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A 548-year tree-ring chronology of oak (quercus spp.) for southeast slovenia and its significance as a dating tool and climate archive

TL;DR: In this article, a 548-year regional tree-ring chronology for Slovenia is presented, spanning the period A.D. 1456-2003, which is currently the longest and the most replicated oak chronology in this part of Europe.
Abstract: Tree-ring series of oak, from both living trees (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and historic timbers in southeastern Slovenia were assembled into a 548-year regional chronology spanning the period A.D. 1456‐2003. It is currently the longest and the most replicated oak chronology in this part of Europe located at the transition between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic influence. The chronology correlated significantly with regional and local chronologies up to 700 km away in Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Czech Republic and southern Germany. It also showed good ‘‘heteroconnection’’, i.e. agreement with chronologies of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and silver fir (Abies alba) in Slovenia. A preliminary dendroclimatic analysis shows that precipitation and temperature in June accounted for a high amount of variance (r 2 50.51) in the tree-ring widths. The chronology thus contains considerable potential as a climate archive. We also present its use as a tool for the dating of wooden objects of the cultural heritage. Moreover, the chronology can be a point of reference for building tree-ring chronologies in neighboring regions.

Summary (3 min read)

INTRODUCTION

  • During recent decades, dendrochronological techniques, among others, have been applied to reconstruct past climate, forest disturbances and past forest management practices, fire history in various woodlands, past forest insect infestations, geomorphological processes, as well as past earthquakes (e.g. Schweingruber 1988) and, last but not least, for dating pre-historic and historic human activities (e.g. Dean 1996).
  • In Central and Western Europe, oak (Quercus spp.) is the most important tree and timber in dendrochronology.
  • The construction of long regional oak chronologies in the countries south, southeast and east of the Alps has not been equally successful, however.

Study Area and Wood for Tree-Ring Research

  • The sampling area is located east and southeast of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
  • The climate is temperate humid and characterized by the transition from a sub-Mediterranean to a subcontinental precipitation regime (Ogrin 1996).
  • The natural oak sites have been mostly deforested for the benefit of agricultural production.
  • The wood used to construct the regional treering chronology originated from old grown oak trees in the forest districts Celje (CE) (10 trees), Novo mesto (NM) (12) and Ljubljana (LJ) (29).
  • The number of samples varied in accordance with the availability and condition of the timbers.

Dendrochronological Analysis

  • The samples were polished and the tree-ring widths measured to the nearest 0.01 mm.
  • The TSAP/X program (Frank Rinn, Heidelberg, Germany) was used for data acquisition.
  • The tree-ring series were visually and statistically crossdated and compared with each other by calculating the tvalue after Baillie and Pilcher (1973) using TSAP/ X and TSAP-Win.
  • The authors then established 16 nondetrended, raw-data chronologies (three chronologies of living trees and 13 chronologies of buildings or building groups) and checked their intercorrelation .
  • The authors made two versions of this regional chronology, a non-detrended, raw-data and a detrended, residual chronology.

Raw-data Chronology, Teleconnection and Heteroconnection

  • The non-detrended, raw-data regional chronology was tested for teleconnection and heteroconnection.
  • To test for teleconnection, the authors compared the southeast Slovenian chronology with oak chronologies in Austria (Wimmer and Grabner 1998; Grabner, personal communica- tion), Hungary (Grynaeus 2000; Morgos and Schmidt, personal communication), Serbia (Čufar and De Luis, unpubl.), Czech Republic (Tegel, personal communication) and south Germany (Becker 1993; Friedrich, personal communication), all provided from the personal sources.
  • To test the heteroconnection, the authors used one chronology of beech from southeastern Slovenian hills (Di Filippo et al. 2007), one regional chronology of silver fir (Levanič and Čufar 1997; Čufar, unpubl.), and one local chronology of ash (Čufar and Levanič 1999a), all from Slovenia.

