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Journal ArticleDOI

3D models related to the publication: Patterns of bilateral asymmetry and allometry in Late Devonian Polygnathus conodonts

03 Mar 2021-Vol. 7, Iss: 2
Topics: Late Devonian extinction (52%), Conodont (51%)

Summary (1 min read)

Jump to: [INTRODUCTION] and [METHODS]

INTRODUCTION

  • This contribution presents 3D models of 64 Famennien (Late Devonian) conodont elements belonging to two Polygnathus species (see Table 1 and Fig. 1 ).
  • All elements correspond to platform (P1) elements, located at the rear of the conodont feeding apparatus.
  • They illustrate the morphological variation between and within the species, including bilateral asymmetry and growth.
  • Allometry was most pronounced in Polygnathus communis, leading from small, heart-shaped to large, lanceolate platforms.
  • On the mean shape of left elements, the posterior margin extended more ventrally, the posterior platform was more elevated and displayed a shallower groove, as confirmed by the example of actual elements (Fig. 1 ).

METHODS

  • Digitization of the specimens was performed using an X-ray microtomograph (µCT) Phoenix nanotomeS on the AniRA-Immos platform of the SFR Biosciences (UMS 3444, ENS Lyon) at a cubic voxel resolution of 1 µm.
  • The 3D surfaces were extracted semi-automatically within AVIZO 9 (Thermofisher Scientific) using the segmentation threshold selection tool.
  • The 3D surfaces are provided in .ply format, and can therefore be opened with a wide range of freeware.

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3D models related to the publication: Patterns of
bilateral asymmetry and allometry in Late Devonian
Polygnathus conodonts
Catherine Girard, Anne-lise Charruault, Ronan Ledevin, Sabrina Renaud
To cite this version:
Catherine Girard, Anne-lise Charruault, Ronan Ledevin, Sabrina Renaud. 3D models related to the
publication: Patterns of bilateral asymmetry and allometry in Late Devonian Polygnathus conodonts.
MorphoMuseum, Association Palæovertebrata, 2021, 7 (2), �10.18563/journal.m3.126�. �hal-03283620�

Dataset
3D models related to the publication: Patterns of bilateral
asymmetry and allometry in Late Devonian Polygnathus conodonts
Catherine Girard
1
*, Anne-Lise Charruault
1
, Ronan Ledevin
2,3
, Sabrina Renaud
2
1
Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (ISEM), Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Montpellier, France
2
Laboratoire de Biom
´
etrie et Biologie Evolutive, UMR 5558 CNRS, Universit
´
e Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universit
´
e de Lyon, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
3
Current address: UMR5199 PACEA, Universit
´
e de Bordeaux, All
´
ee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire (Bat. B8), 33615 PESSAC, France
*Corresponding author: catherine.girard@umontpellier.fr
Abstract
This contribution contains the 3D models of the set of Famennian conodont elements belonging to the species
Polygnathus glaber and Polygnathus communis analyzed in the following publication: Renaud et al. 2021: Patterns
of bilateral asymmetry and allometry in Late Devonian Polygnathus. Palaeontology, https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12513.
Keywords: Conodonts, Late Devonian, Polygnathus communis, Polygnathus glaber
Submitted:2020-08-11, published online:2021-03-03. https://doi.org/10.18563/journal.m3.126
Inv. Nr Taxon Description
UM BUS 001 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 002 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 003 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 004 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 005 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 006 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 007 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 008 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 009 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 010 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 011 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 012 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 013 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 014 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 015 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 016 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 017 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 018 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 019 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 020 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 021 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 022 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 023 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 024 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 025 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 026 Polygnathus glaber left P1 element
UM BUS 027 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 028 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 029 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM BUS 030 Polygnathus glaber right P1 element
UM CTB 001 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 002 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 003 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 004 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 005 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 006 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 007 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 008 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 009 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 010 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 011 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 012 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 013 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 014 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 015 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 016 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 017 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 018 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 019 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 020 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
UM CTB 021 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 022 Polygnathus communis left element
UM CTB 023 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 024 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 025 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 026 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 027 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 028 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 029 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 030 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 031 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 032 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 033 Polygnathus communis left P1 element
UM CTB 034 Polygnathus communis right P1 element
Table 1.
3D models of Polygnathus glaber and of Polygnathus com-
munis. Collection: University of Montpellier, France.
INTRODUCTION
This contribution presents 3D models of 64 Famennien (Late
Devonian) conodont elements belonging to two Polygnathus
species (see Table 1 and Fig. 1). All elements correspond

