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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/16066359.2020.1751130

A call for replications of addiction research: which studies should we replicate and what constitutes a ‘successful’ replication?

04 Mar 2021-Addiction Research & Theory (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 29, Iss: 2, pp 89-97
Abstract: Several prominent researchers in the problem gambling field have recently called for high-quality replications of existing gambling studies. This call should be extended to the entire field of addi...

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Topics: Replication (statistics) (54%)
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11 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/16066359.2020.1767774
Abstract: Diverse funding sources, including the government, nonprofit, and industry sectors support academic research, generally, and gambling research, specifically. This funding allows academic researcher...

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Topics: Open data (54%), Government (54%)

6 Citations


Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-816720-5.00012-8
Rebecca L. Monk1, Derek Heim2Institutions (2)
01 Jan 2021-
Abstract: In this chapter we suggest that social cognition theories of alcohol consumption have downplayed the impacts that different social and environmental contexts exert on the consumption of beverage alcohol It is argued that dominant social cognitive approaches have tended to ‘individualize’ and treat as overly static social drivers of alcohol consumption We highlight that this is ofttimes reflected in the types of research methods utilized in this area of research, and discuss ways in which more recent contributions have started to overcome some of these shortcomings Following this, we appraise critically research that has examined the impacts distinct environments have on consumption behaviors In this context we suggest that alcohol researchers using context-sensitive methods need to better account for affective influences on drinking We conclude by calling for alcohol researchers to embrace new and developing research tools to a greater degree and to regard socio-cognitive drivers of alcohol consumption as influences that are contextually muted as opposed to static determinants of the behavior in question

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Topics: Social cognition (55%), Consumption (economics) (53%), Social cognitive theory (52%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open access
Larry V. Hedges1, Jacob M. Schauer1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2019-
Abstract: Formal empirical assessments of replication have recently become more prominent in several areas of science, including psychology. These assessments have used different statistical approaches to determine if a finding has been replicated. The purpose of this article is to provide several alternative conceptual frameworks that lead to different statistical analyses to test hypotheses about replication. All of these analyses are based on statistical methods used in meta-analysis. The differences among the methods described involve whether the burden of proof is placed on replication or nonreplication, whether replication is exact or allows for a small amount of "negligible heterogeneity," and whether the studies observed are assumed to be fixed (constituting the entire body of relevant evidence) or are a sample from a universe of possibly relevant studies. The statistical power of each of these tests is computed and shown to be low in many cases, raising issues of the interpretability of tests for replication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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2 Citations


Open access
24 Oct 2016-
Abstract: Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant findings may just be ‘too good to be false’. We examined evidence for false negatives in nonsignificant results in three different ways. We adapted the Fisher test to detect the presence of at least one false negative in a set of statistically nonsignificant results. Simulations show that the adapted Fisher method generally is a powerful method to detect false negatives. We examined evidence for false negatives in the psychology literature in three applications of the adapted Fisher method. These applications indicate that (i) the observed effect size distribution of nonsignificant effects exceeds the expected distribution assuming a null-effect, and approximately two out of three (66.7%) psychology articles reporting nonsignificant results contain evidence for at least one false negative, (ii) nonsignificant results on gender effects contain evidence of true nonzero effects, and (iii) the statistically nonsignificant replications from the Reproducibility Project Psychology (RPP) do not warrant strong conclusions about the absence or presence of true zero effects underlying these nonsignificant results. We conclude that false negatives deserve more attention in the current debate on statistical practices in psychology. Potentially neglecting effects due to a lack of statistical power can lead to a waste of research resources and stifle the scientific discovery process.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/6694386
Emma Norris1, Emma Norris2, Yiwei He1, Rachel Loh1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Introduction. Activities promoting research reproducibility and transparency are crucial for generating trustworthy evidence. Evaluation of smoking interventions is one area where vested interests may motivate reduced reproducibility and transparency. Aims. Assess markers of transparency and reproducibility in smoking behaviour change intervention evaluation reports. Methods. One hundred evaluation reports of smoking behaviour change intervention randomised controlled trials published in 2018-2019 were identified. Reproducibility markers of pre-registration; protocol sharing; data, material, and analysis script sharing; replication of a previous study; and open access publication were coded in identified reports. Transparency markers of funding and conflict of interest declarations were also coded. Coding was performed by two researchers, with inter-rater reliability calculated using Krippendorff’s alpha. Results. Seventy-one percent of reports were open access, and 73% were pre-registered. However, there are only 13% provided accessible materials, 7% accessible data, and 1% accessible analysis scripts. No reports were replication studies. Ninety-four percent of reports provided a funding source statement, and eighty-eight percent of reports provided a conflict of interest statement. Conclusions. Open data, materials, analysis, and replications are rare in smoking behaviour change interventions, whereas funding source and conflict of interest declarations are common. Future smoking research should be more reproducible to enable knowledge accumulation. This study was pre-registered: https://osf.io/yqj5p .

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Topics: Open data (51%), Transparency (behavior) (50%)

2 Citations


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74 results found


Open access
15 Aug 2006-
Abstract: There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser pre-selection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research.

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5,003 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAC4716
28 Aug 2015-Science
Abstract: Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

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4,564 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0956797611417632
Abstract: In this article, we accomplish two things. First, we show that despite empirical psychologists' nominal endorsement of a low rate of false-positive findings (≤ .05), flexibility in data collection, analysis, and reporting dramatically increases actual false-positive rates. In many cases, a researcher is more likely to falsely find evidence that an effect exists than to correctly find evidence that it does not. We present computer simulations and a pair of actual experiments that demonstrate how unacceptably easy it is to accumulate (and report) statistically significant evidence for a false hypothesis. Second, we suggest a simple, low-cost, and straightforwardly effective disclosure-based solution to this problem. The solution involves six concrete requirements for authors and four guidelines for reviewers, all of which impose a minimal burden on the publication process.

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Topics: Reproducibility Project (51%), Poison control (51%)

4,066 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4300/JGME-D-12-00156.1
Abstract: Effect size helps readers understand the magnitude of differences found, whereas statistical significance examines whether the findings are likely to be due to chance. Both are essential for readers to understand the full impact of your work. Report both in the Abstract and Results sections.

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2,407 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1320040111
Abstract: Emotional states can be transferred to others via emotional contagion, leading people to experience the same emotions without their awareness. Emotional contagion is well established in laboratory experiments, with people transferring positive and negative emotions to others. Data from a large real-world social network, collected over a 20-y period suggests that longer-lasting moods (e.g., depression, happiness) can be transferred through networks [Fowler JH, Christakis NA (2008) BMJ 337:a2338], although the results are controversial. In an experiment with people who use Facebook, we test whether emotional contagion occurs outside of in-person interaction between individuals by reducing the amount of emotional content in the News Feed. When positive expressions were reduced, people produced fewer positive posts and more negative posts; when negative expressions were reduced, the opposite pattern occurred. These results indicate that emotions expressed by others on Facebook influence our own emotions, constituting experimental evidence for massive-scale contagion via social networks. This work also suggests that, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, in-person interaction and nonverbal cues are not strictly necessary for emotional contagion, and that the observation of others' positive experiences constitutes a positive experience for people.

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Topics: Emotional contagion (70%), Emotional expression (61%), Happiness (51%)

2,083 Citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
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20217
20201
20191
20161