Tree-Ring Growth and Climate

  • The climatic influence on tree growth was studied using the residual version of the chronology obtained by the program ARSTAN (Holmes 1994), by which the individual raw tree-ring series were standardized in a two-step procedure.
  • First, the long-term trend was removed by fitting a negative exponential function or a regression line to each tree-ring series.
  • Subsequently, autoregressive modeling of the residuals and biweight robust estimation of the mean were applied (Cook and Peters 1997).
  • The stations are representative for the sampling area .
  • The climate/growth relationships were calculated using the program DendroClim2002 (Biondi and Waikul 2004), whereby the residual version of the tree-ring chronology was the dependent variable and the regressors were the monthly mean temperatures and the monthly sums of precipitation for each biological year from the previous October to the current September.

The Tree-Ring Chronology of Oak for Southeast Slovenia

  • The regional oak chronology for southeast Slovenia is 548 years long and covers the period 1456–2003 .
  • The mean length of the single tree-ring series included is 100 years.
  • The interval of the chronology replicated with 17 or more trees and subsample signal strength (SSS).0.85 extends from 1549 to 2003.
  • The statistics of both the raw-data and residual chronologies are given in Table 2.

Teleconnection and Heteroconnection

  • The results of teleconnection of the chronologies are given in Figure 5 (for each area or data source, the authors listed the best matching chronology).
  • The similarity depends on the length of overlap and on the geographical position, quality, and replication of the chronology.
  • The highest agreement (t59.7) was obtained with the east Austrian chronology, which is geographically the nearest regional chronology.
  • The results of heteroconnection of the southeast Slovenian oak chronology with the chronologies of other tree species in Slovenia were all statistically significant.
  • The highest agreements (t56.0 and 5.8) were obtained with ash and beech, respectively, originating from the same area.

The Climate Signal in the Southeast Slovenian Oak Chronology

  • Climate accounts for a high amount of the tree-ring width variability of oak in southeastern Slovenia (r250.51).
  • Both factors showed remarkable stability over a period of about 100 years .
  • In contrast, the positive influence of previous October and current September temperatures is not stable over time and is significant only for certain periods.
  • In order to highlight the most distinct climate signal, temperature and rainfall of June were combined into one simple variable and graphically compared with the tree-ring width series .
  • This new variable (PP-T) correlated with the tree-ring chronology at r50.65.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

  • Ten years after dendrochronology was introduced in Slovenia, a 548-year regional tree-ring chronology for oak has been assembled with treering series from living trees and historic timbers.
  • This was also the early sentiment for many other European regions, such as Ireland (Baillie 1973), northern Germany (Eckstein et al. 1970; Eckstein 1972) or, most recently, Flanders/ Belgium (Haneca et al. 2006), where dendrochronology has meanwhile been solidly established.
  • The clear regional, or even supra-regional, signal reflected by the Slovenian oak chronology has been demonstrated to be climatic in its nature.
  • Obviously, early summer conditions also determine the growth of other tree species, such as beech, ash, and fir in the same area, giving rise to the dating of historic non-oak timbers by heteroconnection with the oak chronology.

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A 548-Year Tree-Ring Chronology Of Oak
(Quercus Spp.) For Southeast Slovenia And Its
Significance As a Dating Tool And Climate Archive
Item Type text; Article
Authors Čufar, Katarina; Luis, Martín De; Zupančič, Martin; Eckstein,
Dieter
Citation Čufar, K., de Luis, M., Zupančič, M., Eckstein, D., 2008. A 548-year
tree-ring chronology of oak (Quercus spp.) for southeast Slovenia
and its significance as a dating tool and climate archive. Tree-
Ring Research 64(1):3-15.
Publisher Tree-Ring Society
Journal Tree-Ring Research
Rights Copyright © Tree-Ring Society. All rights reserved.
Download date 09/08/2022 14:02:59
Link to Item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/622561

