# A Computer-Aided Analytical Study on the Characteristics of Left Handed Material Structures at Microwave Frequencies

TL;DR: In this article, computer-aided analytical studies and physical understanding of important characteristics of commonly used left-handed material structures (wire-array and split-ring resonator) to realize negative effective permittivity and permeability leading to negative refractive index over a desired frequency band have been reported.

Abstract: Computer-aided analytical studies and physical understanding of important characteristics of some commonly used left-handed material (LHM) structures (wire-array and split-ring resonator), to realize negative effective permittivity and permeability leading to negative refractive index over a desired frequency band have been reported in this paper. The transmission of electromagnetic wave through LHMs and right-handed materials (RHMs) has some fundamental differences. This issue of electromagnetic wave transmission through LHM has been characterized, and a physical insight of the phenomena has also been included. The LHM characterization using computer-aided analytical modeling shows good agreement with the previous numerical simulation and experimental results reported for such microstructures operating at microwave frequencies.

##### References

More filters

••

TL;DR: The authors' simulations show that a version of the lens operating at the frequency of visible light can be realized in the form of a thin slab of silver, which resolves objects only a few nanometers across.

Abstract: Optical lenses have for centuries been one of scientists’ prime tools. Their operation is well understood on the basis of classical optics: curved surfaces focus light by virtue of the refractive index contrast. Equally their limitations are dictated by wave optics: no lens can focus light onto an area smaller than a square wavelength. What is there new to say other than to polish the lens more perfectly and to invent slightly better dielectrics? In this Letter I want to challenge the traditional limitation on lens performance and propose a class of “superlenses,” and to suggest a practical scheme for implementing such a lens. Let us look more closely at the reasons for limitation in performance. Consider an infinitesimal dipole of frequency v in front of a lens. The electric component of the field will be given by some 2D Fourier expansion,

10,974 citations

••

TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.

Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

8,477 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu/sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials.

Abstract: We show that microstructures built from nonmagnetic conducting sheets exhibit an effective magnetic permeability /spl mu//sub eff/, which can be tuned to values not accessible in naturally occurring materials, including large imaginary components of /spl mu//sub eff/. The microstructure is on a scale much less than the wavelength of radiation, is not resolved by incident microwaves, and uses a very low density of metal so that structures can be extremely lightweight. Most of the structures are resonant due to internal capacitance and inductance, and resonant enhancement combined with compression of electrical energy into a very small volume greatly enhances the energy density at critical locations in the structure, easily by factors of a million and possibly by much more. Weakly nonlinear materials placed at these critical locations will show greatly enhanced effects raising the possibility of manufacturing active structures whose properties can be switched at will between many states.

8,135 citations

••

TL;DR: A mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band is proposed: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance.

Abstract: The plasmon is a well established collective excitation of metals in the visible and near UV, but at much lower frequencies dissipation destroys all trace of the plasmon and typical Drude behavior sets in. We propose a mechanism for depression of the plasma frequency into the far infrared or even GHz band: Periodic structures built of very thin wires dilute the average concentration of electrons and considerably enhance the effective electron mass through self-inductance. Computations replicate the key features and confirm our analytic theory. The new structure has novel properties not observed before in the GHz band, including some possible impact on superconducting properties.

3,954 citations

••

TL;DR: This work investigated the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through a metamaterial that has a negative index of refraction for wavelengths around 1.5 micrometers and directly inferred the phase time delay from the interference fringes of a Michelson interferometer.

Abstract: We investigated the propagation of femtosecond laser pulses through a metamaterial that has a negative index of refraction for wavelengths around 1.5 micrometers. From the interference fringes of a Michelson interferometer with and without the sample, we directly inferred the phase time delay. From the pulse-envelope shift, we determined the group time delay. In a spectral region, phase and group velocity are negative simultaneously. This means that both the carrier wave and the pulse envelope peak of the output pulse appear at the rear side of the sample before their input pulse counterparts have entered the front side of the sample.

758 citations