A Comparative Study of Various Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Network with Sink and Node Mobility
01 Jan 2018-pp 227-236
TL;DR: This review paper mainly concentrates on the study of different protocols that are used for efficient energy consumption using the mobile sink and mobile sensor nodes.
Abstract: Sensor network is made up of a large number of sensor nodes for communication. Some nodes can work as a gateway which transmits data to the sink. These nodes are considered as a bottleneck in multi-hop networks because they send data collected from other nodes, and hence it drains their energy quickly. This problem is known as Hot Spot problem. So, for balancing the energy throughout the network, sink and node mobility can be used. A mobile sink could collect data without the need of gateway, and hence the problem of a bottleneck in the multi-hop network can be minimized. Along with the sink, sensor nodes also can be made mobile. Energy efficiency of WSN is achieved by using mobile sensors and mobile sink with enhanced coverage, and better channel capacity. There are various routing protocols to reduce energy consumption in a mobile WSN. This review paper mainly concentrates on the study of different protocols that are used for efficient energy consumption using the mobile sink and mobile sensor nodes.
••05 Apr 2011
TL;DR: The proposed mobility-based clustering (MBC) protocol outperforms both the CBR protocol and the LEACH-mobile protocol in terms of average energy consumption and average control overhead, and can better adapt to a highly mobile environment.
Abstract: In this study, the authors propose a mobility-based clustering (MBC) protocol for wireless sensor networks with mobile nodes. In the proposed clustering protocol, a sensor node elects itself as a cluster-head based on its residual energy and mobility. A non-cluster-head node aims at its link stability with a cluster head during clustering according to the estimated connection time. Each non-cluster-head node is allocated a timeslot for data transmission in ascending order in a time division multiple address (TDMA) schedule based on the estimated connection time. In the steady-state phase, a sensor node transmits its sensed data in its timeslot and broadcasts a joint request message to join in a new cluster and avoid more packet loss when it has lost or is going to lose its connection with its cluster head. Simulation results show that the MBC protocol can reduce the packet loss by 25% compared with the cluster-based routing (CBR) protocol and 50% compared with the low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy-mobile (LEACH-mobile) protocol. Moreover, it outperforms both the CBR protocol and the LEACH-mobile protocol in terms of average energy consumption and average control overhead, and can better adapt to a highly mobile environment.
TL;DR: An up-to-date survey on the sink mobility issue is presented and several representative solutions are described following the proposed taxonomy, to help readers comprehend the development flow within a category.
Abstract: Sink mobility has long been recognized as an efficient method of improving system performance in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), e.g. relieving traffic burden from a specific set of nodes. Though tremendous research efforts have been devoted to this topic during the last decades, yet little attention has been paid for the research summarization and guidance. This paper aims to fill in the blank and presents an up-to-date survey on the sink mobility issue. Its main contribution is to review mobility management schemes from an evolutionary point of view. The related schemes have been divided into four categories: uncontrollable mobility (UMM), path-restricted mobility (PRM), location-restricted mobility (LRM) and unrestricted mobility (URM). Several representative solutions are described following the proposed taxonomy. To help readers comprehend the development flow within the category, the relationship among different solutions is outlined, with detailed descriptions as well as in-depth analysis. In this way, besides some potential extensions based on current research, we are able to identify several open issues that receive little attention or remain unexplored so far.
TL;DR: It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy efficiency than the choices of the mobility radius of the sink, especially in terms of Emax.
Abstract: Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax, the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar, the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar.The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work.It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy efficiency than the choice of the mobility radius of the sink. Moreover, for small values of the duty cycle, a static sink turns out to be optimal in terms of both Emax and Ebar. For larger values of the duty cycle, a mobile sink has advantages over a static sink, especially in terms of Emax. These insights into the basic interrelationship between duty cycle value and mobility radius of a mobile sink are relevant for energy efficient operation of homogeneous WSNs beyond our model scenario.
••24 Jun 2015
TL;DR: This paper presents an approach to incorporate strong security in deploying Internet of Things (IoT) for smart home system, together with due consideration given to user convenience in operating the system.
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to incorporate strong security in deploying Internet of Things (IoT) for smart home system, together with due consideration given to user convenience in operating the system. The IoT smart home system runs on conventional wifi network implemented based on the AllJoyn framework, using an asymmetric Elliptic Curve Cryptography to perform the authentications during system operation. A wifi gateway is used as the center node of the system to perform the system initial configuration. It is then responsible for authenticating the communication between the IoT devices as well as providing a mean for the user to setup, access and control the system through an Android based mobile device running appropriate application program.
TL;DR: This work proposes four characteristic mobility patterns for the sink that it combines with different data collection strategies and demonstrates that by taking advantage of the sinks mobility and shifting work from sensors to the powerful sink, it can significantly reduce the energy spent in relaying traffic and thus greatly extend the lifetime of the network.
Abstract: Data collection is usually performed in wireless sensor networks by the sensors relaying data towards a static control center (sink). Motivated by important applications (mostly related to ambient intelligence and remote monitoring) and as a first step towards introducing mobility, we propose the basic idea of having a sink moving in the network area and collecting data from sensors. We propose four characteristic mobility patterns for the sink that we combine with different data collection strategies. Through a detailed simulation study, we evaluate several important performance properties of each approach. Our findings demonstrate that by taking advantage of the sinks mobility and shifting work from sensors to the powerful sink, we can significantly reduce the energy spent in relaying traffic and thus greatly extend the lifetime of the network.