A 548-YEAR TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY OF OAK (QUERCUS SPP.) FOR
SOUTHEAST SLOVENIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE AS A DATING TOOL
AND CLIMATE ARCHIVE
KATARINA C
ˇ
UFAR
1*
, MARTI
´
N DE LUIS
2
, MARTIN ZUPANC
ˇ
IC
ˇ
1
, and DIETER ECKSTEIN
3
1
University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Wood Science and Technology, Rozˇna dolina, Cesta VIII/34,
SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
University of Zaragoza, Dept. Geografı
´
a y O.T., C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain
3
University of Hamburg, Dept. of Wood Science, Division Wood Biology, Leuschnerstr. 91, D-21031 Hamburg, Germany
ABSTRACT
Tree-ring series of oak, from both living trees (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and historic timbers
in southeastern Slovenia were assembled into a 548-year regional chronology spanning the period A.D.
1456–2003. It is currently the longest and the most replicated oak chronology in this part of Europe
located at the transition between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic influence. The
chronology correlated significantly with regional and local chronologies up to 700 km away in Austria,
Hungary, Serbia, Czech Republic and southern Germany. It also showed good ‘‘heteroconnection’’,
i.e. agreement with chronologies of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and silver fir (Abies
alba) in Slovenia. A preliminary dendroclimatic analysis shows that precipitation and temperature in
June accounted for a high amount of variance (r
2
50.51) in the tree-ring widths. The chronology thus
contains considerable potential as a climate archive. We also present its use as a tool for the dating of
wooden objects of the cultural heritage. Moreover, the chronology can be a point of reference for
building tree-ring chronologies in neighboring regions.
Keywords: Dendrochronology, teleconnection, heteroconnection, dendroclimatology, paleo-
environment, historic buildings.
INTRODUCTION
Long tree-ring chronologies are gaining
increasing interest as precise reference standards
for dating historical and prehistorical wood (e.g.
Baillie 1995) and as useful records of paleo-
environmental information (e.g. Cook and Kair-
iukstis 1990). During recent decades, dendrochro-
nological techniques, among others, have been
applied to reconstruct past climate, forest distur-
bances and past forest management practices, fire
history in various woodlands, past forest insect
infestations, geomorphological processes, as well
as past earthquakes (e.g. Schweingruber 1988)
and, last but not least, for dating pre-historic and
historic human activities (e.g. Dean 1996).
In Central and Western Europe, oak (Quer-
cus spp.) is the most important tree and timber in
dendrochronology. The genus Quercus is here
mainly represented by pedunculate (Quercus robur
L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.), which
cannot be fully differentiated in terms of their
wood anatomy. Long oak chronologies are
composed of living and sub-fossil trees, as well
as of wood from historical and archaeological
remains. Some of them cover several millennia and
have been successfully used to date wood from the
distant past and to derive paleo-environmental or
paleo-climatic information (e.g. Eckstein and
Wrobel 1982; Becker and Schmidt 1990; Wazny
and Eckstein 1991; Lavier 2000; Baillie and Brown
2002; Leuschner et al. 2002; Billamboz 2003;
Friedrich et al. 2004). Even under sub-optimal
dendrochronological conditions, such as in Flan-
ders, Belgium, it has been shown that dendro-
* Corresponding author: katarina.cufar@bf.uni-lj.si;
Fax +386-1-423-50-35; Telephone +386-1-423-11-61
TREE-RING RESEARCH, Vol. 64(1), 2008, pp. 3–15
Copyright 2008 by The Tree-Ring Society 3

