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Journal ArticleDOI

3D printing of meat.

01 Jul 2019-Meat Science (Elsevier)-Vol. 153, pp 35-44
TL;DR: A temperature-controlled extruder-type 3D printer built with multi-head system is suggested to suit the required conditions for meat safety and rheological requirements and the elemental aspects affecting the printability and post-processing feasibility of 3D printed meat products.
About: This article is published in Meat Science.The article was published on 2019-07-01 and is currently open access. It has received 136 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Meat packing industry.

Summary (4 min read)

Introduction

  • AC C EP TE D M AN U SC R IP T 1 Three-dimensional printing (3DP) process stands as a developing technology for food manufacturing, which offers the opportunity to design novel food products with improved nutritional value and sensorial profile.
  • This review analyses the potential applications of 3DP technology for meat processing and the elemental aspects affecting the printability and postprocessing feasibility of 3D printed meat products.
  • The combination of nutritionally balanced ingredients and novel internal structures may be schemed into a multi-material 3D model that meets special individual needs, such as chewing and swallowing difficulties.
  • Furthermore, a temperature-controlled extruder-type 3D printer built with multi-head system is suggested to suit the required conditions for meat safety and rheological requirements.

Contents

  • 17 Introduction 1. Only 7.2% in weight of a cattle carcase accounts for cuts that are considered suitable for high-value steaks (Conroy, Drennan, Kenny, & McGee, 2010).
  • Based on the additive manufacturing (AM) process, which consists of a layer-by-layer deposition with predetermined thickness to create complex freeform structures (Noorani, 2017), 3DP offers the possibility of manufacturing novel food products with digitalized intricate shapes, inexperienced textures and higher nutritional value, through the combination of different food ingredients and printing methodologies.
  • The printability of any food material refers to its ability to be handled and dispensed by a 3D printer into a freeform structure after deposition (Godoi et al., 2016), and is affected by the printing conditions and the rheological properties of the materials (Kim, Bae, & Park, 2017).
  • Likewise, Liu et al. (2018a) were able to 3D print chicken, pork and fish in a slurry form with the addition of gelatine solution.

3D Printing process 2.

  • Three-dimensional printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), is a process that generates freeform structures by introducing a prototype into a computer aided design (CAD) software, which is then converted into a .STL file by a slicing software to be recognised and processed by 3D printers (Noorani, 2017).
  • The technology involves a layer-by-layer ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT AC C EP TE D M AN U SC R IP T 6 deposition with predetermined thickness to create complex three-dimensional objects from different materials used as “inks”, using strictly the necessary amount of material to consolidate the shape of the printed object.
  • 3DP offers an alternative technology with sustainability benefits such as reduced demand of raw materials, workforce, energy and transportation (Peng, 2016; Sher & Tutó, 2015).
  • Besides waste conversion through the added-value chain, the development of health and well-being products, as well as novel food interactions may be triggered.
  • Some of these aspects, as reported in the literature, include but are not limited to the printing machines, methodologies, prototype design and software, food ingredients and additives, processing parameters, and post-processing suitability (Liu, Zhang, Bhandari, & Wang, 2017) applied to each 3D printed food manufacturing process.

2.1 Current application of 3DP in food products

  • In the last decade, 3DP technology for food products has increasingly developed through its application to a wide range of food materials.
  • Nonetheless, few studies (Lipton et al., 2010; Lipton, Cutler, Nigl, Cohen, & Lipson, 2015; Severini et al., 2016a) have taken into account the post-processing feasibility of the 3D construct for materials such as dough or meat, which require further heat treatment; for instance, its ability to withstand cooking operations without losing the 3D intricate design due to cooking loss/shrinkage.
  • In general, there is still an extensive field for research regarding the application of this technology for a broad range of foodstuffs with varying formulations.

2.2 3D Printing of meat

  • To date, only a small number of studies account for the printability of fibrous-meat materials, through the assessment of the rheological properties of the meat “ink”, as well as the postdeposition and post-processing properties of the printed object.
  • Also, the same slurry was used to print a cube containing celery fluid gel inside.
  • Such introductory results in 3D meat printing show how this technology can further generate meat products with complex internal structure, containing on-demand functional ingredients and modified textures for enhanced eating experiences.
  • Recently the printability of fish surimi gel was assessed by Wang et al. (2018) using a screw-conveyor extruder type 3D printer.
  • Furthermore, the authors evaluated the effect of printer settings on the geometrical precision and dimension of the deposited structures, although no objective comparison was performed among printed structures, such as the post-deposition and postprocessing properties.

