A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases.
01 Jul 1957-American Journal of Clinical Pathology (AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY)-Vol. 28, Iss: 1, pp 56-63
About: This article is published in American Journal of Clinical Pathology.The article was published on 1957-07-01. It has received 8713 citation(s) till now.
TL;DR: Quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties brings about the regeneration of the pancreatic islets and probably increases insulin release in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats; thus exerting its beneficial antidiabetic effects; however, it may be of little value in normoglycemic animals.
Abstract: Effects of the intraperitoneal injection of quercetin in streptozocin-induced diabetic and normal rats were investigated and compared. Although quercetin had no effect on plasma glucose level of normal animals, it significantly and dose-dependently decreased the plasma glucose level of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Glucose tolerance tests of the diabetic animals approached those of normal rats, their plasma cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced significantly, while their hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly increased upon quercetin treatment. In normal rats, quercetin did not affect the glucose tolerance test, but resulted in an increase of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides and a decrease in hepatic glucokinase activity. No significant pathologic changes were noted in hepatocytes or kidney tubules and glomeruli, while the number of pancreatic islets significantly increased in both treated normal and diabetic groups. It is concluded that quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties brings about the regeneration of the pancreatic islets and probably increases insulin release in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats; thus exerting its beneficial antidiabetic effects. However, it may be of little value in normoglycemic animals.
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...Serum alanine aminotransferase was measured on the blood obtained from fed animals killed for hepatic glucokinase assay using a kit (Zist Chemie, Tehran, Iran) prepared according to the procedure of Reitman and Frankel (1975) and the results were expressed in units per liter....
06 Apr 1968-The Lancet
TL;DR: Serum-F.F.A.A.) levels measured in 200 patients during the first forty-eight hours after an acute myocardial infarction have been related to the prevalence of arrhythmias detected by continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram, to the clinical state of the patients, and to serum-enzyme and blood-glucose levels.
Abstract: Serum-free-fatty-acid (F.F.A.) levels measured in 200 patients during the first forty-eight hours after an acute myocardial infarction have been related to the prevalence of arrhythmias detected by continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram, to the clinical state of the patients, and to serum-enzyme and blood-glucose levels. Maximum elevation of serum F.F.A. occurred within four to eight hours in most patients after acute myocardial infarction. Those with a striking elevation (above 1200 μeq. per litre) had an increased prevalence of serious arrhythmias and disorders of conduction. Both early and late deaths were more frequent among these patients compared with those with less elevated levels. There was no correlation between serum-F.F.A. and the clinical state of the patients, except for cardiogenic shock; nor between serum-F.F.A. and serum-creatine-kinase or serum-aspartate-aminotransferase levels; nor between these serum-enzyme levels and the prevalence of arrhythmias. Serum-F.F.A. and blood-glucose levels did not show significant correlation, except in cardiogenic shock. It is concluded that measurement of serum-F.F.A. is a new and valuable early predictive index of the vulnerability of patients with acute myocardial infarction to serious arrhythmias. This relationship between serum-F.F.A. levels and arrhythmias could result from increased catecholamine activity, particularly that of noradrenaline, or it could be due directly to an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption caused by the utilisation of F.F.A. as the major energy substrate. Both mechanisms would intensify myocardial hypoxia in an already ischaemic heart.
01 Oct 2004-Food and Chemical Toxicology
TL;DR: Investigation of the potential protective effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene alone or in combination against cadmium (Cd) toxicity demonstrated the beneficial influences ofitamin E, -carotenes alone and/or in combination in reducing the harmful effects of CdCl2.
Abstract: Cadmium is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxin. Lipid peroxidation is involved in cadmium-related toxicity. Vitamin E and beta-carotene are effective antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene alone or in combination against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5 mg/kg BW, 1/15 LD50), vitamin E (100 mg/kg BW), beta-carotene (10 mg/kg BW), and vitamin E with beta-carotene (100 + 10 mg/kg BW, respectively) were orally administered by gavage alone or in combination. The tested doses were given to rats every other day (15 times). Results obtained showed that CdCl2 significantly (P < 0.05) induced free radicals in plasma, liver and brain. The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) (plasma and liver), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) (plasma and liver), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (liver) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (plasma and brain) were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased due to CdCl2 administration, whereas, the activities of AST and ALT were increased in plasma. Treatment with CdCl2 caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin in plasma. On the other hand, results showed that CdCl2 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma total protein (TP), albumin (A), blood hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), while total leukocyte count (TLC) increased. Treatment with CdCl2 caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in sperm concentration, motility (%), weight of testes and epididymis, and increase in dead and abnormal sperm. Results demonstrated the beneficial influences of vitamin E, -carotene alone and/or in combination in reducing the harmful effects of CdCl2.
••01 Sep 1973
TL;DR: The CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences: Vol. 4, No. 3, No 3, pp 215-340 as discussed by the authors was the first publication of a comprehensive review of laboratory tests for the assessment of nutritional status.
Abstract: (1973). Laboratory Tests for the Assessment of Nutritional Status. CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences: Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 215-340.
01 Jan 2005-Food and Chemical Toxicology
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of onion and garlic juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated, and the results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects.
Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) juices on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Alloxan was administered as a single dose (120 mg/kg BW) to induce diabetes. A dose of 1 ml of either onion or garlic juices/100 g body weight (equivalent to 0.4 g/100 g BW) was orally administered daily to alloxan-diabetic rats for four weeks. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma of alloxan-diabetic rats compared to the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline and acid phosphatases (AlP, AcP) activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in plasma and testes of alloxan-diabetic rats, while these activities were decreased in liver compared with the control group. Brain LDH was significantly (p<0.05) increased. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of glutathione S-transferase in plasma, liver, testes, brain, and kidney were increased in alloxan-diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with repeated doses of either garlic or onion juices could restore the changes of the above parameters to their normal levels. The present results showed that garlic and onion juices exerted antioxidant and antihyperglycemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and renal damage caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.
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