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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10408436.2019.1708701

A comprehensive assessment of laser welding of biomedical devices and implant materials: recent research, development and applications

04 Mar 2021-Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 46, Iss: 2, pp 109-151
Abstract: This review comprehensively covers the research accomplished in the field of laser welding of biomedical devices and implant materials. Laser welding technology in the recent past has been ...

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Topics: Laser beam welding (70%)
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15 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA13132930
30 Jun 2020-Materials
Abstract: This study presents results of experimental tests on quality of dissimilar welded joints between 316L austenitic and 2304 lean duplex stainless steels, welded without ceramic backing. Fiber laser welded butt joints at a thickness of 8 mm were subjected to non-destructive testing (visual and penetrant), destructive testing (static tensile test, bending test, and microhardness measurements) and structure observations (macro- and microscopic examinations, SEM, element distribution characteristics, and ferrite content measurements). Non-destructive tests and metallographic examinations showed that the welded joints meet the acceptance criteria for B level in accordance with EN ISO 13919–1 standard. Also the results of the destructive tests confirmed the high quality of the joints: specimens were fractured in base material with lower strength—316L austenitic stainless steel and a 180° bending angle was obtained confirming the high plasticity of the joints. Microscopic examination, SEM and EDS analysis showed the distribution of alloying elements in joints. The microhardness of the autogenous weld metal was higher by about 20 HV0.2 than that of the lean duplex steel. Ferrite content in the root was about 37% higher than in the face of the weld. The Schaeffler phase diagram was used to predict the phase composition of the welded joints and sufficient compliance with the magnetic method was found. The presented procedure can be used for welding of 316L–2304 stainless steels dissimilar welded joints of 8 mm thickness without ceramic backing.

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Topics: Austenitic stainless steel (60%), Welding (54%), Laser beam welding (53%) ... show more

30 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The literature provides limited information regarding the performance of Ti-6Al-4V laser and plasma joints welded in prefabricated bars in dental applications. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical strength of different diameters of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded with laser and plasma techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-five dumbbell-shaped rods were created from Ti-6Al-4V and divided into 9 groups (n=5): a control group with 3-mm and intact bars; groups PL2.5, PL3, PL4, and PL5 (specimens with 2.5-, 3-, 4-, and 5-mm diameters welded with plasma); and groups L2.5, L3, L4, and L5 (specimens with 2.5-, 3-, 4-, and 5-mm diameters welded with laser). The specimens were tested for ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and elongation percentages (EP) were obtained. Fractured specimens were analyzed by stereomicroscopy, and welded area percentages (WAP) were calculated. Images were made with scanning electron microscopy. In the initial analysis, the data were analyzed with a 2-way ANOVA (2×4) and the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test. In the second analysis, the UTS and EP data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, and the Dunnett test was used to compare the 4 experimental groups with the control group (α=.05). The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were applied to correlate the study factors. Finite element models were developed in a workbench environment with boundary conditions simulating those of a tensile test. RESULTS The 2-way ANOVA showed that the factors welding type and diameter were significant for the UTS and WAP values. However, the interaction between them was not significant. The 1-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences among the groups for UTS, WAP, and EP values. The Dunnett test showed that all the tested groups had lower UTS and EP values than the control group. The 2.5- and 3-mm diameter groups showed higher values for UTS and WAP than the other test groups. A positive correlation was found between welded area percentage and UTS and a negative correlation between these parameters and the diameters of the specimens. No statistically significant difference was found between the weld techniques. CONCLUSIONS Under the experimental conditions described, diameters of 2.5 and 3 mm resulted in higher UTS and WAP for both laser and plasma welding and appear to be the best option for joining prefabricated rods in this kind of union.

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9 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2013-
Abstract: Dental Ceramics. Microstructure, Properties and Degradation Series: Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering - Libros de Medicina - Odontologia - 51,95

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7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2478/ADMS-2020-0005
Magdalena Jażdżewska1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The titanium alloys are materials susceptible to tribological wear and the laser treatment can be applied in surface treatment processes to obtain for example higher hardness level. From the other side, it is important to take into consideration, that hardness increase that can be connected with cracks . The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of different lasers and the process parameters on the form and level of residual stresses in the Ti6Al4V alloy, which determine the initiation and propagation of cracking. Two lasers were used, the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers. The specimens were remelted in liquid nitrogen, water or calm air at different pre-heating temperature. The different laser power and scan rates were applied. The increase in energy density increased the number of cracks, the change of an environment and pre-heating affected alo the surface cracking. The cracks observed after remelting with Nd:YAG laser were longer than those observed after treatment with CO2 laser. The compressive stresses after the CO2 laser treatment, and tensile stresses after treatment with the Nd:YAG laser, were found. The appearance of cracks was attributed to an excessive energy density. The different distribution of heat energy inside and around the laser tracks was discussed as the origin of presence either tensile or compressive stresses in the alloy treated with different lasers

