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Journal ArticleDOI

3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Based on a Silicon Parallelogram Kinematic: From Concept to Fabrication

01 Feb 2019-IEEE\/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems (IEEE)-Vol. 28, Iss: 1, pp 63-76

AbstractThis paper reports on a unique tactile microprobe based on a parallelogram kinematic made from monocrystalline silicon. This kinematic, made out of an orthogonal cascade assembly of three identical parallelograms, provides an isotropic behavior to the microprobe. Each parallelogram deflects in only one direction thanks to thin elastic silicon membrane hinges and their displacements are recognized using piezoresistors integrated into these hinges. Wide deflection ranges, isotropic behavior, and low mechanical stiffness of the new microprobe, as predicted by simulations, could be verified in experiments. The fabrication, the assembly, and the contacting of the first microprobe prototype was optimized to allow very compact integration into a O11 mm housing. This make it suitable for metrology research laboratories and industries equipped with conventional coordinate measurement machines and even for a variety of other 3-D force/displacement measurements. [2018-0157]

Topics: Microprobe (60%), Parallelogram (54%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper describes the experimental verification of the novel IMT-PTB microprobe combined with a uniquely designed microenvironment. The microprobe consists of three silicon-based parallelograms stacked orthogonally, which leads to high isotropy. The probe tip deflections are detected in 3D with the help of piezoresistors placed in the parallelograms. The microenvironment facilitates and improves the measurement of workpieces with submillimeter features. The new microprobe and the microenvironment were integrated into a commercial coordinate measuring machine (CMM). To evaluate the microprobe performance, PTB produced and calibrated three reference objects: a cube, a sphere, and a microgear measurement standard. The differences between the calibration values and the measurement results obtained by the microprobe were in the sub-micrometer range. Furthermore, the microprobe was compared with the standard probing system of the gear measuring machine by measuring the reference objects with identical parameters. The results show the excellent performance of the micro probing system, thereby extending the capability of the CMM for high-precision measurements of complex workpieces at the microscale.

2 citations


Cites background or methods from "3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Ba..."

  • ...With the goal to facilitate this integration, a novel silicon microprobe based on a parallelogram design has been developed, presented [36, 37] and patented [38]....

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  • ...Finally, the cells and IPs were glued together in an aluminum machined special tool presented in [37]....

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  • ...27% was reported in [37] for a range of ±200 μm on X , Y , and +200 μm on Z ....

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  • ...The voltage was transmitted to each cell using pass-through tracks on the IPs and those on the front of the cells....

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  • ...To complete the assembly, all tracks of the cells were hand-soldered to one of the IPs [37]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Jun 2019
Abstract: A fully-functional silicon-based microprobe consisting of three identical measuring cells mounted orthogonally has been developed. The microfabricated measuring cells act as miniaturized load cells, each offering a large measuring range and low stiffness in only one direction thanks to a silicon parallelogram structure. The microassembly of three parallelogram structures using interposers results in an isotropic 3D kinematic microprobe. Piezoresistive sensing provides sub-micrometer accuracy. Highly reproducible and reliable manufacturing processes such as anodic bonding were recently introduced to build the measuring cell. In addition to the standard mechanical and electrical characterization of the microprobe, a dynamic characterization was performed. It was demonstrated that the new microprobe can be used in a commercial coordinate measuring machine (CMM) thereby extending its applicability for dimensional measurement of microcomponents.

1 citations


Cites background or methods from "3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Ba..."

  • ...In addition to a characterization already given in [6], the frequency response of the measuring cell and of the microprobe is detailed....

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  • ...Table 1: Properties of isotropic microprobe [6, 10]....

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  • ...In previous work [6, 10], the properties of the single (glued) measuring cells and the 3D microprobe were described in detail....

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  • ...In contrast to earlier concepts, adhesive bonding [6] is replaced by the more reproducible and reliable anodic bonding of two silicon wafers using a structured intermediate glass substrate....

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  • ...A thin polyimide film coated with epoxy adhesive was used to transfer the adhesive on the surfaces to bond [6, 10]....

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References
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Book ChapterDOI

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01 Jan 2012

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Journal ArticleDOI

36,037 citations


"3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Ba..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Monocrystalline silicon is a perfect material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) [40], [41], because of excellent mechanical properties not suffering from degradation [42] and temperature independent elasticity [43]–[45]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Young's modulus (E) of a material is a key parameter for mechanical engineering design. Silicon, the most common single material used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), is an anisotropic crystalline material whose material properties depend on orientation relative to the crystal lattice. This fact means that the correct value of E for analyzing two different designs in silicon may differ by up to 45%. However, perhaps, because of the perceived complexity of the subject, many researchers oversimplify silicon elastic behavior and use inaccurate values for design and analysis. This paper presents the best known elasticity data for silicon, both in depth and in a summary form, so that it may be readily accessible to MEMS designers.

1,486 citations


"3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Ba..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...In a similar study on a silicon based system [47], it has been shown that with the right assumption of material properties, FEM simulations provide better predictions than analytical methods....

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  • ...and with a Young’s modulus E100 = 130 GPa defined for the silicon with a (100) crystal orientation [47]....

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  • ...The FEM simulations were carried out assuming an isotropic material (with E100 in all directions) and assuming the anisotropic material properties of (100) oriented silicon [47]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Dimensional parameters are the most commonly encountered quality characteristics of workpieces. The measuring process for testing conformance of those characteristics contains the important sub-process of probing the surface. A huge variety of probing systems for performing different measurement tasks on the shop floor, as well as in the metrological environment, have been developed. In coordinate measuring machines (CMM) probing systems must ensure reproducibility of the sensing operation even in the sub-micrometer range. This paper describes requirements, different principles and characteristics of tactile probing systems in dimensional metrology, with examples of several probing systems that are used in practice.

293 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: When subjected to alternating stresses, most materials degrade, e.g., suffer premature failure, due to a phenomenon known as fatigue. It is generally accepted that in brittle materials, such as ceramics, fatigue can only take place in toughened solids, i.e., premature fatigue failure would not be expected in materials such as single crystal silicon. The results of this study, however, appear to be at odds with the current understanding of brittle material fatigue. Twelve thin-film (/spl sim/20 /spl mu/m thick) single crystal silicon specimens were tested to failure in a controlled air environment (30/spl plusmn/0.1/spl deg/C, 50/spl plusmn/2% relative humidity). Damage accumulation and failure of the notched cantilever beams were monitored electrically during the "fatigue life" test. Specimen lives ranged from about 10 s to 48 days, or 1/spl times/106 to 1/spl times/1011 cycles before failure over stress amplitudes ranging from approximately 4 to 10 GPa. A variety of mechanisms are discussed in light of the fatigue life data and fracture surface evaluation.

218 citations


"3-D Isotropic Tactile Microprobe Ba..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Monocrystalline silicon is a perfect material for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) [40], [41], because of excellent mechanical properties not suffering from degradation [42] and temperature independent elasticity [43]–[45]....

    [...]

  • ...In contrast to metals or polymers, monocrystalline silicon is a perfect non-degrading material [42]....

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Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What are the contributions in this paper?

This work reports on a unique tactile microprobe based on a parallelogram kinematic made from monocrystalline silicon. This kinematic, made out of an orthogonal cascade assembly of three identical parallelograms, provides an isotropic behavior to the microprobe. This make it suitable for metrology research laboratories as well as industries equipped with conventional coordinate measurement machines and even for a variety of other 3D force/displacement measurements.