# A comparison of the measured North Sea Andrea rogue wave with numerical simulations

TL;DR: This research presents a probabilistic procedure to assess whether the presence of non-volatile substance such as phosphorous, nitrogen, or phosphorous in the response of the immune system to earthquake-triggered diarrhoea and finds that the response is positive.

Abstract: Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures

## Summary (2 min read)

### 1 Introduction

- A number of studies addressing rogue waves have been conducted theoretically, numerically, experimentally and based on the field data in the last decade.
- Thus, sampling variability will also be present in 17–30 min wave records extracted from the continuous measurements and in statistical properties derived from them.
- A spectral wave model (e.g., the WAM model) provides sea state description only in a form of the two-dimensional wave spectrum but does not give any information about the instantaneous position of the sea surface in a given sea state.

### 3 Hindcast data

- The hindcast data used in this study were retrieved from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast archive.
- Figure 2 shows a history of the total significant wave height, spectral period and related sea state steepness during the Andrea storm.
- It is interesting to note that the output from a wave spectral model can be utilized when indicating a mechanism responsible for the occurrence of a rogue wave (e.g. Tamura et al., 2009), even though it may not always allow reaching the firm conclusions.
- Wind sea clearly dominates the total sea during the growth, peak and decay of the storm.

### 4 Numerical simulations

- Numerical simulations have been carried out to get further insight into the Andrea storm characteristics.
- A comparison of these two approaches (Clamond et al., 2006) has shown that the formulation proposed by Dommermuth and Yue (1987) is less consistent than the one proposed by West et al. (1987) as it does not converge when the amplitude is very small; the latter, therefore, has been applied herein.
- Nonetheless, comparisons of sta- tistical properties of the surface elevation from HOSM simulations initialized with linear surface (thus no adjustments) and laboratory experiments in directional wave basins (see, e.g., Toffoli et al., 2010a, 2013, for infinite and finite water depth, respectively) showed a very good agreement both in terms of spatial/temporal evolution and maximum values of statistical moments.
- 6–9 point out that coupling of the wave spectral model and the nonlinear phase-resolving model could predict the occurrence of the Andrea wave.

### 5 Conclusions

- The study shows how the wave spectral WAM model and the HOSM model can be coupled to forecast/hindcast the occur- rence of extreme and rogue waves.
- A spectral model coupled with the HOSM model provides statistical information about waves based on the actual hindcast/forecast spectrum, whether this is bimodal or unimodal.
- The analysis shows that when the Andrea storm is passing the North Sea rogue waves can be expected in several locations, not only at Ekofisk where the Andrea wave was www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/14/1407/2014/ Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 1407–1415, 2014 recorded.
- The great advance in enhancing computer power has made the coupling between them feasible.
- Edited by: A. Slunyaev Reviewed by: two anonymous referees.

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