chronological dating is possible and can provide
valuable information on medieval forest manage-
ment practices (Haneca et al. 2006).
It has been shown that well-replicated tree-
ring chronologies of oak are very similar to each
other throughout much of Central and Western
Europe (teleconnection), indicating that oak
growth is affected by a supra-regional common
factor (Baillie 1995; Kelly et al. 2002). The
construction of long regional oak chronologies in
the countries south, southeast and east of the Alps
has not been equally successful, however. Several
chronologies have been established, for example in
Italy and Hungary (Martinelli 1990; Nola 1991;
Martinelli et al. 1992, 1994; Grynaeus 1996, 2000),
but they are of local significance and based on
living trees only. Likewise in Slovenia, which is
influenced by Alpine, Mediterranean and conti-
nental climate regimes and characterized by a wide
phytogeographic variability, all attempts to con-
struct a long regional oak chronology thus far
have been discouraging for various reasons. The
local tree-ring chronologies of various sites, for
example, differ from each other to a large extent,
particularly in the case of fast-growing oak trees
on lowland sites (C
ˇ
ufar and Levanic
ˇ
1999a,b),
where tree growth is often affected by micro-site
influences like ground water level (Levanic
ˇ
1993;
C
ˇ
ater 2003; C
ˇ
ater and Levanic
ˇ
2004; C
ˇ
ater and
Batic
ˇ
2006). Therefore, it has neither been possible
to extend them with tree-ring series of wood from
the past nor to teleconnect them with chronologies
from north of the Alps.
Nevertheless, a long reference chronology is
indispensable for Slovenia and the neighboring
regions in order to date wood representing the
cultural heritage of the region and to obtain more
information on past climate fluctuations and the
paleo-environment. The objectives of this study,
therefore, were (1) to construct an oak chronology
for southeast Slovenia combining tree-ring series
from living trees and from historic timbers, (2) to
use the potential of this oak chronology as a
dating tool, including teleconnection with oak
chronologies in distant regions and correlation
with other tree species (‘‘heteroconnection’’) in the
same region, such as beech (Fagus sylvatica L.),
ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and silver fir (Abies
alba Mill.), (3) to explore its potential as a climatic
proxy, including the detection of climatic factors
affecting tree growth, and their stability in time,
and (4) to present its potential for dating wood
from historic buildings and reconstruct past
human activities.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study Area and Wood for Tree-Ring Research
The sampling area is located east and
southeast of Ljubljana, Slovenia (Figure 1). The
climate is temperate humid and characterized by
the transition from a sub-Mediterranean to a sub-
continental precipitation regime (Ogrin 1996).
Phytogeographically, the region belongs to the
southeastern Alpine division of the Illyrian prov-
ince, with prevailing mixed deciduous forests. The
predominant tree species are beech, sessile oak,
pedunculate oak, sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa
Mill.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) and Nor-
way spruce (Picea abies Karst.). The natural oak
sites have been mostly deforested for the benefit of
agricultural production.
The wood used to construct the regional tree-
ring chronology originated from old grown oak
trees in the forest districts Celje (CE) (10 trees),
Novo mesto (NM) (12) and Ljubljana (LJ) (29). It
was collected during regular harvesting in 2003
and 2004 or from the archive of the Department of
Wood Science and Technology, Ljubljana as disks
from felled trees or cores from living trees of
mainly sessile oak.
The timbers for extension of the regional tree-
ring chronology originated from historic rural
buildings, such as farm houses, barns and hay
lofts, and from one church tower (Figure 1). The
building timbers were very likely provided from
nearby forests. The samples were collected by
coring or sawing. The number of samples varied
in accordance with the availability and condition of
the timbers. We could not in general differentiate
between sessile and pedunculate oak with certainty.
Dendrochronological Analysis
The samples were polished and the tree-ring
widths measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. The
4 C
ˇ
UFAR, DE LUIS, ZUPANC
ˇ
IC
ˇ
, and ECKSTEIN

TSAP/X program (Frank Rinn, Heidelberg, Ger-
many) was used for data acquisition. The tree-ring
series were visually and statistically crossdated and
compared with each other by calculating the t-
value after Baillie and Pilcher (1973) using TSAP/
X and TSAP-Win. We then established 16 non-
detrended, raw-data chronologies (three chronol-
ogies of living trees and 13 chronologies of
buildings or building groups) and checked their
intercorrelation (Figure 2, Table 1).
Because the three chronologies of living trees
were highly similar to each other (t-values between
6.4 and 7.1), we decided to use all 16 chronologies
to assemble one regional chronology for southeast
Figure 1. Map of Slovenia with the locations of the forest sites, historic buildings, climate stations (Ljubljana 46u049N, 14u299E,
299 m a.s.l.; Celje 46u159N, 15u159E, 240 m a.s.l.; Novo mesto 45u489N, 15u119E, 220 m a.s.l.; Bizeljsko (46u019N, 15u429E, 179 m
a.s.l.; Koc
ˇ
evje 45u399N, 14u519E, 467 m a.s.l.) and castle of Pisˇece. Inset shows the location of Slovenia within Europe. Below are
examples of typical rural buildings in the study region: hay loft (12 KEK), wooden house (10 KRI) and barn (3 OB).
Oak Chronology in Slovenia 5