3D models of Late Devonian Polygnathus 2/3
to platform (P1) elements, located at the rear of the conodont
feeding apparatus. Polygnathus communis was sampled by 34
elements from two levels of the Col des Tribes section (CTB;
Montagne Noire, France) (Girard et al. 2014) and Polygnathus
glaber by 30 elements from one level of the Buschteich section
(BUS; Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) (Girard et al. 2017). They
illustrate the morphological variation between and within the
species, including bilateral asymmetry and growth.
The 3D surface of these elements were used in a geometric
morphometric analysis complementing an extensive 2D quan-
titative study (Renaud et al. 2021). Based on a set of sliding
semi-landmarks located at the edge of the platform and on the ca-
rina, this study aimed at disentangling the different components
of the morphological variation in Late Devonian Polygnathus P1
elements. The 3D morphometric analysis improved the descrip-
tion of the geometric changes involved in growth and bilateral
asymmetry and provided evidence that the balance between the
two components of shape variance varies across species. Allom-
etry was most pronounced in Polygnathus communis, leading
from small, heart-shaped to large, lanceolate platforms. In con-
trast, bilateral asymmetry was most pronounced in Po. glaber,
suggestive in this species of a strict directional asymmetry. On
the mean shape of left elements, the posterior margin extended
more ventrally, the posterior platform was more elevated and
displayed a shallower groove, as confirmed by the example of
actual elements (Fig. 1). The reverse is true for the right ele-
ment, with, however, less offset between the ventral extension
of the posterior and anterior margins. Knowing that the left
blade is assumed to insert behind the right one, based on ex-
isting clusters (Donoghue and Purnell 1999; Mart
´
ınez-P
´
erez
et al. 2016), the geometric differences between right and left
elements, evidenced on the 3D models, could be associated with
the asymmetrical pairing of the elements during occlusion.
METHODS
Digitization of the specimens was performed using an X-ray mi-
crotomograph (
µ
CT) Phoenix nanotomeS on the AniRA-Immos
platform of the SFR Biosciences (UMS 3444, ENS Lyon) at
a cubic voxel resolution of 1
µ
m. The scanning parameters
were as follow: 100 kV, 70
µ
A, 3000 projections at 360
°
with
no filter. The 3D surfaces were extracted semi-automatically
within AVIZO 9 (Thermofisher Scientific) using the segmenta-
tion threshold selection tool. The 3D surfaces are provided in
.ply format, and can therefore be opened with a wide range of
freeware.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We acknowledge the contribution of SFR Biosciences (UMS3444/
CNRS, US8/Inserm, ENS de Lyon, UCBL) AniRa-ImmOs fa-
cility. We particularly thank Mathilde Bouchet for her kind
assistance during the scanning sessions. The research was sup-
ported by the ANR ECODEV (ANR-13-BSV7-005) and the
Project Marcon (Labex CeMEB). This is contribution ISEM
2020-226.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Donoghue, P. C., Purnell, M. A. 1999. Mammal-like occlusion
in conodonts. Paleobiology 25(1), 58-74.
Girard, C., Corn
´
ee, J.-J., Charruault, A.-L., Corradini, C., Weyer,
D., Bartzsch, K., Joachimski, M. M., Feist, R. 2017. Con-
odont biostratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental trends during
the Famennian (Late Devonian) in the Thuringian Buschteich
section (Germany). Newsletters on Stratigraphy 50(1), 71-89.
https://doi.org/10.1127/nos/2016/0318
Girard, C., Corn
´
ee, J.-J., Corradini, C., Fravalo, A., Feist, R.
2014. Palaeoenvironmental changes at Col des Tribes (Mon-
tagne Noire, France), a reference section for the Famennian
of north Gondwana-related areas. Geological Magazine 151,
864-884. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0016756813000927
Mart
´
ınez-P
´
erez, C., Rayfield, E. J., Botella, H., Donoghue, P.
C. 2016. Translating taxonomy into the evolution of conodont
feeding ecology. Geology 44, 247-250. https://doi.org/10.11
30/G37547.1
Renaud, S., Ecalle, B., Claisse, P., Charruault, A.-L., Ledevin,
R., Girard, C. 2021. Patterns of bilateral asymmetry and allom-
etry in Late Devonian Polygnathus conodonts. Palaeontology.
https://doi.org/10.1111/pala.12513
M3 Journal 6:e126 ISSN: 2274-0422

