert weighting of criteria. Findings We selected 20 bacterial species with 25 patterns of acquired resistance and ten criteria to assess priority: mortality, health-care burden, community burden, prevalence of resistance, 10-year trend of resistance, transmissibility, preventability in the community setting, preventability in the health-care setting, treatability, and pipeline. We stratified the priority list into three tiers (critical, high, and medium priority), using the 33rd percentile of the bacterium's total scores as the cutoff. Critical-priority bacteria included carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and carbapenem-resistant and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The highest ranked Gram-positive bacteria (high priority) were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Of the bacteria typically responsible for community-acquired infections, clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori , and fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp, Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and Salmonella typhi were included in the high-priority tier. Interpretation Future development strategies should focus on antibiotics that are active against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and Gram-negative bacteria. The global strategy should include antibiotic-resistant bacteria responsible for community-acquired infections such as Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, N gonorrhoeae , and H pylori . Funding World Health Organization.

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Topics: Antibiotic resistance (54%)

1,696 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1717295115
Abstract: Tracking antibiotic consumption patterns over time and across countries could inform policies to optimize antibiotic prescribing and minimize antibiotic resistance, such as setting and enforcing per capita consumption targets or aiding investments in alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the trends and drivers of antibiotic consumption from 2000 to 2015 in 76 countries and projected total global antibiotic consumption through 2030. Between 2000 and 2015, antibiotic consumption, expressed in defined daily doses (DDD), increased 65% (21.1–34.8 billion DDDs), and the antibiotic consumption rate increased 39% (11.3–15.7 DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day). The increase was driven by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where rising consumption was correlated with gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) growth (P = 0.004). In high-income countries (HICs), although overall consumption increased modestly, DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day fell 4%, and there was no correlation with GDPPC. Of particular concern was the rapid increase in the use of last-resort compounds, both in HICs and LMICs, such as glycylcyclines, oxazolidinones, carbapenems, and polymyxins. Projections of global antibiotic consumption in 2030, assuming no policy changes, were up to 200% higher than the 42 billion DDDs estimated in 2015. Although antibiotic consumption rates in most LMICs remain lower than in HICs despite higher bacterial disease burden, consumption in LMICs is rapidly converging to rates similar to HICs. Reducing global consumption is critical for reducing the threat of antibiotic resistance, but reduction efforts must balance access limitations in LMICs and take account of local and global resistance patterns.

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Topics: Bacterial disease (51%)

1,054 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/AAC.00296-11
Abstract: In this review, we summarize the current "state of the art" of carbapenem antibiotics and their role in our antimicrobial armamentarium. Among the β-lactams currently available, carbapenems are unique because they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases, in some cases act as "slow substrates" or inhibitors of β-lactamases, and still target penicillin binding proteins. This "value-added feature" of inhibiting β-lactamases serves as a major rationale for expansion of this class of β-lactams. We describe the initial discovery and development of the carbapenem family of β-lactams. Of the early carbapenems evaluated, thienamycin demonstrated the greatest antimicrobial activity and became the parent compound for all subsequent carbapenems. To date, more than 80 compounds with mostly improved antimicrobial properties, compared to those of thienamycin, are described in the literature. We also highlight important features of the carbapenems that are presently in clinical use: imipenem-cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, doripenem, panipenem-betamipron, and biapenem. In closing, we emphasize some major challenges and urge the medicinal chemist to continue development of these versatile and potent compounds, as they have served us well for more than 3 decades.

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Topics: Carbapenem (55%), Thienamycin (54%), Ertapenem (52%) ... show more

837 Citations


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