Slovenia. We made two versions of this regional
chronology, a non-detrended, raw-data and a
detrended, residual chronology.
Raw-data Chronology, Teleconnection
and Heteroconnection
The non-detrended, raw-data regional chro-
nology was tested for teleconnection and hetero-
connection. To test for teleconnection, we
compared the southeast Slovenian chronology
with oak chronologies in Austria (Wimmer and
Grabner 1998; Grabner, personal communica-
tion), Hungary (Grynaeus 2000; Morgos and
Schmidt, personal communication), Serbia (C
ˇ
u-
far and De Luis, unpubl.), Czech Republic
(Tegel, personal communication) and south
Germany (Becker 1993; Friedrich, personal
communication), all provided from the personal
sources. To test the heteroconnection, we used
one chronology of beech from southeastern
Slovenian hills (Di Filippo et al. 2007), one
regional chronology of silver fir (Levanic
ˇ
and
C
ˇ
ufar 1997; C
ˇ
ufar, unpubl.), and one local
chronology of ash (C
ˇ
ufar and Levanic
ˇ
1999a),
all from Slovenia.
Figure 2. Time span, number of samples (n) and overlapping of the chronologies from living trees (hatched bars) and buildings
(white bars); compare Figure 1 and Table 1.
Table 1. Crossdating parameters (t-values) of overlapping chronologies. For the location, type, time span and overlapping of the
chronology, compare Figures 1 and 2. The t-value is not given if overlapping is less than 50 years or when t , 3.
Chronology STZ OB KRI LIS KEL ABH BRK PLE GRM MUT KEK DOV MIR LJ CE
OB 8.1
KRI 3.0 3.0
LIS 10.6
KEL 3.5 6.4 4.0 4.4
ABH 3.7 7.3 8.2 4.3 7.7
BRK 4.4 4.1 7.6 7.0
PLE
GRM 5.1
MUT 3.2 8.6
KEK 3.0 7.5 3.5 5.1 5.4 4.8 6.1
DOV 4.9 5.8 3.2
MIR 5.0 5.8 3.2 5.6
LJ 3.5
CE 3.9 4.2 3.4 3.3 4.6 6.4
NM 3.0 4.0 5.3 6.4 7.1
6 C
ˇ
UFAR, DE LUIS, ZUPANC
ˇ
IC
ˇ
, and ECKSTEIN

Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main characteristics of the tree-ring series of European oaks (Quercus robur and Q. petraea) are discussed and the latest methodological advances in defining the calendar year in which tree-rings were formed and in interpreting such dating in terms of the age of a wooden object.

219 citations


Cites background from "A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..."

  • ...The European network of oak chronologies has recently been extended to the east and southeast (e.g. Cufar et al., 2008b; Grynaeus, 2000; Wimmer and Grabner, 1998)....

    [...]

  • ...However, south of the Alps and in the Mediterranean, above average May, June and July temperatures have a negative effect on ring-widths ( Cufar et al., 2008a,b; Santini et al., 1994)....

    [...]

  • ...As recently presented, a climate reconstruction for SE Slovenia based on a 584-year oak chronology revealed and dated exceptionally dry and wet June conditions for the time span of the chronology ( Cufar et al., 2008a)....

    [...]

  • ...Tree-ring-widths are usually positively correlated with the amount of summer precipitation, especially during June and July ( Cufar et al., 2008a,b; Lebourgeois et al., 2004; Pilcher and Gray, 1982; Rozas, 2001)....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relevance of June weather conditions for the growth of plants in the region between the Alps, the Mediterranean and the continental Pannonian lowland, and the possible changes due to the current climate change scenario are discussed.
Abstract: We present a reconstruction of the June weather conditions in SE Slovenia from 1497 to 2003 based on the De Martonne aridity index (AI). The AI were derived from oak (Quercus spp.) tree-ring series of living trees and historic wood, which exhibited a clear response to June precipitation (positive) and temperature (negative). In the reconstructed AI time series we classified negative and positive deviations from the mean as strong (±1.28 SD) or extreme (±1.645 SD), and thus identified 50 years with a likely dry and hot June, as well as 40 years with a likely wet and cool June. Historical sources and chronicles were used to validate the AI reconstruction in the pre-instrumental period before 1896. The years 1501, 1540, 1546, 1616, 1718, 1788, 1822, 1834, 1839 and 1841, with extreme or strong negative AI deviations, are mentioned in Slovenian chronicles because of crop failures, droughts or extremely hot summers. The years 1691, 1705, 1798, 1799 and 1847, with extreme or strong positive AI deviations, are mentioned as years with a cool and rainy summer. We discuss the relevance of June weather conditions for the growth of plants in the region between the Alps, the Mediterranean and the continental Pannonian lowland, and the possible changes due to the current climate change scenario.

