A comparative study on anti-inflammatory drug combinations in domestic pigeons with experimentally induced acute arthritis
Summary (2 min read)
WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ACUTE ARTHRITIS
- Moreover, as one of the features in the long and diverse list of their effects on different body functions, glucocorticoids or steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce pain intensity by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and reducing vascular permeability (Leppert and Buss, 2012); for instance, betamethasone has been shown to effectively reduce inflammatory joint pain of chickens (Hocking et al., 2001).
- This decision can deprive the patient from some of the advantages of the IM route, such as administering a precise amount of drug in a short time to a bird which may not be eager to consume food and/or water due to the nature of the disease or its accompanying factors like pain.
- The effect of monotherapy with different analgesic agents has been evaluated in avian models with MSU-induced arthritis and has been associated with different outcomes.
Birds and study design
- Forty-five adult, clinically healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from both sexes with a body weight of 250 ± 50 g that had been raised in the same aviary throughout their life were used in this study.
- The birds were transferred to isolated rooms with controlled temperature (22 °C) and a 10/14 hours Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 67, 2019 light/dark cycle.
- All procedures used in this study are in accordance with their institutional ethical guidelines which are based on the EU guidelines for animal experiments.
Recording of standing behaviour
- After intra-articular injection of MSU or normal saline, each bird was immediately transferred to a transparent glass cage and its behaviour was recorded by a camera fixed in a corner of the cage from 120–180 min post injection.
- The standing time on the right leg during this period was recorded.
- The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were < 8% and < 10%, respectively, for both kits.
- Levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the synovial fluid were assayed by sandwich ELISA kits for pigeon TNF-α and IL-6 (MyBioSource Co., USA).
- Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
- Data analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance method followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test by using GraphPad Prism Version 6 (GraphPad Software Inc., USA).
One-leg standing time
- Birds in the PC group showed one-leg standing behaviour for a period of time that was significantly longer than for the NC birds (P < 0.0001) (Fig. 1).
- Treating birds with all different drug combinations was associated with a significant decrease in one-leg standing time as compared to PC birds (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).
- Birds in Group T4 showed the longest one-leg standing time among the treated groups, which was significantly longer than for all other treated groups (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).
Serum epinephrine concentrations
- All different drug Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 67, 2019 combinations resulted in a significant decrease in serum epinephrine levels as compared to PC birds (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons); however, only the drug combinations that were administered to T2, T3 and T5 groups could reverse serum epinephrine level to that of the NC group (P > 0.05).
- Serum epinephrine concentrations were statistically the same among these three (T2, T3 and T5) groups (P > 0.05).
- Anti-inflammatory drugs from both steroidal and nonsteroidal classes are common therapeutic agents that are successfully used to manage inflammatory pain in avian species.
- Interestingly, when both classes of drugs were administered by injection, the result was not statistically better than when only one drug was used by injection (except for the combination of two NSAIDs).
- 2005; Kou et al., 2015; Dhanasekar and Rasool, 2016), to the best of their knowledge this is the first time that its involvement in an avian model of this type of arthritis has been demonstrated.
- On the other hand, topical administration of drugs close to their target site can limit their adverse effects; therefore, it seems that topical hydrocortisone may be a logical choice in inflammatory arthritis in pigeons.
- Like corticosterone, catecholamines have been used as a humoral index of stress in birds (Le Maho et al., 1992) and it has been shown that pain can stimulate the release of adrenalin and other catecholamines from the adrenal medulla (Tennant, 2013).
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Q1. What are the contributions mentioned in the paper "A comparative study on anti-inflammatory drug combinations in domestic pigeons with experimentally induced acute arthritis" ?
The study compares the effect of one-time administration of nonsteroidal and/or steroidal anti-inflammatory combinations by topical or intramuscular ( IM ) routes to pigeons with monosodium urate ( MSU ) -induced arthritis.