A Blockchain Based Solution for Securing Data of IoT Devices
28 Oct 2019-pp 122-129
TL;DR: Decentralized architecture leveraged from Blockchain technology coupled with an alternative centralized cloud architecture which is a classic client/server architecture with an underlying Blockchain at back-end support with smart contract application written in Solidity language at Ethereum platform is developed.
Abstract: In today’s time, the number of IoT devices are increasing rapidly. We everyday hear about Amazon echo, Google Mini, Smart watches etc. These devices collect confidential data of a person and as most of these systems follow centralized architecture approach, So most of the data on internet is basically managed by some central authority or organization. Though these organizations have strict policy regarding data misuse or changing of data without consent but one can’t overlook the fact that these organizations have the ability to do so. Blockchain helps solve such problem as it is not managed by single party if somebody tries to change data in his Blockchain then the hash of the particular block will no longer match and the particular Blockchain will become invalid and other Blockchain will still be intact and therefore users data won’t be compromised. But due to high resource requirement, it becomes problem to run complete Blockchain node on all IoT devices mainly on low power or memory devices. In this paper, we have developed decentralized architecture leveraged from Blockchain technology coupled with an alternative centralized cloud architecture which is a classic client/server architecture with an underlying Blockchain at back-end support with smart contract application written in Solidity language at Ethereum platform. We implement this framework and show how this architecture prevent data misuse by using functionality of Blockchain without requiring the all IoT devices to actually run a Blockchain node. For an end-user experience, it will appear to be same as a normal web app and from the developers perspective, the smart contract application will have similar software design to current web apps thus allowing an easy transition for both of centralized and decentralized methods while still retaining the trust of decentralization.
••01 Jan 2022
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyze the latest research patterns identified with security worries of the IoT idea and give an itemized comprehension of the point and give a thorough conversation of incorporating the IoT framework with Blockchain innovation.
Abstract: The concept of the Internet of Things is arising and developing quickly. IoT addresses another innovation that empowers both virtual and actual items to be associated and interact with one another and gives rise to new digitized services that enhance our satisfaction. The IoT framework gives a few benefits; notwithstanding, the current incorporated design presents various issues including, security, protection, straightforwardness, and data integrity. The quick advancement and usage of IoT innovations have raised security concerns and made a sensation of vulnerability among IoT adopters. These difficulties impede the method of things to come improvements of IoT implementations. Shifting the IoT toward distributed ledger technology might be the right decision to determine such problems. Among the normal and well-known kinds of such innovation is the Blockchain. Coordinating the IoT with Blockchain innovation may induce incalculable advantages. The motivation behind this paper is to analyze the latest research patterns identified with security worries of the IoT idea and give an itemized comprehension of the point. Subsequently, this paper gives a thorough conversation of incorporating the IoT framework with Blockchain innovation. The study is elaborated into four segments. Segment 1 introduces the description of IoT. The next segment will present the fundamentals and working of Blockchain. Segment 3 portrays a few instances of utilization for Blockchain to give security and protection at IoT. In segment 4, various platforms for Blockchain are presented. Segment 5 presents the last contemplations.
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: Ethereum as mentioned in this paper is a transactional singleton machine with shared state, which can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource, and it provides a plurality of resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others.
Abstract: The blockchain paradigm when coupled with cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated its utility through a number of projects, not least Bitcoin. Each such project can be seen as a simple application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute resource. We can call this paradigm a transactional singleton machine with shared-state. Ethereum implements this paradigm in a generalised manner. Furthermore it provides a plurality of such resources, each with a distinct state and operating code but able to interact through a message-passing framework with others. We discuss its design, implementation issues, the opportunities it provides and the future hurdles we envisage.
TL;DR: The blockchain taxonomy is given, the typical blockchain consensus algorithms are introduced, typical blockchain applications are reviewed, and the future directions in the blockchain technology are pointed out.
