TL;DR: This work focuses on gravitational wave (GW) emission from rotating collapse, bounce, and early postbounce phases and indicates that the GW signature of these phases is much more generic than previously estimated.
Abstract: We present 2D and 3D simulations of the collapse of rotating stellar iron cores in general relativity employing a nuclear equation of state and an approximate treatment of deleptonization. We compare fully general relativistic and conformally flat evolutions and find that the latter treatment is sufficiently accurate for the core-collapse supernova problem. We focus on gravitational wave (GW) emission from rotating collapse, bounce, and early postbounce phases. Our results indicate that the GW signature of these phases is much more generic than previously estimated. We also track the growth of a nonaxisymmetric instability in one model, leading to strong narrow-band GW emission.
Abstract: Supernova theory, numerical and analytic, has made remarkable progress in the past decade. This progress was made possible by more sophisticated simulation tools, especially for neutrino transport, improved microphysics, and deeper insights into the role of hydrodynamic instabilities. Violent, large-scale nonradial mass motions are generic in supernova cores. The neutrino-heating mechanism, aided by nonradial flows, drives explosions, albeit low-energy ones, of O-Ne-Mg-core and some Fe-core progenitors. The characteristics of the neutrino emission from newborn neutron stars were revised, new features of the gravitational-wave signals were discovered, our notion of supernova nucleosynthesis was shattered, and our understanding of pulsar kicks and explosion asymmetries was significantly improved. But simulations also suggest that neutrino-powered explosions might not explain the most energetic supernovae and hypernovae, which seem to demand magnetorotational driving. Now that modeling is being advanced from...
Abstract: Supernova theory, numerical and analytic, has made remarkable progress in the past decade. This progress was made possible by more sophisticated simulation tools, especially for neutrino transport, improved microphysics, and deeper insights into the role of hydrodynamic instabilities. Violent, large-scale nonradial mass motions are generic in supernova cores. The neutrino-heating mechanism, aided by nonradial flows, drives explosions, albeit low-energy ones, of ONeMg-core and some Fe-core progenitors. The characteristics of the neutrino emission from new-born neutron stars were revised, new features of the gravitational-wave signals were discovered, our notion of supernova nucleosynthesis was shattered, and our understanding of pulsar kicks and explosion asymmetries was significantly improved. But simulations also suggest that neutrino-powered explosions might not explain the most energetic supernovae and hypernovae, which seem to demand magnetorotational driving. Now that modeling is being advanced from two to three dimensions, more realism, new perspectives, and hopefully answers to long-standing questions are coming into reach.
Abstract: We present results of a systematic study of failing core-collapse supernovae and the formation of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). Using our open-source general-relativistic 1.5D code GR1D equipped with a three-species neutrino leakage/heating scheme and over 100 presupernova models, we study the effects of the choice of nuclear equation
of state (EOS), zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, rotation, and mass-loss prescription on
BH formation. We find that the outcome, for a given EOS, can be estimated, to first order, by a single parameter,
the compactness of the stellar core at bounce. By comparing protoneutron star (PNS) structure at the onset
of gravitational instability with solutions of the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkof equations, we find that thermal
pressure support in the outer PNS core is responsible for raising the maximum PNS mass by up to 25% above the
cold NS value. By artificially increasing neutrino heating, we find the critical neutrino heating efficiency required
for exploding a given progenitor structure and connect these findings with ZAMS conditions, establishing, albeit
approximately, for the first time based on actual collapse simulations, the mapping between ZAMS parameters and
the outcome of core collapse. We also study the effect of progenitor rotation and find that the dimensionless spin of
nascent BHs may be robustly limited below a* = Jc/GM^2 = 1 by the appearance of nonaxisymmetric rotational
Abstract: We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of stellar core collapse and develop the framework for a detailed analysis of the energetic aspects of neutrino-powered supernova explosions. Our results confirm that the neutrino-heating mechanism remains a viable explanation of the explosion of a wider mass range of supernova progenitors with iron cores, but the explosion sets in later and develops differently than thought so far. The calculations were performed with an energy-dependent treatment of the neutrino transport based on the ray-by-ray plus approximation, in which the neutrino number, energy, and momentum equations are closed with a variable Eddington factor obtained by iteratively solving a model Boltzmann equation. We focus here on the evolution of a 15 M ☉ progenitor and provide evidence that shock revival and an explosion are initiated at about 600 ms after core bounce, powered by neutrino energy deposition. This is significantly later than previously found for an 11.2 M ☉ star, for which we also present a continuation of the explosion model published by Buras et al. The onset of the blast is fostered in both cases by the standing accretion-shock instability. This instability exhibits highest growth rates for the dipole and quadrupole modes, which lead to large-amplitude bipolar shock oscillations and push the shock to larger radii, thus increasing the time accreted matter is exposed to neutrino heating in the gain layer. As a consequence, also convective overturn behind the shock is strengthened, which otherwise is suppressed or damped because of the small shock stagnation radius. When the explosion sets in, the shock reveals a pronounced global deformation with a dominant dipolar component. In both the 11.2 M ☉ and 15 M ☉ explosions long-lasting equatorial downflows supply the gain layer with fresh gas, of which a sizable fraction is heated by neutrinos and leads to the build-up of the explosion energy of the ejecta over possibly hundreds of milliseconds. A soft nuclear equation of state that causes a rapid contraction, and a smaller radius of the forming neutron star and thus a fast release of gravitational binding energy, seems to be more favorable for the development of an explosion. Rotation has the opposite effect because in the long run it leads to a more extended and cooler neutron star and thus lower neutrino luminosities and mean energies and overall less neutrino heating. Neutron star g-mode oscillations, although we see their presence, and the acoustic mechanism play no important role in our simulations. While numerical tests show that our code is also well able to follow large-amplitude core g-modes if they are instigated; the amplitude of such oscillations remains small in our supernova runs and the acoustic energy flux injected by the ringing neutron star and by the deceleration of supersonic downflows near the neutron star surface is small compared to the neutrino energy deposition.
Cites background from "3D collapse of rotating stellar iro..."
...…to differ from the axially symmetric 2D case, and new degrees of freedom may play a non-negligible and potentially helpful role, for example spiral waves (m 6= 0 modes) and triaxial instabilities (see, e.g., Blondin & Mezzacappa 2007, Ott et al. 2007, Yamasaki & Foglizzo 2007, Iwakami et al. 2008)....
Abstract: We describe the Einstein Toolkit, a community-driven, freely accessible computational infrastructure intended for use in numerical relativity, relativistic astrophysics, and other applications. The toolkit, developed by a collaboration involving researchers from multiple institutions around the world, combines a core set of components needed to simulate astrophysical objects such as black holes, compact objects, and collapsing stars, as well as a full suite of analysis tools. The Einstein Toolkit is currently based on the Cactus framework for high-performance computing and the Carpet adaptive mesh refinement driver. It implements spacetime evolution via the BSSN evolution system and general relativistic hydrodynamics in a finite-volume discretization. The toolkit is under continuous development and contains many new code components that have been publicly released for the first time and are described in this paper. We discuss the motivation behind the release of the toolkit, the philosophy underlying its development, and the goals of the project. A summary of the implemented numerical techniques is included, as are results of numerical test covering a variety of sample astrophysical problems.