66 citations


Cites background or methods from "A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..."

  • ...A greater than 500-year long regional tree-ring chronology of oak (Quercus spp.) for SE Slovenia has been assembled (Čufar et al. 2008), which is currently among the longest and best replicated chronologies in the area....

    [...]

  • ...Dendroclimatological reconstruction As already shown by Čufar et al. (2008), temperatures and precipitation in June proved to be the most significant factors favouring oak growth in SE Slovenia, and thus the most promising for reconstruction back into the past (Fig....

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  • ...Tree-ring data and chronology The source of tree-ring data were the ring width series of old grown trees and historic wood used to construct the oak (Quercus spp.) chronology for SE Slovenia (Čufar et al. 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of climatic factors (i.e. monthly mean temperature and total precipitation) on radial growth (earlywood width, latewood width and total ringwidth) and on latewood stable carbon isotope composition in a pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) stand in northeastern Hungary were analyzed.

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Cites background from "A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..."

  • ...…been tested widely on the Carpathian oak stands (Babos, 1984; Papp, 1986; Tissescu, 1990, 2001; Grynaeus et al., 1994; Popa, 2002, 2004; Horváth, 2004; Szabados, 2006; Dávid and Kern, 2007; Kern, 2007; Kern et al., 2009) as well as in the Balkans ( Cufar and Levani c, 1999; Cufar et al., 2008a,b)....

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  • ...The peak correlation between radial oak increment and summer moisture stress was reported from Slovenia ( Cufar et al., 2008a, 2008b) and southern Finland (Helama et al., 2009a)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a network of 41 local tree-ring chronologies of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia (latitudes 45.00-48.00N, longitudes 13.14-21.63E, altitudes 80-800m a.s.l.) was constructed and used to establish common climatic signals in oak tree rings in the region.
Abstract: A network of 41 local tree-ring chronologies of oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) in Austria, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia (latitudes 45.00–48.00N, longitudes 13.14–21.63E, altitudes 80–800 m a.s.l.) was constructed and used to establish common climatic signals in oak tree rings in the region. Co-variation of residual chronologies could be resumed in 11 significant principal components (PC), explaining 79 % of common variability. Three of them, PC1, PC2 and PC3, made it possible to identify similarities among the sites. PC1, significantly correlated with all 41 chronologies, indicated a common positive response to precipitation in spring and summer (March and June) and a negative response to temperature in spring and summer (April and June). PC2, significantly correlated with 12 chronologies, indicated a common positive response to precipitation especially in spring (May) and a negative one to high summer temperatures (especially in August) with a pronounced north to south gradient. PC3, significantly correlated with ten chronologies, indicated that a warm previous December and warm current September have a positive effect on tree growth, especially in the south-western part of the study area. The obtained climate–growth relationships will help to understand better the variability of oak growth, to fill palaeoclimatic gaps and to improve dendrochronological research in the region.

50 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the absolute dates of seven late Neolithic pile-dwellings on Ljubljansko barje, Slovenia were presented, and they were settled from ca. 3600 to 3332 (±10) and from 3160 to 3071 (±14) cal BC, as shown by investigations of wood using dendrochronology and radiocarbon wiggle-matching.

45 citations


Cites background from "A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..."

  • ...Using the well replicated modern Slovenian oak chronology (time span A.D. 1456e2003) also confirmed that it could be a good reference point for developing dendrochronological dating in the regions SE of Slovenia, for which it does not yet exist ( Cufar et al., 2008a)....

    [...]