Abstract: Blockchain has numerous benefits such as decentralisation, persistency, anonymity and auditability. There is a wide spectrum of blockchain applications ranging from cryptocurrency, financial services, risk management, internet of things (IoT) to public and social services. Although a number of studies focus on using the blockchain technology in various application aspects, there is no comprehensive survey on the blockchain technology in both technological and application perspectives. To fill this gap, we conduct a comprehensive survey on the blockchain technology. In particular, this paper gives the blockchain taxonomy, introduces typical blockchain consensus algorithms, reviews blockchain applications and discusses technical challenges as well as recent advances in tackling the challenges. Moreover, this paper also points out the future directions in the blockchain technology.
TL;DR: It is discussed, how blockchain, which is the underlying technology for bitcoin, can be a key enabler to solve many IoT security problems.
Abstract: With the advent of smart homes, smart cities, and smart everything, the Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as an area of incredible impact, potential, and growth, with Cisco Inc. predicting to have 50 billion connected devices by 2020. However, most of these IoT devices are easy to hack and compromise. Typically, these IoT devices are limited in compute, storage, and network capacity, and therefore they are more vulnerable to attacks than other endpoint devices such as smartphones, tablets, or computers. In this paper, we present and survey major security issues for IoT. We review and categorize popular security issues with regard to the IoT layered architecture, in addition to protocols used for networking, communication, and management. We outline security requirements for IoT along with the existing attacks, threats, and state-of-the-art solutions. Furthermore, we tabulate and map IoT security problems against existing solutions found in the literature. More importantly, we discuss, how blockchain, which is the underlying technology for bitcoin, can be a key enabler to solve many IoT security problems. The paper also identifies open research problems and challenges for IoT security.
••01 Nov 2013
TL;DR: This paper design, implement, and evaluate a novel intrusion detection system for the IoT that is primarily target routing attacks such as spoofed or altered information, sinkhole, and selective-forwarding, but can be extended to detect other attacks.
Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT), resource-constrained things are connected to the unreliable and untrusted Internet via IPv6 and 6LoWPAN networks. Even when they are secured with encryption and authentication, these things are exposed both to wireless attacks from inside the 6LoWPAN network and from the Internet. Since these attacks may succeed, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are necessary. Currently, there are no IDSs that meet the requirements of the IPv6-connected IoT since the available approaches are either customized for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) or for the conventional Internet. In this paper we design, implement, and evaluate a novel intrusion detection system for the IoT that we call SVELTE. In our implementation and evaluation we primarily target routing attacks such as spoofed or altered information, sinkhole, and selective-forwarding. However, our approach can be extended to detect other attacks. We implement SVELTE in the Contiki OS and thoroughly evaluate it. Our evaluation shows that in the simulated scenarios, SVELTE detects all malicious nodes that launch our implemented sinkhole and/or selective forwarding attacks. However, the true positive rate is not 100%, i.e., we have some false alarms during the detection of malicious nodes. Also, SVELTE's overhead is small enough to deploy it on constrained nodes with limited energy and memory capacity.
••01 Nov 2016
TL;DR: A Systematic Literature Review on the blockchain is conducted to gather knowledge on the current uses of this technology and to document its current degree of integrity, anonymity and adaptability, and to found 18 use cases of blockchain in the literature.
Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT) scenario, the block-chain and, in general, Peer-to-Peer approaches could play an important role in the development of decentralized and dataintensive applications running on billion of devices, preserving the privacy of the users. Our research goal is to understand whether the blockchain and Peer-to-Peer approaches can be employed to foster a decentralized and private-by-design IoT. As a first step in our research process, we conducted a Systematic Literature Review on the blockchain to gather knowledge on the current uses of this technology and to document its current degree of integrity, anonymity and adaptability. We found 18 use cases of blockchain in the literature. Four of these use cases are explicitly designed for IoT. We also found some use cases that are designed for a private-by-design data management. We also found several issues in the integrity, anonymity and adaptability. Regarding anonymity, we found that in the blockchain only pseudonymity is guaranteed. Regarding adaptability and integrity, we discovered that the integrity of the blockchain largely depends on the high difficulty of the Proof-of-Work and on the large number of honest miners, but at the same time a difficult Proof-of-Work limits the adaptability. We documented and categorized the current uses of the blockchain, and provided a few recommendations for future work to address the above-mentioned issues.
Related Papers (5)
20 Dec 2020
01 Jan 2020