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Journal ArticleDOI

A Comparative Study of Attitudes towards Entrepreneurship between Polish and British Students

01 Feb 2015-Vol. 16, Iss: 2, pp 89-107

AbstractAbstract Background Entrepreneurship continues to gain momentum as a significant and relevant field of research. Policy makers in the rush to stimulate entrepreneurship in various countries, often rely on the success stories and prescriptions documented in the entrepreneurship literature in which most studies are set in the United States. Research aims The article present exploratory study addresses the subject of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards entrepreneurship by focusing attention on two particular types of cultures of entrepreneurship British and Polish. Method The quantitative research (survey) was conducted in May 2014 among 153 Polish and 94 British graduate and postgraduate management students. Key findings The findings have some distinctive implications for government, policy makers and educators through determining the attitudes towards entrepreneurship among students.

Topics: Entrepreneurship (65%)

Summary (2 min read)

Introduction

  • Background Entrepreneurship continues to gain momentum as a significant and relevant field of research.
  • Policy makers in the rush to stimulate entrepreneurship in various countries, often rely on the success stories and prescriptions documented in the entrepreneurship literature in which most studies are set in the United States.
  • The article present exploratory study addresses the subject of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards entrepreneurship by focusing attention on two particular types of cultures of entrepreneurship British and Polish.
  • The quantitative research was conducted in May 2014 among 153 Polish and 94 British graduate and postgraduate management students .

Key findings

  • The findings have some distinctive implications for government, policy makers and educators through determining the attitudes towards entrepreneurship among students.
  • While entrepreneurship is one of the most studied topics in economics and business research, findings have not been consistent regarding the attitudes towards and perceptions of entrepreneurship in different cultural and economic contexts.
  • Entrepreneurship continues to gain momentum as a significant and relevant field of research.
  • Given that most of the social science research in general, and entrepreneurship research in particular, has been generated in the U.S. and transferability to contexts where the task and psychic environments may be vastly different remains in question [Thomas, Shenkar, Clarke 1994, pp. 675–686].
  • International comparative studies of attitudes towards entrepreneurship are still quite rare.

Entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurs have already been described as the makers of new worlds [Czarniawaka & Wolff 1991], innovators and catalysts of change who continuously do things that have not been done before and who do not fit established patterns [Schumpeter 1965].
  • At the same time the concepts of entrepreneurship have been changing.
  • The high indication of power distance score of a culture defines this culture as hierarchically structured and authority accepting.
  • 98 Hayton, George, and Zahra [2002] stress that cultural values serve as a filter for the degree to which a society considers certain entrepreneurial behaviors as desirable.

Methodology

  • Empirical illustration of the approach of Polish and British students to the issues of entrepreneurship was based on quantitative research carried out in Poland and the UK among Polish and British students.
  • It should be noted that this is the pilot study and the results cannot be generalized.
  • The sample from Poland (Warszawa, Łódź, Kraków, Poznań) consisted of 153 graduate and postgraduate students, the sample from the UK (London, Leeds, Edinburgh), consisted of 94 graduate and postgraduate students.

Discussion

  • Few coll1eges and universities can fully prepare students for real-world challenges.
  • The ease of doing business index is an index created by the World Bank.
  • Whether both groups consider entrepreneurship to be highly desirable career alternative for people with their education.
  • It is clearly visible that both groups differ considerably.
  • The findings have some distinctive implications for Polish government, policy makers and educators through determining the attitudes towards entrepreneurship among Polish students.

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Przedsiębiorczość iZarządzanie
Entrepreneurship and Management
University od Social Sciences Publishing House
ISSN 1733–2486
Volume XVI, Issue 2, pp. 89–107
DOI 10.1515/eam-2015-0019
Michał Chmielecki
University of Social Sciences
Robert Seliga
University of Social Sciences
AComparaveStudyofAtudestowards
EntrepreneurshipbetweenPolishandBrishStudents
Abstract
Background
Entrepreneurship connues to gain momentum as a signicant and relevant eld of
research. Policy makers in the rush to smulate entrepreneurship in various coun-
tries, oen rely on the success stories and prescripons documented in the entrepre-
neurship literature in which most studies are set in the United States.
Research aims
The arcle present exploratory study addresses the subject of cross-cultural dieren-
ces in atudes towards entrepreneurship by focusing aenon on two parcular ty-
pes of cultures of entrepreneurship Brish and Polish.
Method
The quantave research (survey) was conducted in May 2014 among 153 Polish and
94 Brish graduate and postgraduate management students .

90
Key ndings
The ndings have some disncve implicaons for government, policy makers and edu-
cators through determining the atudes towards entrepreneurship among students.
Keywords: culture, entrepreneurship, atudes, approaches, survey, analyses.
Introduconandbackground
While entrepreneurship is one of the most studied topics in economics and
business research, ndings have not been consistent regarding the attitudes to-
wards and perceptions of entrepreneurship in dierent cultural and economic
contexts.
However, entrepreneurship continues to gain momentum as asignicant
and relevant eld of research. Policy makers in the rush to stimulate entrepre-
neurship in various countries, often rely on the success stories and prescrip-
tions documented in the entrepreneurship literature. Given that most of the
social science research in general, and entrepreneurship research in particular,
has been generated in the U.S. and transferability to contexts where the task
and psychic environments may be vastly dierent remains in question [om-
as, Shenkar, Clarke 1994, pp. 675–686]. International comparative studies of
attitudes towards entrepreneurship are still quite rare.
Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurs have already been described as the makers of new worlds [Czar-
niawaka & Wol 1991], innovators and catalysts of change who continuously
do things that have not been done before and who do not t established pat-
terns [Schumpeter 1965]. ey identify, assess, evaluate, manage and trans-
fer risk [Deakins 1999]. Literature on entrepreneurs has stemmed from three
main sources:
1. economic writers who stress the role of the entrepreneur in economic
development;
2. social and business writers who stress the inuence of the social and
business environment on entrepreneurship;
3. psychologists who focus on the personality traits of entrepreneurs
[Deakins 1999].
Academics have been dening characteristics of entrepreneurs for many
years. See table 1. For the summary of this research.
Michał Chmielecki, Robert Seliga

