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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-83986-4

3D Mueller matrix mapping of layered distributions of depolarisation degree for analysis of prostate adenoma and carcinoma diffuse tissues.

04 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 5162-5162
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer globally in men, and in some countries is now the most diagnosed form of cancer. It is necessary to differentiate between benign and malignant prostate conditions to give accurate diagnoses. We aim to demonstrate the use of a 3D Mueller matrix method to allow quick and easy clinical differentiation between prostate adenoma and carcinoma tissues with different grades and Gleason scores. Histological sections of benign and malignant prostate tumours, obtained by radical prostatectomy, were investigated. We map the degree of depolarisation in the different prostate tumour tissues using a Mueller matrix polarimeter set-up, based on the superposition of a reference laser beam with the interference pattern of the sample in the image plane. The depolarisation distributions can be directly related to the morphology of the biological tissues. The dependences of the magnitude of the 1st to 4th order statistical moments of the depolarisation distribution are determined, which characterise the distributions of the depolarisation values. To determine the diagnostic potential of the method three groups of histological sections of prostate tumour biopsies were formed. The first group contained 36 adenoma tissue samples, while the second contained 36 carcinoma tissue samples of a high grade (grade 4: poorly differentiated-4 + 4 Gleason score), and the third group contained 36 carcinoma tissue samples of a low grade (grade 1: moderately differentiated-3 + 3 Gleason score). Using the calculated values of the statistical moments, tumour tissues are categorised as either adenoma or carcinoma. A high level (> 90%) accuracy of differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma samples was achieved for each group. Differentiation between the high-grade and low-grade carcinoma samples was achieved with an accuracy of 87.5%. The results demonstrate that Mueller matrix mapping of the depolarisation distribution of prostate tumour tissues can accurately differentiate between adenoma and carcinoma, and between different grades of carcinoma. This represents a first step towards the implementation of 3D Mueller matrix mapping for clinical analysis and diagnosis of prostate tumours.

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Topics: Prostate Adenoma (64%), Prostate cancer (53%), Adenoma (51%) ... read more
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/BOE.426713
Abstract: Tissue polarimetry holds great promise to improve the effectiveness of conventional cancer diagnostics and staging, being a fast, minimally invasive, and low-cost optical technique. We introduce an enhanced diagnostic method for ex vivo colon specimens assessment by utilizing Stokes and Mueller matrix polarimetry. The proposed method makes use of experimental Mueller matrices, measured from healthy and tumor zones of a colon specimen, as input data for post-processing algorithms that include physical realisability filtering, symmetric decomposition and estimation of various polarization and depolarization metrics for colon specimen diagnostics. We validated our results with the gold standard histological diagnostics provided by pathologists. It was found that the Stokes-Mueller matrix polarimetry, combined with the appropriate filtering, decomposition algorithms and polarization/depolarization metrics calculations provides relevant optical markers of the colon tissue pathological conditions (healthy versus cancer), as confirmed by histopathology analysis. This approach potentially provides physicians with valuable and complementary information that holds promises in helping with the diagnostics of colon tissue specimens.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MI12060644
Nozomi Nishizawa1, Hiro Munekata1Institutions (1)
31 May 2021-Micromachines
Abstract: Spin-photonic devices, represented by spin-polarized light emitting diodes and spin-polarized photodiodes, have great potential for practical use in circularly polarized light (CPL) applications. Focusing on the lateral-type spin-photonic devices that can exchange CPL through their side facets, this review describes their functions in practical CPL applications in terms of: (1) Compactness and integrability, (2) stand-alone (monolithic) nature, (3) room temperature operation, (4) emission with high circular polarization, (5) polarization controllability, and (6) CPL detection. Furthermore, it introduces proposed CPL applications in a wide variety of fields and describes the application of these devices in biological diagnosis using CPL scattering. Finally, it discusses the current state of spin-photonic devices and their applications and future prospects.

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Topics: Photonics (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/BOE.426387
Abstract: We highlight the potential of a predictive optical model method for tissue recognition, based on the statistical analysis of different polarimetric indicators that retrieve complete polarimetric information (selective absorption, retardance and depolarization) of samples. The study is conducted on the experimental Mueller matrices of four biological tissues (bone, tendon, muscle and myotendinous junction) measured from a collection of 157 ex-vivo chicken samples. Moreover, we perform several non-parametric data distribution analyses to build a logistic regression-based algorithm capable to recognize, in a single and dynamic measurement, whether a sample corresponds (or not) to one of the four different tissue categories.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/BOE.422452
Jillian Sprenger1, Ciara Murray2, Jigar Lad1, Blake Jones1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The tumour-stroma ratio (TSR) has been explored as a useful source of prognostic information in various cancers, including colorectal, breast, and gastric. Despite research showing potential prognostic utility, its uptake into the clinic has been limited, in part due to challenges associated with subjectivity, reproducibility, and quantification. We have recently proposed a simple, robust, and quantifiable high-contrast method of imaging intra- and peri-tumoural stroma based on polarized light microscopy. Here we report on its use to quantify TSR in human breast cancer using unstained slides from 40 patient samples of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Polarimetric results based on a stromal abundance metric correlated well with pathology designations, showing a statistically significant difference between high- and low-stroma samples as scored by two clinical pathologists. The described polarized light imaging methodology shows promise for use as a quantitative, automatic, and standardizable tool for quantifying TSR, potentially addressing some of the challenges associated with its current estimation.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1364/BOE.427907
Abstract: The usage of independent and simultaneous control of the state of light polarization at different wavelengths can expand the capabilities of polarization methods for biomedical application. Unfortunately, all known methods of polarization conversion cannot convert the state of light polarization at different wavelengths independently. We propose a method and device for independent and simultaneous control of the polarization state at two wavelengths. We have theoretically proved the possibility of maintaining the phase shift at the first wavelength unchanged while simultaneously and independently changing the phase shift at the second wavelength from 0 to 180 degrees. The capabilities of the method were for the first time demonstrated for radiation with wavelengths λ = 632.8 nm and λ = 488 nm. At the wavelength λ = 632.8 nm, the phase shift remained equal to 180° whereas at the wavelength λ = 488 nm, it varied in the range from 121° to 136°.