3D models of Late Devonian Polygnathus 3/3
Figure 1.
Illustrations based on isolated right and left elements of Po. glaber (A), large Po. communis (B) and small Po. communis (C). (A, B, C)
left element to the left and right element to the right. Top panels, oral view; bottom panels, profile view. The position of the slice corresponding to
the profile view is marked by a line on the oral view. Elements not to scale. Specimens figured: (A) Po. glaber right (UM BUS 027) and left (UM
BUS 026); (B) large Po. communis left (UM CTB 010) and right (UM CTB 009); (C) small Po. communis left (UM CTB 006) and right (UM
CTB 003).
M3 Journal 6:e126 ISSN: 2274-0422
Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extensive 2D and 3D morphometric quantifications provided highly congruent results, showing that the 2D shape constitutes a good approximation of the element geometry and further insights into the relationship between the geometry of the elements and the constraints related to occlusion are delivered.
Abstract: Conodont animals were early jawless vertebrates equipped with a feeding apparatus composed of several tooth-like elements. The P1 elements, at the rear of the apparatus, were characterized by a robust shape and rapid morphological evolution. Occlusion occurred between paired right and left P1 elements, occasioning some bilateral asymmetry, which, together with allometric growth, may partially obliterate the temporal differences. The present study aims to disentangle these different components of morphological variation in Late Devonian Polygnathus P1 conodont elements. An extensive 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the platform shape was performed through the Famennian record of two outcrops. This analysis was completed by a 3D study on a subset of conodont elements. The 2D and 3D morphometric quantifications provided highly congruent results, showing that the 2D shape constitutes a good approximation of the element geometry. The 3D analysis delivered further insights into the relationship between the geometry of the elements and the constraints related to occlusion. The 2D analysis allowed a quantitative assessment of the variation among species and through time. Allometry and bilateral asymmetry were differently expressed depending on the species considered, suggesting that constraints imposed on pairing by the morphology of the elements varied even among related species. The within-species variation was so important that it largely obliterated temporal trends; a relationship of Polygnathus shape and conodont biofacies variations through the Famennian nevertheless suggested an evolution driven by ecological interactions between conodont genera.

2 citations


References
More filters

Journal Article
TL;DR: Analysis of pairs of conodont elements from individuals of Idiognathodus indicates that these elements crushed food by rotational closure, which brought the oral surfaces into complex interpenetrative occlusion.
Abstract: Conodont element function and feeding mechanisms are of considerable paleobiological importance, yet many details remain poorly understood and speculative. Analysis based on mor- phology, physical juxtaposition, and patterns of surface damage and microwear on pairs of Pa el- ements from individuals of Idiognathodus indicates that these elements crushed food by rotational closure, which brought the oral surfaces into complex interpenetrative occlusion. Other molariform conodont elements also functioned in this manner. Occlusion of this complexity is unique among nonmammalian vertebrates, and is all the more surprising given that conodonts lacked jaws. In addition to enhanced understanding of food processing in conodonts, our analysis suggests that many details of conodont Pa element morphology, which underpin taxonomy and biostratigraphy, can now be interpreted in a paleobiological, functional context.

52 citations


"3D models related to the publicatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Knowing that the left blade is assumed to insert behind the right one, based on existing clusters (Donoghue and Purnell 1999; Martı́nez-Pérez et al. 2016), the geometric differences between right and left elements, evidenced on the 3D models, could be associated with the asymmetrical pairing of the elements during occlusion....