2.3 3D Food printers and printing parameters

  • The basic components of a 3D food printer stage include a motor-driven print-head and a platform, commonly attached to a stage with Cartesian configuration (Sun, Zhou, Yan, Huang, & Lin, 2018).
  • Based on the 3D printing methodology built into the 3D printer, the print-head and platform characteristics may vary.
  • Some previous studies on meat and seafood printing focused on the extrusion and printing process (Kouzani et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2018a), post-deposition and post-processing conditions (Lipton et al., 2010), rheological and mechanical properties of the material (Wang et al., 2018), regardless of safety concerns during printing due to the printer’s limitations.
  • When a printer is not attached with cooling system, the suitability of the technology for the processing of highly perishable materials like meat is dependent on the initial meat paste temperature and the period of time that the meat paste remains in the cartridge or platform at ambient temperature.

2.4 Printing conditions to enable 3D printing of meat

  • Several studies demonstrate the effect of varying printing processing parameters on the printability of food materials and hence, the quality of the final printed objects.
  • Similarly, an optimal nozzle height determines the accuracy and dimensions of the printed meat product, and it is suggested to be equivalent to the dimension of the nozzle diameter.
  • If the nozzle speed is too high, a thinner stream of meat paste is obtained and dragged, preventing the subsequent binding of layers and producing inaccuracies in the final product since voids remain within the cross-section area, and under deposition may occur.
  • Similarly, varying infill percentages will affect the total amount of deposited material in the internal part of the printed structure, affecting the void fraction within the final 3D printed meat product and thus the post-processing conditions.
  • The void fraction would determine the cooking conditions for a specific degree of doneness since as more porosity remains within the structure, less heat transfer occurs during cooking, affecting the moisture and fat releases and thus the texture of the cooked meat product.

2.5 Design development

  • The in-software design for a determined 3D printed meat product sculpts its nutritional and sensorial profile.
  • Even though the rheology of the meat paste may represent a challenge when reproducing such complex patterns, these approaches could provide food consumers with both on-demand nutrition and novel eating experiences.
  • As an example, three hypothetical designs (Autodesk, Inc.), such as sausage, steak and beef patty are shown in Figure 8.
  • Recombined meats, such as steaks can be 3D printed as a multi-material model from soft meat paste, fat slurry and other food ingredients to approximate the flavours and nutrients of a beefsteak.
  • The model is sliced into 2D cross-sectional layers, according to the required design and printing settings (Noorani, 2017).

2.6 3D Printing methodologies suitable for meat materials

  • A variety of 3DP methods has been used for food printing, such as extrusion, inkjet printing, binding deposition, and bioprinting (Godoi et al., 2016), which are commonly applied to paste-like materials, liquid-based foods, powder-based foods, and cultured cells, respectively.
  • 3D printing of meat products consists of building the desired geometry from a slurry material, which requires controlled temperature below 4 °C, calling for liquid-based methodologies, such as extrusion and/or inkjet printing.
  • Among the available extrusion mechanisms (syringe-based, air pressure-driven and screw-based extrusion), air pressure driven extrusion is not recommended for viscous paste materials due to their ease of attaching to the walls of the cartridge (Sun et al., 2018), and thus is not endorsed for 3D printing of meat paste.
  • After fusion, the agarose structure is removed and the tissue is subjected to low-frequency stimulation in a bioreactor to maturate meat fibres (Sher et al., 2015).
  • First, as a fibrous material, the raw meat needs to be finely comminute into a paste form with controlled particle size to enable the extrusion through the nozzle of mm to micron size.

3.1 Potential viscosity enhancers and binders for printable meat paste

  • The viscosity of the paste has to be low enough to flow easily through the nozzle and high enough to maintain the deposited shape (Godoi et al., 2016), and further support the subsequent layers on top.
  • To improve the mechanical stability of the paste upon deposition, heat- and cold- set binders are available based on the temperature required for the occurrence of the binding mechanisms that are described below.
  • Furthermore, the addition of salts and phosphates is recommended to aid the extraction of salt soluble proteins, such as myofribrillar and some sarcoplasmic (Boles, 2011), and thus increase the binding matrix.
  • In general, the addition of different food hydrocolloids to the meat paste can provide modified rheological and mechanical properties through varying binding mechanisms, enhancing its printability and post-processing viability.
  • Very few studies refer to the printability of fibrous meat materials, such as pork, turkey, chicken and fish, while no data is available for beef meat.

Declarations of interest 6.

