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Journal ArticleDOI

A Comprehensive Stakeholder-Typology Model Based on Salience Attributes in Construction Projects

01 Sep 2019-Journal of Construction Engineering and Management-asce (American Society of Civil Engineers)-Vol. 145, Iss: 9, pp 04019048

AbstractThis article presents a comprehensive project stakeholder typology model (PSTM) based on stakeholder salience attributes (SSAs). Stakeholders are considered as one of the major pillars of c...

Topics: Stakeholder analysis (71%), Project stakeholder (62%), Stakeholder (61%), Salience (language) (53%)

Summary (2 min read)


  • This paper is about stakeholder typology in construction projects.
  • There exist a number of models, frameworks and methods with classifying stakeholder salience attributes (SSAs) and stakeholder typology as a central (Aapaoja & Haapasalo, 2014; Yu & Leung, 2018).
  • Comparing previous studies reveals the fact that the various SSAs are included in some models but not mentioned in others.
  • In step 3 a combination of survey and semi-structured interviews were performed to determine the assignment degrees between each component and each attribute.

If the components of attribute “A” could not be assigned to another attribute and the components

  • Of other attributes could not be assigned to the attribute “A”, it is said that the attribute “A” has a clear and accurate boundary.
  • The numbers inside the parentheses in Table 7 show the average of the semi-structured interview method findings.
  • As previously mentioned, the purpose of this paper is to identify stakeholder salience attributes (SSAs) that have a clear, accurate, and non-overlapping boundary and to develop a comprehensive project stakeholder typology model (PSTM) based on the SSAs.
  • The Delphi method is an iterative process where the facilitators are obtaining expert opinions in several iterative rounds.
  • The authors findings from the Venn diagram also highlights that if a component is shared in two attributes, it should be assigned to the attribute with the highest assignment degree.

Developing TAM attributes

  • Mitchell et al. (1997) has stated several definitions of “power” from researchers and theorists; however, he did not offer a single definition of this attribute, also known as Power.
  • After a careful investigation of the four attributes and all of the components in this study, it was realized that all components offered by Mitchell et al. (1997) are found in three attributes “power”, “impact”, and “influence”.
  • On the other hand, “power” is a subset of “impact” and “influence” and the attributes of “influence” and “impact” can define “power” in a broader sense.
  • In comparison with the TAM, this attribute is wider in the new model.
  • In addition to the components expressed by Mitchell et al. (1997), the new attribute includes other components and is introduced as “Legitimacy” but with a wider definition in the new model.

Project Stakeholder Typology Model (PSTM)

  • Mitchell et al. (1997) have not included the attribute of “Proximity” in their model for the purpose of determining the importance of stakeholders and their positions but a part of the attribute of “Proximity” is embedded in the context of “Legitimacy” in the TAM (Fig. 2).
  • Each area shows the type of stakeholder with regard to the possession of SSAs.
  • This study offers the PSTM as the core of stakeholder-related research and actions in construction industry.
  • To analyze, identify and manage project stakeholders, all four attributes are necessary: “Potency”, “Legitimacy”, “Urgency”, and “Proximity”.
  • Table 11 shows these groups with their considerations.

Discussion and conclusion

  • The existence of crudity and turbulence in the literature of stakeholder analysis, identification and management is quite obvious in construction industry.
  • The authors also found that two the attributes “support” and “power” are subsets of attributes “impact” and “influence” and thus should not be considered as independent attributes.
  • This paper presented a comprehensive project stakeholder typology model (PSTM), which contains all four attributes “Potency”, “Legitimacy”, “Urgency”, and “Proximity” and their components can be used for managing stakeholders in construction projects.
  • The reason is that the authors have applied all attributes from literature to analyze and redefine the complete and non-overlapping SSAs, and therefore, PSTM specifies different types of stakeholders more accurate and in more details.

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Frequently Asked Questions (2)
Q1. What have the authors contributed in "A comprehensive stakeholder-typology model based on salience attributes in construction projects" ?

This paper presents a comprehensive project stakeholder typology model ( PSTM ) based on stakeholder salience attributes. Stakeholders are considered as one of the major pillars of construction projects and management of stakeholders is essential to effective project management in the construction industry. This analysis revealed important variation in the attributes, models and frameworks. Based on a Venn-diagram analysis of data, the authors suggest a clear and non-overlapping stakeholder salience attributes framework to be used in construction projects. The authors also propose a project stakeholder typology model ( PSTM ) based on stakeholder salience attributes. It is expected that the results of this study can be used by 

Future research Several proposals for future research are relevant based on the concerns of the current study. Second, it is also their view that further research should study how to calculate the assignment degree between each component and each attribute, for example by using fuzzy theory. Third, future research can also take into account the practical use of PSTM and the authors suggest a survey and expert interviews on PSTM utilization. Using a visualising tool to study stakeholder influence–two Australian examples.