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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COSREV.2021.100369

A comprehensive survey on the Multiple Traveling Salesman Problem: Applications, approaches and taxonomy

02 Mar 2021-Computer Science Review (Elsevier)-Vol. 40, pp 100369
Abstract: The Multiple Travelling Salesman Problem (MTSP) is among the most interesting combinatorial optimization problems because it is widely adopted in real-life applications, including robotics, transportation, networking, etc.Although the importance of this optimization problem, there is no survey dedicated to reviewing recent MTSP contributions. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive review of existing studies on MTSP. In this survey, we focus on MTSP’s recent contributions to both classical vehicles/robots and unmanned aerial vehicles. We highlight the approaches applied to solve the MTSP as well as its application domains. We analyze the MTSP variants and propose a taxonomy and a classification of recent studies.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21093049
Azza Allouch1, Azza Allouch2, Omar Cheikhrouhou3, Anis Koubâa2  +4 moreInstitutions (6)
27 Apr 2021-Sensors
Abstract: Unmanned aerial systems (UAVs) are dramatically evolving and promoting several civil applications. However, they are still prone to many security issues that threaten public safety. Security becomes even more challenging when they are connected to the Internet as their data stream is exposed to attacks. Unmanned traffic management (UTM) represents one of the most important topics for small unmanned aerial systems for beyond-line-of-sight operations in controlled low-altitude airspace. However, without securing the flight path exchanges between drones and ground stations or control centers, serious security threats may lead to disastrous situations. For example, a predefined flight path could be easily altered to make the drone perform illegal operations. Motivated by these facts, this paper discusses the security issues for UTM’s components and addresses the security requirements for such systems. Moreover, we propose UTM-Chain, a lightweight blockchain-based security solution using hyperledger fabric for UTM of low-altitude UAVs which fits the computational and storage resources limitations of UAVs. Moreover, UTM-Chain provides secure and unalterable traffic data between the UAVs and their ground control stations. The performance of the proposed system related to transaction latency and resource utilization is analyzed by using cAdvisor. Finally, the analysis of security aspects demonstrates that the proposed UTM-Chain scheme is feasible and extensible for the secure sharing of UAV data.

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Topics: Ground control station (58%)

9 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14144132
08 Jul 2021-Energies
Abstract: Efficient vehicle routing is a major concern for any supply chain, especially when dealing with last-mile deliveries in highly urbanized areas. In this paper problems considering last-mile delivery in areas with the restrictions of motorized traffic are described and different types of cargo bikes are reviewed. The paper describes methods developed in order to solve a combination of problems for cargo bicycle logistics, including efficient packing, routing and load-dependent speed constraints. Proposed models apply mathematical descriptions of problems, including the Knapsack Problem, Traveling Salesman Problem and Traveling Thief Problem. Based on synthetically generated data, we study the efficiency of the proposed algorithms. Models described in this paper are implemented in Python programming language and will be further developed and used for solving the problems of electric cargo bikes’ routing under real-world conditions.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/LRA.2021.3091695
Frantisek Nekovar1, Jan Faigl1, Martin Saska1Institutions (1)
23 Jun 2021-
Abstract: This letter concerns optimal power transmission line inspection formulated as a proposed generalization of the traveling salesman problem for a multi-route one-depot scenario. The problem is formulated for an inspection vehicle with a limited travel budget. Therefore, the solution can be composed of multiple runs to provide full coverage of the given power lines. Besides, the solution indicates how many vehicles can perform the inspection in a single run. The optimal solution of the problem is solved by the proposed Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation, which is, however, very computationally demanding. Therefore, the computational requirements are addressed by the combinatorial metaheuristic. The employed greedy randomized adaptive search procedure is significantly less demanding while providing competitive solutions and scales better with the problem size than the ILP-based approach. The proposed formulation and algorithms are demonstrated in a real-world scenario to inspect power line segments at the electrical substation.

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1 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ASOC.2021.107877
Abstract: In this paper, MASA (Modified A* Algorithm) method is introduced which can merge numerous factors with different weights into a multi-weighted graph to offer the most optimal route for a pedestrian tourist. Several mobile applications support personalized tour recommendations in making feasible plans, however, tours should not only make visiting attractions possible via the shorter route but also satisfy the unique needs of individuals with different preferences. MASA integrates the Ant Colony Optimization algorithm for arranging points of interest (POI), with a modified A* algorithm for generating multi-weighted graphs through pairs of POIs to propose the most suitable tour and facilitate traversal for a tourist who does not get involved with riding vehicles. Our contribution in this research is to consider multiple factors simultaneously or customize the route based on the user’s choice, and introduce pareto front chart for selecting optimal links, which has not been solved yet for being a challenging as well as complicated case. The user in this paper is authorized to choose preferred POIs, defined the importance of each parameter to affect route finding. A historical region in Yazd is selected as the case study due to its winding streets to show the solidity of our approach, with four main factors including Length, Communion, Relaxation, and Isovist, and then three routes have been generated considering customized selections along with an overall route considering all objectives. The computational results have shown the capability of the new proposed algorithm in route finding.

