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Journal ArticleDOI

3D Yazıcıların Termal Verimliliğini Artırmak için Yeni Ekstrüder Isı Bloğu Tasarımları

TL;DR: In this article , an ANSYS simulation was used to evaluate the thermal properties of a commercial product block design with an extruder heat block and the results obtained from the simulation were satisfactory when compared with the thermal behavior of a conventional product block.
Abstract: 3D printers are the most common and popular method of additive manufacturing technology and provide fusion of materials using thermal effects. This phenomenon makes that temperature the most important factor affecting printing quality. The temperature is provided by the Aluminium Extruder Heat Block in the extruder and the temperature regime must be constant according to the type of printing material. The objective of this study is to make aluminium Extruder Heat Block designs with high thermal efficiency to keep the temperature regime constant and to analyse the thermal behaviour of new designs with a commercial product block design using ANSYS simulation. The materials of the blocks were chosen the same and the temperature distribution of the blocks and the average heat flux were calculated by determining the boundary conditions. The results obtained from the simulation are satisfactory when compared with the thermal behaviour of a commercial product block.
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12 Feb 2023-Forests
TL;DR: In this article , changes in mechanical properties, crystallinity index, and DSC characteristics of PLA/coffee grounds with different dosages were analyzed by XRD, DSC, and mechanical property tests.
Abstract: Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It generates a waste known as coffee grounds. In this work, changes in mechanical properties, crystallinity index, and DSC characteristics of PLA/coffee grounds with different dosages were analyzed by XRD, DSC, and mechanical property tests. Statistical analysis showed that the modulus of rupture of PLA/coffee grounds 3D printing materials was maximal at 109.07 MPa and 3604 MPa when 3% coffee grounds were added. The tensile strength of the untreated PLA complex was 49.99 MPa, and the tensile strength increased from 49.99 MPa to 51.28 MPa after 3% coffee grounds were added. However, there was no significant difference between the PLA complex and PLA/coffee grounds 3D printing materials when the additions were lower than 3%. The statistical analysis showed that when the coffee grounds additions increased from 5% to 7%, the tensile strength of PLA/coffee grounds 3D printing products significantly decreased. For example, the tensile strength decreased from 49.99 MPa to 26.45 MPa with addition of 7% coffee grounds. The difference between the glass transition, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures of PLA coffee grounds 3D printing materials was almost negligible, which indicates that the thermal properties of PLA coffee grounds 3D printing materials are comparable to those of PLA, and that the processing temperature and FDM printing temperature of the PLA filament are suitable for application to the PLA coffee grounds 3D printing material system.

1 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Additive manufacturing processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Additive manufacturing processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file. In this process, the drawing made in the CAD software is approximated by triangles and sliced containing the information of each layer that is going to be printed. There is a discussion of the relevant additive manufacturing processes and their applications. The aerospace industry employs them because of the possibility of manufacturing lighter structures to reduce weight. Additive manufacturing is transforming the practice of medicine and making work easier for architects. In 2004, the Society of Manufacturing Engineers did a classification of the various technologies and there are at least four additional significant technologies in 2012. Studies are reviewed which were about the strength of products made in additive manufacturing processes. However, there is still a lot of work and research to be accomplished before additive manufacturing technologies become standard in the manufacturing industry because not every commonly used manufacturing material can be handled. The accuracy needs improvement to eliminate the necessity of a finishing process. The continuous and increasing growth experienced since the early days and the successful results up to the present time allow for optimism that additive manufacturing has a significant place in the future of manufacturing.

1,777 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a systematic review of the literature focusing on process design and mathematical process modeling of FDM and similar extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping processes is presented.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to systematically and critically review the literature related to process design and modeling of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and similar extrusion-based additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping processes. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review of the literature focusing on process design and mathematical process modeling was carried out. Findings – FDM and similar processes are among the most widely used rapid prototyping processes with growing application in finished part manufacturing. Key elements of the typical processes, including the material feed mechanism, liquefier and print nozzle; the build surface and environment; and approaches to part finishing are described. Approaches to estimating the motor torque and power required to achieve a desired filament feed rate are presented. Models of required heat flux, shear on the melt and pressure drop in the liquefier are reviewed. On leaving the print nozzle, die swelling and bead cooling are ...

1,042 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of build orientation, layer thickness and feed rate on the mechanical performance of PLA samples manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer is investigated, where tensile and three-point bending tests are carried out to determine the mechanical response of the printed specimens.

877 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide a brief discussion about additive manufacturing and also the most employed additive manufacturing technologies for polymers, specifically, properties under different loading types such as tensile, bending, compressive, fatigue, impact and others.
Abstract: 3D printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing (AM), is already being adopted for rapid prototyping and soon rapid manufacturing. This review provides a brief discussion about AM and also the most employed AM technologies for polymers. The commonly-used ASTM and ISO mechanical test standards which have been used by various research groups to test the strength of the 3D-printed parts have been reported. Also, a summary of an exhaustive amount of literature regarding the mechanical properties of 3D-printed parts is included, specifically, properties under different loading types such as tensile, bending, compressive, fatigue, impact and others. Properties at low temperatures have also been discussed. Further, the effects of fillers as well as post-processing on the mechanical properties have also been discussed. Lastly, several important questions to consider in the standardization of mechanical test methods have been raised.

822 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic review of the literature related to dimensional accuracy and surface roughness for fused deposition modeling and similar extrusion-based additive manufacturing or rapid prototyping processes is presented.
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature related to dimensional accuracy and surface roughness for fused deposition modeling and similar extrusion-based additive manufacturing or rapid prototyping processes. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review of the literature was carried out by focusing on the relationship between process and product design parameters and the dimensional and surface properties of finished parts. Methods for evaluating these performance parameters are also reviewed. Findings – Fused deposition modeling® and related processes are the most widely used polymer rapid prototyping processes. For many applications, resolution, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness are among the most important properties in final parts. The influence of feedstock properties and system design on dimensional accuracy and resolution is reviewed. Thermal warping and shrinkage are often major sources of dimensional error in finished parts. This phenomenon is explor...

555 citations