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Topics: Nd:YAG laser (63%), Laser power scaling (59%), Residual stress (57%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MTCOMM.2020.101362
Abstract: The effect of the addition of aluminium and niobium, and processing conditions, including cooling rate and rolling condition, on the corrosion behaviour of HSLA steel in 10 wt% sulfuric acid environment has been investigated The experimental procedures included electrochemical corrosion techniques using potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as well as weight loss method The microstructure was examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes in order to investigate the effect of the microstructural features on the corrosion behaviour Surface films were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to identify the corrosion products formed on the surface The results showed that increasing the Al content enhanced the corrosion resistance through obstructing pitting attack on the surface by the refinement of grain boundary carbides and the formation of a protective passive layer rich in carbide and oxide compounds The combination of both Al and Nb promoted the corrosion resistance further, by enriching the passive layer with Nb and higher levels of carbide and oxide compounds, despite the presence of martensite and grain size refinement by niobium carbonitride (NbCN) Increasing the cooling rate reduced the corrosion resistance due to the refinement of grain size, giving a higher density of grain boundaries that act as active sites, besides increasing the level of carbide distribution in the microstructure Controlled rolling offered higher corrosion resistance than hot rolling, independent of the composition, because of the absence of martensite, the presence of low-angle boundary and the refinement of grain boundary carbides provided by controlled rolling

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Topics: Corrosion (63%), Grain boundary (57%), Carbide (56%) ... show more

3 Citations


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256 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17265/2159-5313/2016.09.003
28 Sep 2016-Philosophy study
Abstract: There has been a shift from the general presumption that “doctor knows best” to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Medical ethics may exempt patients from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at others ways in which patients’ responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair captivity of doctors as helpers.

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Topics: Nursing ethics (83%), Medical ethics (65%)

9,859 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE00785
Mark E. Davis1Institutions (1)
20 Jun 2002-Nature
Abstract: "Space—the final frontier." This preamble to a well-known television series captures the challenge encountered not only in space travel adventures, but also in the field of porous materials, which aims to control the size, shape and uniformity of the porous space and the atoms and molecules that define it. The past decade has seen significant advances in the ability to fabricate new porous solids with ordered structures from a wide range of different materials. This has resulted in materials with unusual properties and broadened their application range beyond the traditional use as catalysts and adsorbents. In fact, porous materials now seem set to contribute to developments in areas ranging from microelectronics to medical diagnosis.

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Topics: Porous medium (51%)

4,332 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PMATSCI.2008.06.004
Abstract: The field of biomaterials has become a vital area, as these materials can enhance the quality and longevity of human life and the science and technology associated with this field has now led to multi-million dollar business. The paper focuses its attention mainly on titanium-based alloys, even though there exists biomaterials made up of ceramics, polymers and composite materials. The paper discusses the biomechanical compatibility of many metallic materials and it brings out the overall superiority of Ti based alloys, even though it is costlier. As it is well known that a good biomaterial should possess the fundamental properties such as better mechanical and biological compatibility and enhanced wear and corrosion resistance in biological environment, the paper discusses the influence of alloy chemistry, thermomechanical processing and surface condition on these properties. In addition, this paper also discusses in detail the various surface modification techniques to achieve superior biocompatibility, higher wear and corrosion resistance. Overall, an attempt has been made to bring out the current scenario of Ti based materials for biomedical applications.

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Topics: Biomaterial (52%)

3,382 Citations


Open access
17 Aug 2003-
Abstract: The provided compressed bitstreams were uncompressed using provided software and the resulting sequences were compared to the original ones in terms of PSNR. Additionally, the sequence Ballroom was compressed using the provided software. Resulting bitstreams were processed as the ones provided by Sejong/ETRI to verify the whole chain of coding and decoding. The results obtained at Poznań University of Technology are included in the accompanying Excel file. They are the same as the ones provided by Sejong/ETRI, except for sequences Race1 and Flamenco2 results. The results for them are slightly worse than the ones presented by Sejong/ETRI. The difference is less than 0.05 dB. It seems that last frames from some cameras give significantly worse PSNR (about 10dB less than the rest of frames). The cause of this difference is unknown.

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Topics: Standardization (55%)

1,701 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0030-4220(65)90015-0
Leo Zach1, Gerson CohenInstitutions (1)
Topics: Pulpitis (65%), Dental High-Speed Technique (61%), Pulp (tooth) (61%) ... show more

1,056 Citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217
20205
20181
20131
20091
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