  • This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
  • Meat Products Handbook - Practical Science and Technology: Woodhead Publishing.
  • 3D printing technologies applied for food design: status and prospects.

Highlights

  • Multi-material 3D printing allows the production of recombined meats.
  • The design of appetizing soft-meat products is viable with 3D printing technology.
  • Low temperature-3D printers are needed to process meat products safely.
  • The application of heat- and cold-set binders enhances the meat paste rheology.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present seventeen articles dealing with social, economic and institutional dynamics of precision farming, digital agriculture, smart farming or agriculture 4.0, and reveal new insights on the link between digital agriculture and farm diversity, new economic, business and institutional arrangements both on-farm, in the value chain and food system, and in the innovation system.
Abstract: While there is a lot of literature from a natural or technical sciences perspective on different forms of digitalization in agriculture (big data, internet of things, augmented reality, robotics, sensors, 3D printing, system integration, ubiquitous connectivity, artificial intelligence, digital twins, and blockchain among others), social science researchers have recently started investigating different aspects of digital agriculture in relation to farm production systems, value chains and food systems. This has led to a burgeoning but scattered social science body of literature. There is hence lack of overview of how this field of study is developing, and what are established, emerging, and new themes and topics. This is where this article aims to make a contribution, beyond introducing this special issue which presents seventeen articles dealing with social, economic and institutional dynamics of precision farming, digital agriculture, smart farming or agriculture 4.0. An exploratory literature review shows that five thematic clusters of extant social science literature on digitalization in agriculture can be identified: 1) Adoption, uses and adaptation of digital technologies on farm; 2) Effects of digitalization on farmer identity, farmer skills, and farm work; 3) Power, ownership, privacy and ethics in digitalizing agricultural production systems and value chains; 4) Digitalization and agricultural knowledge and innovation systems (AKIS); and 5) Economics and management of digitalized agricultural production systems and value chains. The main contributions of the special issue articles are mapped against these thematic clusters, revealing new insights on the link between digital agriculture and farm diversity, new economic, business and institutional arrangements both on-farm, in the value chain and food system, and in the innovation system, and emerging ways to ethically govern digital agriculture. Emerging lines of social science enquiry within these thematic clusters are identified and new lines are suggested to create a future research agenda on digital agriculture, smart farming and agriculture 4.0. Also, four potential new thematic social science clusters are also identified, which so far seem weakly developed: 1) Digital agriculture socio-cyber-physical-ecological systems conceptualizations; 2) Digital agriculture policy processes; 3) Digitally enabled agricultural transition pathways; and 4) Global geography of digital agriculture development. This future research agenda provides ample scope for future interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary science on precision farming, digital agriculture, smart farming and agriculture 4.0.

440 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Technological difficulties, especially in mass production and cost, remain before cultured meat can be commercialized, Nevertheless, these meat alternatives can be a part of the authors' future protein sources while maintaining a complementary relationship with traditional meat.
Abstract: Plant-based meat analogues, edible insects, and cultured meat are promising major meat alternatives that can be used as protein sources in the future. It is also believed that the importance of meat alternatives will continue to increase because of concerns on limited sustainability of the traditional meat production system. The meat alternatives are expected to have different roles based on their different benefits and limitations. Plant-based meat analogues and edible insects can replace traditional meat as a good protein source from the perspective of nutritional value. Furthermore, plant-based meat can be made available to a wide range of consumers (e.g., as vegetarian or halal food products). However, despite ongoing technical developments, their palatability, including appearance, flavor, and texture, is still different from the consumers' standard established from livestock-based traditional meat. Meanwhile, cultured meat is the only method to produce actual animal muscle-based meat; therefore, the final product is more meat-like compared to other meat analogues. However, technical difficulties, especially in mass production and cost, remain before it can be commercialized. Nevertheless, these meat alternatives can be a part of our future protein sources while maintaining a complementary relationship with traditional meat.

96 citations


Cites methods from "3D printing of meat."

  • ...Modified from Bonny et al [10]; Dick et al [80]....