    [...]

  • ...Knowing that the left blade is assumed to insert behind the right one, based on existing clusters (Donoghue and Purnell 1999; Martı́nez-Pérez et al. 2016), the geometric differences between right and left elements, evidenced on the 3D models, could be associated with the asymmetrical pairing of…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We present detailed biostratigraphy based on conodonts and palaeoenvironmental trends deduced from microfacies and conodont abundance through the Famennian (Late Devonian) at Col des Tribes (Montagne Noire, France). The succession is characterized by micritic limestones deposited in settings oscillating between mid to outer ramp. Facies contain poor fauna, widely dominated by nektonic organisms. This section is complete and one of the most conodont-rich for the Famennian of the north Gondwana-related area. The Upper Kellwasser event (Frasnian–Famennian boundary) and the Hangenberg (Devonian–Carboniferous boundary) have been lithologically identified. They are characterized by decimetre-thick black dysoxic to anoxic argillaceous sediments. The Condroz and annulata events, although not materialized by lithological changes, have been positioned due to the precise stratigraphy. The first event occurred during the deposition of condensed ferruginous facies (griotte limestones) and the second event during the deposition of micrites barren of benthic fauna. The combination of information from both facies and conodont biofacies changes allows a general sea-level curve through the entire Famennian for north Gondwana to be proposed for the first time. At Col des Tribes, the general trend is a slight deepening upwards from triangularis to trachytera zones, then a pronounced shallowing-upwards trend from upper trachytera to praesulcata zones. This curve correlates with the well-known reference curve from Euramerica concerning the late Famennian (trachytera to praesulcata Zones). There are some discrepancies in minor cycles which can be explained by tectonical phenomena at the onset of the edification of the Variscan belt in Europe.

34 citations


"3D models related to the publicatio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...Polygnathus communis was sampled by 34 elements from two levels of the Col des Tribes section (CTB; Montagne Noire, France) (Girard et al. 2014) and Polygnathus glaber by 30 elements from one level of the Buschteich section (BUS; Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) (Girard et al. 2017)....

    [...]

  • ...Palaeoenvironmental changes at Col des Tribes (Montagne Noire, France), a reference section for the Famennian of north Gondwana-related areas....

    [...]

  • ...Polygnathus communis was sampled by 34 elements from two levels of the Col des Tribes section (CTB; Montagne Noire, France) (Girard et al. 2014) and Polygnathus glaber by 30 elements from one level of the Buschteich section (BUS; Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) (Girard et al....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2016-Geology
TL;DR: This study shows that the evolution of the platform in Polygnathus occurred to accommodate and dissipate the stress accumulation derived from the tooth-like function that the P 1 elements performed, suggesting that this recurrent motif of conodont evolution represents an adaptive response to recurrent functional selective pressures.
Abstract: Conodont research has long been divided between utilitarian applications to solve geological problems versus analysis of their paleobiology. However, recent advances in conodont functional analysis allow these independent stands of research to be unified, decoding the functional implications of their morphological variation. We demonstrate this using synchrotron tomography and finite element analysis, informed by occlusal and microwear analyses, to analyze functionally the classic evolutionary sequence of the genus Polygnathus. Our study shows that the evolution of the platform in Polygnathus occurred to accommodate and dissipate the stress accumulation derived from the tooth-like function that the P 1 elements performed, suggesting that this recurrent motif of conodont evolution represents an adaptive response to recurrent functional selective pressures. Our study establishes a framework in which the functional ecology of conodonts can be read from their rich taxonomy and phylogeny, representing an important attempt to understand the role of this abundant and diverse clade in the Phanerozoic marine ecosystems.

21 citations


"3D models related to the publicatio..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Knowing that the left blade is assumed to insert behind the right one, based on existing clusters (Donoghue and Purnell 1999; Martı́nez-Pérez et al. 2016), the geometric differences between right and left elements, evidenced on the 3D models, could be associated with the asymmetrical pairing of the elements during occlusion....

    [...]