  • ...Because the wood (especially sapwood) was poorly preserved (see, e.g., Cufar et al., 2008b), we had to take 5e20 tree-rings from the outer heartwood to obtain the required mass of wood....

    [...]

  • ...Such teleconnection is already possible in the case of the 540 years long, well replicated, modern Slovenian oak chronology, which can be successfully cross-dated with chronologies within a radius of up to 700 km around Ljubljana ( Cufar et al., 2008a)....

    [...]

  • ...The preservation of the wood was sufficient for such investigations, although its structure and characteristics had changed due to water-logging over millennia ( Cufar et al., 2002, 2008b)....

    [...]

References
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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple homogeneity test was applied to a precipitation data set from southwestern Sweden and the significant breaks varied from 5 to 25 per cent for this data set and probably reflect a serious source of uncertainty in studies of climate trends and climatic change all over the world.
Abstract: In climate research it is important to have access to reliable data which are free from artificial trends or changes. One way of checking the reliability of a climate series is to compare it with surrounding stations. This is the idea behind all tests of the relative homogeneity. Here we will present a simple homogeneity test and apply it to a precipitation data set from south-western Sweden. More precisely we will apply it to ratios between station values and some reference values. The reference value is a form of a mean value from surrounding stations. It is found valuable to include short and incomplete series in the reference value. The test can be used as an instrument for quality control as far as the mean level of, for instance, precipitation is concerned. In practice it should be used along with the available station history. Several non-homogeneities are present in these series and probably reflect a serious source of uncertainty in studies of climatic trends and climatic change all over the world. The significant breaks varied from 5 to 25 per cent for this data set. An example illustrates the importance of using relevant climatic normals that refer to the present measurement conditions in constructing maps of anomalies.

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"A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..." refers methods in this paper

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    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: DENDROCLIM2002 is an extension of existing task-specific software, which is mostly MS-DOS based, and of available user-supplied code for statistical packages, such as SAS, that incorporates the ability to test for temporal changes of dendroclimatic relationships by means of evolutionary and moving intervals.

1,050 citations

Book
31 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this paper, the origin of the materials, analysis of materials, and tree-ring growth and the site of the site are discussed, and a history of dendrochronology is presented.
Abstract: I Origin of the materials.- II Analysis of the materials.- III Tree-ring growth and the site.- IV Applied dendrochronology.- V History of dendrochronology.- General Index.

852 citations


"A 548-year tree-ring chronology of ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…disturbances and past forest management practices, fire history in various woodlands, past forest insect infestations, geomorphological processes, as well as past earthquakes (e.g. Schweingruber 1988) and, last but not least, for dating pre-historic and historic human activities (e.g. Dean 1996)....

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Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a cross-dating program for tree-ring research has been written to compare ring patterns of individual trees and composites, which is more suited to the study of oaks than coniferous trees.
Abstract: A crossdating program for tree -ring research has been written to compare ring patterns of individual trees and composites. The program written in FORTRAN calculates the t value for correlation at every point of overlap of the two chronologies. The program is small enough to be used on a routine basis with a large number of trees. As the chronologies must be free from errors, the program is more suited to the study of oaks than coniferous trees.

673 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In dendroclimatology, tree-ring indices are traditionally calculated as part of the tree ring chronology development process as discussed by the authors, which is accomplished by fitting a growth curve to the ring-width series.
Abstract: In dendroclimatology, tree-ring indices are traditionally calculated as part of the tree-ring chronology development process. This is accomplished by fitting a growth curve to the ring-width series...

635 citations

Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What contributions have the authors mentioned in the paper "A 548-year tree-ring chronology of oak (quercus spp.) for southeast slovenia and its significance as a dating tool and climate archive" ?

The authors also present its use as a tool for the dating of wooden objects of the cultural heritage. 

At the same time, this chronology will be the basis for further extensions back into the past ; the timbers from the Pišece Castle, for example, already extend the chronology back to A. D. 1442. The construction of a tree-ring chronology of living oaks in Srem, Serbia, is a first step towards future networking. In particular, the weather in June will be the climatic signal on which future studies will have to focus. In conclusion, the objectives of the present feasibility study have been achieved and call for further research, in order to study and better comprehend the cultural and natural paleo-environment in southeast Europe.