Abstract: This paper examines the work of the USDA's Food Research Laboratory on poultry and eggs from 1907–1919. The Laboratory provided a scientific basis for government regulation of the poultry- and egg-processing industries. In particular, the Laboratory, under the direction of a chemist and bacteriologist, Mary Engle Pennington, investigated the effects of refrigeration on poultry meat and eggs and sought to establish an unbroken “cold chain” of refrigerated processing, storage, and transportation facilities stretching from the farmer to the consumer. The resulting government regulation restored consumer confidence in cold-stored foods and enabled markets for fresh poultry and eggs to flourish. This interaction of scientific research, technological change, and government regulation eventually altered what Americans ate by providing and making acceptable fresh poultry and eggs year-round for the first time.