91
Table 1. Characteristics of entrepreneurs
Date Author/s Characteristics
1848 Mill Risk bearing
1917 Weber Source of formal authority
1934 Schumpeter Innovation
1954 Sutton Desire for responsibility
1959 Hartman Source of formal authority
1961 McClelland
Risk taking, need for
achievement
1963 Davids
Ambition, desire for
independence
1964 Pickle Drive, human relations
1971 Palmer Risk measurement
1973 Winter Need for power
1974 Borland Internal locus of power
Source: based on J.A. Timmons, S. Spinelli (2007), New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship
for the 21st Century, 7/e, McGraw-Hill, Irwin.
At the same time the concepts of entrepreneurship have been changing.
Most popular concepts are presented in table 2.
A Comparave Study of Atudes towards Entrepreneurship...

92
Table 2. e concepts of entrepreneurship
Author The concept of entrepreneurship
R.W. Grin
[1996, pp. 730–
731]
The process of organizing and running abusiness and
taking the risk involved and performing an active role in
management.
St.P. Robbins
D.A. DeCenzo
[2002, p. 104]
The process of initiating business start up, organizing the
necessary resources and take risks in pursuit of the prize.
R.D. Hisrich
M.P. Peters
[1992, p. 10]
The process of creating something dierent, because of its
value in the framework of which necessary time and eort is
devoted to achieve this goal, assuming the accompanying
nancial, psychological and social risk, and expecting
obtaining nancial rewards and personal satisfaction.
B. Piasecki
[2001, p. 25]
Entrepreneurship is the process:
- which includes the action taken for the analysis
of opportunities of start and development (or just
development) of the venture, its nancing and the possibility
of meeting the eects of such action;
- which can take many dierent forms and shapes,
including initiation of aventure, creativity and innovation
in developing new products or services, managing an
existing venture in such away that it develops quickly and
continuously, seeking nancial and material supply sources
for potentially growing number of ventures, accepting risk in
the development of new or expansion of existing ventures
(these elements are the part of the entrepreneurial process,
although not all of them must participate in each activity).
F.L. Frey
[1993, pp.
27–28]
Starting aventure and (or) its growth, which occurs through
the use of innovation, by management assuming the risk.
Michał Chmielecki, Robert Seliga

93
J. Penc
[1997, p. 335]
The behavior of aperson or organization that relies on
seeking and applying new solutions, which require more
energy, initiative and resourcefulness and the ability to
estimate the necessary eort and possible benets available
under existing constraints and opportunities, and the
willingness to take risk and responsibility for their decisions
and actions.
J. Timmons
[1990, p. 5]
The process of creating or identifying opportunities and
using them despite of their current resources (...). It is
an creative act of an entrepreneur who nds in him and
devotes enough energy to initiate and build acompany or
organization, rather than just observe, analyze and describe
it.
N. Churchill
[1983, p. 27]
The process of discovery and development of capabilities
to create new value through innovation, acquisition of
necessary resources and managing the process of value
creation.
J.A. Schumpeter
[1960, p. 60]
Recognizing opportunities for implementation of ventures
that are protable and risk-taking to implement them.
W. Adamczyk
[1996]
An organized sequential process oriented under certain
circumstances at using innovative idea in order to generate
benets in the market.
S. Sudoł
[2002, p. 33]
Feature (way of behaving) of entrepreneurs and companies,
that means the willingness and ability to undertake and
solve creative and innovative new problems, while taking
into consideration its risks, the ability to use the available
opportunities and exibility to adapt to changing conditions
T. Kraśnicka
[1999, p. 98]
Entrepreneurship is an activity that stands out by: activity
and dynamism, innovation, looking for changes and reacting
to them, perceiving opportunities and their use, regardless
of the resources (at the moment), willingness to take risks,
which main motive is to multiply the capital.
Source: A.S. omas, O. Shenkar, L.D. Clarke (1994); Grin R.W. (1996); Robbins
St.P., DeCenzo D. (2002); Hisrich R.D., Peters M.P. (1992); Piasecki B. (red.). (2001);
Frey R.F. (1993); Penc J. (1997); Timmons J. (1990); Churchill N., Levis V. (1983);
Schumpeter J.A. (1960); Adamczyk W. (1996); Sudoł St. (2002) Cit. ‘s. Ł. Sułkowski,
Barriers to entrepreneurship in the management of hospitals in Poland, L’entrepreneur face
aux politiques publiques europeennes, ed. C. Martin, T. Rkibi, PGV/ ISLA, Lisboa 2012.
A Comparave Study of Atudes towards Entrepreneurship...

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Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What are the future works in this paper?

Complaining about the future of the country is a long-standing Polish tradition. Additionally it can be suggested that Polish tendency to complain discourages young people form starting setting up their ventures. It is suggested that the immediate personal environment ( e. g., significant others ) as well as the broader socio-cultural context ( e. g., societal culture ) influence and affect entrepreneurship process. 

The article present exploratory study addresses the subject of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards entrepreneurship by focusing attention on two particular types of cultures of entrepreneurship British and Polish.