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Topics: Polarization (waves) (52%), Wavelength (51%)

1 Citations


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42 results found


Open accessBook
10 Jun 2002-
Abstract: Preface Acknowledgements Part I. Basic Theory of Electromagnetic Scattering, Absorption, and Emission: 1. Polarization characteristics of electromagnetic radiation 2. Scattering, absorption, and emission of electromagnetic radiation by an arbitrary finite particle 3. Scattering, absorption and emission by collections of independent particles 4. Scattering matrix and macroscopically isotropic and mirror-symmetric scattering media Part II. Calculation and Measurement of Scattering and Absorption Characteristics of Small Particles: 5. T-matrix method and Lorenz-Mie theory 6. Miscellaneous exact techniques 7. Approximations 8. Measurement techniques Part III. Scattering and Absorption Properties of Small Particles and Illustrative Applications: 9. Scattering and absorption properties of spherical particles 10. Scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical particles Appendices References Index.

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Topics: Scattering (70%), Scattering theory (69%), Biological small-angle scattering (67%) ... read more

1,735 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12713-4
Henrik Grönberg1Institutions (1)
08 Mar 2003-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Because more and more men are being diagnosed with prostate cancer worldwide, knowledge about and prevention of this disease is important. Epidemiological studies have provided some insight about the cause of prostate cancer in terms of diet and genetic factors. However, compared with other common cancers such as breast and lung cancer, the causes remain poorly understood. Several important issues could help in our understanding of this disease—the variation in incidence of prostate cancer between ethnic populations and the factors leading to familial clustering of the diseases.

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Topics: Epidemiology of cancer (69%), Cancer (61%), Prostate cancer (60%) ... read more

1,173 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-43205-1_2
01 Jan 1975-
Abstract: Since speckle plays an important role in many physical phenomena, it is essential to fully understand its statistical properties. Starting from the basic idea of a random walk in the complex plane, we derive the first-order statistics of the complex amplitude, intensity and phase of speckle. Sums of speckle patterns are also considered, the addition being either on an amplitude or on an intensity basis, with partially polarized speckle being a special case. Next we consider the sum of a speckle pattern and a coherent background, deriving the first-order probability density functions of intensity and phase. Attention is then turned to second-order statistics. The autocorrelation function and power spectral density are derived, both for a free-space propagation geometry and for an imaging geometry. In some cases the recorded speckle pattern may be spatially integrated or blurred, and accordingly consideration is given to the statistics of such patterns. Finally, the relationship between detailed surface structure and the resulting speckle pattern is explored, with emphasis on the effects of the surface autocorrelation function and the effects of finite surface roughness.

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1,169 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.293.17.2095
04 May 2005-JAMA
Abstract: Context: The appropriate therapy for men with clinically localized prostate cancer is uncertain. A recent study suggested an increasing prostate cancer mortality rate for men who are alive more than 15 years following diagnosis. Objective: To estimate 20-year survival based on a competing risk analysis of men who were diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer and treated with observation or androgen withdrawal therapy alone, stratified by age at diagnosis and histological findings. Design, Setting, and Patients: A retrospective population-based cohort study using Connecticut Tumor Registry data supplemented by hospital record and histology review of 767 men aged 55 to 74 years with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1971, and December 31, 1984. Patients were treated with either observation or immediate or delayed androgen withdrawal therapy, with a median observation of 24 years. Main Outcome Measures: Probability of mortality from prostate cancer or other competing medical conditions, given a patient’s age at diagnosis and tumor grade. Results: The prostate cancer mortality rate was 33 per 1000 person-years during the first 15 years of follow-up (95% confidence interval [CI], 28-38) and 18 per 1000 personyears after 15 years of follow-up (95% CI, 10-29). The mortality rates for these 2 follow-up periods were not statistically different, after adjusting for differences in tumor histology (rate ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.9). Men with low-grade prostate cancers have a minimal risk of dying from prostate cancer during 20 years of follow-up (Gleason score of 2-4, 6 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 2-11). Men with high-grade prostate cancers have a high probability of dying from prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis (Gleason score of 8-10, 121 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 90-156). Men with Gleason score of 5 or 6 tumors have an intermediate risk of prostate cancer death. Conclusion: The annual mortality rate from prostate cancer appears to remain stable after 15 years from diagnosis, which does not support aggressive treatment for localized low-grade prostate cancer.