  • ...Knowing that the left blade is assumed to insert behind the right one, based on existing clusters (Donoghue and Purnell 1999; Martı́nez-Pérez et al. 2016), the geometric differences between right and left elements, evidenced on the 3D models, could be associated with the asymmetrical pairing of…...

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This study characterizes the stratigraphical context as well as the palaeoenvironmental and sea-level trends during the Late Frasnian and Famennian in the Buschteich section (Thuringia, Germany). An integrated approach combines conodont biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy based on carbon and oxygen isotopes , conodont biofacies analyses and investigations of the morphotypes of foraminifera that occur in the section was applied. Conodonts provided a fine-scale biostratigraphical framework. All the Famennian con-odont biozones were identified, with the exception of the three lowest. The Frasnian-Famennian transition was further identified by a positive carbon isotope excursion. This continuous Famennian record is developed in a condensed limestone succession. The reddish Griotte facies, typical of strata of this period, were not documented. Black shales were not developed except for an interval of dark colored mud rocks corresponding to the Hangenberg event at the top of the section. The carbonate succession of Buschteich was deposited in an outer ramp environment, pelagic organisms are the dominant fauna. This is corroborated by the overall dominance of the deep-water conodont genus Palmatolepis. Microfacies, conodont biofacies and foramini-fera indicated a deepening trend from the Lower crepida to the Lower rhomboidea Zone, followed by a shal-lowing trend from the Upper rhomboidea to the praesulcata Zone. This sequence overall matches the sea level reference curve for Euramerica. The timing of maximum water depth at Buschteich, as well as the general sea-level reference record, differs from the Col des Tribes (Montagne Noire, France). Differential uplift or overprinting of the long-term eustatic changes may be the cause of the discrepancy in the local sea-level records.

12 citations


"3D models related to the publicatio..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Polygnathus communis was sampled by 34 elements from two levels of the Col des Tribes section (CTB; Montagne Noire, France) (Girard et al. 2014) and Polygnathus glaber by 30 elements from one level of the Buschteich section (BUS; Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) (Girard et al. 2017)....

    [...]

  • ...2014) and Polygnathus glaber by 30 elements from one level of the Buschteich section (BUS; Saxo-Thuringia, Germany) (Girard et al. 2017)....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An extensive 2D and 3D morphometric quantifications provided highly congruent results, showing that the 2D shape constitutes a good approximation of the element geometry and further insights into the relationship between the geometry of the elements and the constraints related to occlusion are delivered.
Abstract: Conodont animals were early jawless vertebrates equipped with a feeding apparatus composed of several tooth-like elements. The P1 elements, at the rear of the apparatus, were characterized by a robust shape and rapid morphological evolution. Occlusion occurred between paired right and left P1 elements, occasioning some bilateral asymmetry, which, together with allometric growth, may partially obliterate the temporal differences. The present study aims to disentangle these different components of morphological variation in Late Devonian Polygnathus P1 conodont elements. An extensive 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the platform shape was performed through the Famennian record of two outcrops. This analysis was completed by a 3D study on a subset of conodont elements. The 2D and 3D morphometric quantifications provided highly congruent results, showing that the 2D shape constitutes a good approximation of the element geometry. The 3D analysis delivered further insights into the relationship between the geometry of the elements and the constraints related to occlusion. The 2D analysis allowed a quantitative assessment of the variation among species and through time. Allometry and bilateral asymmetry were differently expressed depending on the species considered, suggesting that constraints imposed on pairing by the morphology of the elements varied even among related species. The within-species variation was so important that it largely obliterated temporal trends; a relationship of Polygnathus shape and conodont biofacies variations through the Famennian nevertheless suggested an evolution driven by ecological interactions between conodont genera.

2 citations


"3D models related to the publicatio..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The 3D surface of these elements were used in a geometric morphometric analysis complementing an extensive 2D quantitative study (Renaud et al. 2021)....

    [...]


Frequently Asked Questions (1)
Q1. What have the authors contributed in "3d models related to the publication: patterns of bilateral asymmetry and allometry in late devonian polygnathus conodonts" ?

This contribution contains the 3D models of the set of Famennian conodont elements belonging to the species Polygnathus glaber and Polygnathus communis analyzed in the following publication: Renaud et al.