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79 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/4235.996017
Abstract: Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) that use non-dominated sorting and sharing have been criticized mainly for: (1) their O(MN/sup 3/) computational complexity (where M is the number of objectives and N is the population size); (2) their non-elitism approach; and (3) the need to specify a sharing parameter. In this paper, we suggest a non-dominated sorting-based MOEA, called NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II), which alleviates all of the above three difficulties. Specifically, a fast non-dominated sorting approach with O(MN/sup 2/) computational complexity is presented. Also, a selection operator is presented that creates a mating pool by combining the parent and offspring populations and selecting the best N solutions (with respect to fitness and spread). Simulation results on difficult test problems show that NSGA-II is able, for most problems, to find a much better spread of solutions and better convergence near the true Pareto-optimal front compared to the Pareto-archived evolution strategy and the strength-Pareto evolutionary algorithm - two other elitist MOEAs that pay special attention to creating a diverse Pareto-optimal front. Moreover, we modify the definition of dominance in order to solve constrained multi-objective problems efficiently. Simulation results of the constrained NSGA-II on a number of test problems, including a five-objective, seven-constraint nonlinear problem, are compared with another constrained multi-objective optimizer, and the much better performance of NSGA-II is observed.

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Topics: Sorting (57%), Evolutionary algorithm (56%), Mating pool (56%) ... read more

30,928 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.3929/ETHZ-A-004284029
01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: The Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) (Zitzler and Thiele 1999) is a relatively recent technique for finding or approximating the Pareto-optimal set for multiobjective optimization problems. In different studies (Zitzler and Thiele 1999; Zitzler, Deb, and Thiele 2000) SPEA has shown very good performance in comparison to other multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, and therefore it has been a point of reference in various recent investigations, e.g., (Corne, Knowles, and Oates 2000). Furthermore, it has been used in different applications, e.g., (Lahanas, Milickovic, Baltas, and Zamboglou 2001). In this paper, an improved version, namely SPEA2, is proposed, which incorporates in contrast to its predecessor a fine-grained fitness assignment strategy, a density estimation technique, and an enhanced archive truncation method. The comparison of SPEA2 with SPEA and two other modern elitist methods, PESA and NSGA-II, on different test problems yields promising results.

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4,711 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0270-0255(87)90473-8
Abstract: Here we introduce the Analytic Hierarchy Process as a method of measurement with ratio scales and illustrate it with two examples. We then give the axioms and some of the central theoretical underpinnings of the theory. Finally, we discuss some of the ideas relating to this process and its ramifications. In this paper we give special emphasis to departure from consistency and its measurement and to the use of absolute and relative measurement, providing examples and justification for rank preservation and reversal in relative measurement.

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2,068 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.OMEGA.2004.10.004
Tolga Bektaş1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The multiple traveling salesman problem (mTSP) is a generalization of the well-known traveling salesman problem (TSP), where more than one salesman is allowed to be used in the solution. Moreover, the characteristics of the mTSP seem more appropriate for real-life applications, and it is also possible to extend the problem to a wide variety of vehicle routing problems (VRPs) by incorporating some additional side constraints. Although there exists a wide body of the literature for the TSP and the VRP, the mTSP has not received the same amount of attention. The purpose of this survey is to review the problem and its practical applications, to highlight some formulations and to describe exact and heuristic solution procedures proposed for this problem.

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Topics: 2-opt (68%), Bottleneck traveling salesman problem (64%), Traveling purchaser problem (64%) ... read more

887 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CIE.2009.05.009
Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for classifying the literature of the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). VRP as a field of study and practice is defined quite broadly. It is considered to encompass all of the managerial, physical, geographical, and informational considerations as well as the theoretic disciplines impacting this ever emerging-field. Over its lifespan the VRP literature has become quite disjointed and disparate. Keeping track of its development has become difficult because its subject matter transcends several academic disciplines and professions that range from algorithm design to traffic management. Consequently, this paper defines VRP's domain in its entirety, accomplishes an all-encompassing taxonomy for the VRP literature, and delineates all of VRP's facets in a parsimonious and discriminating manner. Sample articles chosen for their disparity are classified to illustrate the descriptive power and parsimony of the taxonomy. Moreover, all previously published VRP taxonomies are shown to be relatively myopic; that is, they are subsumed by what is herein presented. Because the VRP literature encompasses esoteric and highly theoretical articles at one extremum and descriptions of actual applications at the other, the article sampling includes the entire range of the VRP literature.

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Topics: Vehicle routing problem (51%)

610 Citations


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YearCitations
20217