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Topics: Prostate cancer (64%), Cancer (58%), Mortality rate (55%) ... read more

1,096 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004720.PUB3
Abstract: Background Any form of screening aims to reduce disease-specific and overall mortality, and to improve a person's future quality of life. Screening for prostate cancer has generated considerable debate within the medical and broader community, as demonstrated by the varying recommendations made by medical organizations and governed by national policies. To better inform individual patient decision-making and health policy decisions, we need to consider the entire body of data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on prostate cancer screening summarised in a systematic review. In 2006, our Cochrane review identified insufficient evidence to either support or refute the use of routine mass, selective, or opportunistic screening for prostate cancer. An update of the review in 2010 included three additional trials. Meta-analysis of the five studies included in the 2010 review concluded that screening did not significantly reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. In the past two years, several updates to studies included in the 2010 review have been published thereby providing the rationale for this update of the 2010 systematic review. Objectives To determine whether screening for prostate cancer reduces prostate cancer-specific mortality or all-cause mortality and to assess its impact on quality of life and adverse events. Search methods An updated search of electronic databases (PROSTATE register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CANCERLIT, and the NHS EED) was performed, in addition to handsearching of specific journals and bibliographies, in an effort to identify both published and unpublished trials. Selection criteria All RCTs of screening versus no screening for prostate cancer were eligible for inclusion in this review. Data collection and analysis The original search (2006) identified 99 potentially relevant articles that were selected for full-text review. From these citations, two RCTs were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The search for the 2010 version of the review identified a further 106 potentially relevant articles, from which three new RCTs were included in the review. A total of 31 articles were retrieved for full-text examination based on the updated search in 2012. Updated data on three studies were included in this review. Data from the trials were independently extracted by two authors. Main results Five RCTs with a total of 341,342 participants were included in this review. All involved prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, with or without digital rectal examination (DRE), though the interval and threshold for further evaluation varied across trials. The age of participants ranged from 45 to 80 years and duration of follow-up from 7 to 20 years. Our meta-analysis of the five included studies indicated no statistically significant difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality between men randomised to the screening and control groups (risk ratio (RR) 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.17). The methodological quality of three of the studies was assessed as posing a high risk of bias. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial were assessed as posing a low risk of bias, but provided contradicting results. The ERSPC study reported a significant reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.95), whilst the PLCO study concluded no significant benefit (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.54). The ERSPC was the only study of the five included in this review that reported a significant reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality, in a pre-specified subgroup of men aged 55 to 69 years of age. Sensitivity analysis for overall risk of bias indicated no significant difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality when referring to the meta analysis of only the ERSPC and PLCO trial data (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.30). Subgroup analyses indicated that prostate cancer-specific mortality was not affected by the age at which participants were screened. Meta-analysis of four studies investigating all-cause mortality did not determine any significant differences between men randomised to screening or control (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.03). A diagnosis of prostate cancer was significantly greater in men randomised to screening compared to those randomised to control (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.65). Localised prostate cancer was more commonly diagnosed in men randomised to screening (RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.70), whilst the proportion of men diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer was significantly lower in the screening group compared to the men serving as controls (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.87). Screening resulted in a range of harms that can be considered minor to major in severity and duration. Common minor harms from screening include bleeding, bruising and short-term anxiety. Common major harms include overdiagnosis and overtreatment, including infection, blood loss requiring transfusion, pneumonia, erectile dysfunction, and incontinence. Harms of screening included false-positive results for the PSA test and overdiagnosis (up to 50% in the ERSPC study). Adverse events associated with transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies included infection, bleeding and pain. No deaths were attributed to any biopsy procedure. None of the studies provided detailed assessment of the effect of screening on quality of life or provided a comprehensive assessment of resource utilization associated with screening (although preliminary analyses were reported). Authors' conclusions Prostate cancer screening did not significantly decrease prostate cancer-specific mortality in a combined meta-analysis of five RCTs. Only one study (ERSPC) reported a 21% significant reduction of prostate cancer-specific mortality in a pre-specified subgroup of men aged 55 to 69 years. Pooled data currently demonstrates no significant reduction in prostate cancer-specific and overall mortality. Harms associated with PSA-based screening and subsequent diagnostic evaluations are frequent, and moderate in severity. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are common and are associated with treatment-related harms. Men should be informed of this and the demonstrated adverse effects when they are deciding whether or not to undertake screening for prostate cancer. Any reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality may take up to 10 years to accrue; therefore, men who have a life expectancy less than 10 to 15 years should be informed that screening for prostate cancer is unlikely to be beneficial. No studies examined the independent role of screening by DRE.

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Topics: Prostate cancer screening (69%), Overdiagnosis (64%), Mass screening (63%) ... read more

1,066 Citations