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TL;DR: Microfluiding bioprinting technology enables highly controlled fabrication of 3D constructs in high resolutions and it has been shown to be useful for building tubular structures and vascularized constructs, which may promote the survival and integration of implanted engineered tissues.
Abstract: Next generation engineered tissue constructs with complex and ordered architectures aim to better mimic the native tissue structures, largely due to advances in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques. Extrusion bioprinting has drawn tremendous attention due to its widespread availability, cost-effectiveness, simplicity, and its facile and rapid processing. However, poor printing resolution and low speed have limited its fidelity and clinical implementation. To circumvent the downsides associated with extrusion printing, microfluidic technologies are increasingly being implemented in 3D bioprinting for engineering living constructs. These technologies enable biofabrication of heterogeneous biomimetic structures made of different types of cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules. Microfluiding bioprinting technology enables highly controlled fabrication of 3D constructs in high resolutions and it has been shown to be useful for building tubular structures and vascularized constructs, which may promote the survival and integration of implanted engineered tissues. Although this field is currently in its early development and the number of bioprinted implants is limited, it is envisioned that it will have a major impact on the production of customized clinical-grade tissue constructs. Further studies are, however, needed to fully demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology in the lab and its translation to the clinic.

94 citations

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TL;DR: A review of 3D food printing techniques is presented in this article, where the authors categorize, printability, productivity, properties of printable material and mechanism of food printing, as well as propose the future direction of this novel technology.

89 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of variations in process variables such as printing speed (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000mm/min) and nozzle diameter (1.28 and 0.82mm) on the printability of the material supply was optimized considering varying levels of mushroom powder (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w) in combination with wheat flour (WF).

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References
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TL;DR: The history of 3D printing is encompassed, various printing methods are reviewed, current applications are presented, and the future direction and impact this technology will have on laboratory settings as 3D printers become more accessible is offered.
Abstract: Nearing 30 years since its introduction, 3D printing technology is set to revolutionize research and teaching laboratories. This feature encompasses the history of 3D printing, reviews various printing methods, and presents current applications. The authors offer an appraisal of the future direction and impact this technology will have on laboratory settings as 3D printers become more accessible.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the use of 3D printing techniques to design food materials and bring a new insight into how essential food material properties behave during application of additive manufacturing techniques.

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TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper collected and analyzed the information on how to achieve a precise and accurate food printing, and reviewed the application of 3D printing in several food areas, as well as give some proposals and provide a critical insight into the trends and challenges to 3D food printing.
Abstract: Background Three dimensional (3D) food printing is being widely investigated in food sector recent years due to its multiple advantages such as customized food designs, personalized nutrition, simplifying supply chain, and broadening of the available food material. Scope and approach Currently, 3D printing is being applied in food areas such as military and space food, elderly food, sweets food. An accurate and precise printing is critical to a successful and smooth printing. In this paper, we collect and analyze the information on how to achieve a precise and accurate food printing, and review the application of 3D printing in several food areas, as well as give some proposals and provide a critical insight into the trends and challenges to 3D food printing. Key findings and conclusions To realize an accurate and precise printing, three main aspects should be investigated considerably: material properties, process parameters, and post-processing methods. We emphasize that the factors below should be given special attention to achieve a successful printing: rheological properties, binding mechanisms, thermodynamic properties, pre-treatment and post-processing methods. In addition, there are three challenges on 3D food printing: 1) printing precision and accuracy 2) process productivity and 3) production of colorful, multi-flavor, multi-structure products. A broad application of this technique is expected once these challenges are addressed.

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TL;DR: In this article, the applicability of extrusion-based 3D printing technology for food pastes made of protein, starch and fiber-rich materials was assessed, as a starting point in the development of healthy, customized snack products.

355 citations

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TL;DR: 3D food printing provides an engineering solution for customized food design and personalized nutrition control, a prototyping tool to facilitate new food product development, and a potential machine to reconfigure a customized food supply chain.
Abstract: Different from robotics-based food manufacturing, three-dimensional (3D) food printing integrates 3D printing and digital gastronomy to revolutionize food manufacturing with customized shape, color, flavor, texture, and even nutrition. Hence, food products can be designed and fabricated to meet individual needs through controlling the amount of printing material and nutrition content. The objectives of this study are to collate, analyze, categorize, and summarize published articles and papers pertaining to 3D food printing and its impact on food processing, as well as to provide a critical insight into the direction of its future development. From the available references, both universal platforms and self-developed platforms are utilized for food printing. These platforms could be reconstructed in terms of process reformulation, material processing, and user interface in the near future. Three types of printing materials (i.e., natively printable materials, non-printable traditional food materials, and alternative ingredients) and two types of recipes (i.e., element-based recipe and traditional recipe) have been used for customized food fabrication. The available 3D food printing technologies and food processing technologies potentially applicable to food printing are presented. Essentially, 3D food printing provides an engineering solution for customized food design and personalized nutrition control, a prototyping tool to facilitate new food product development, and a potential machine to reconfigure a customized food supply chain.

338 citations