A Computer-Aided Heavy Lift Planning Model
04 Aug 2000-Computing in Civil and Building Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers)-pp 996-1003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a heavy lift planning tool within the AutoCAD environment, which is implemented using AutoLISP and incorporates features for viewing and manipulating the spatial attributes of the plan.
Abstract: Planning heavy lifts is a complex process. The conventional tools available for planning are limited. As a result, the planning process is tedious and cumbersome. This work focuses on developing a heavy lift planning tool within the AutoCAD environment. The planning features of the tool are developed within two key modules: the Visualization. Module and the Database module. The visualization module is implemented using AutoLISP and incorporates features for viewing and manipulating the spatial attributes of the plan. The Database module is implemented using Visual C++ and Microsoft Access. This module updates the lifting capacity of the crane based on the selected configuration, boom length and lift radius. The implemented lift planning functions were tested successfully using a case study.
TL;DR: 3D visualization is helpful in the verification and validation of simulation results, and can effectively communicate the essence of a simulated operation, thus improving the accessibility of simulation as a decision making aid.
Abstract: Most high-rise building construction projects rely on tower cranes to perform lifting and hoisting activities. In practice, tower cranes are managed based on demand, urgency, and prioritized work tasks that must be performed within a set period of time in the field. As a computer tool, simulation has proved to be effective in modeling complex construction operations and can be a substantial help in aiding practitioners in construction planning. However, the use of simulation has fallen far below its maximum potential due to a lack of appropriate support tools which would allow construction managers to use simulation tools for themselves. Special purpose simulation (SPS) and 3D visualization of simulated operations are two potential means that enable domain experts, who are knowledgeable in give domains, but not familiar with simulation, to easily model an operation within their domain and analyze the simulation results. This paper presents a practical methodology for integrating 3D visualization with SPS for tower crane operation. An integrated system was built in a 3D Studio MAX environment and tested in the construction of the new civil and environmental engineering building at the University of Alberta. This paper demonstrates that 3D visualization is helpful in the verification and validation of simulation results, and can effectively communicate the essence of a simulated operation, thus improving the accessibility of simulation as a decision making aid.
TL;DR: In this paper, a newly developed algorithm for selecting mobile cranes on construction sites, which takes into account the lifting capacity, the geometrical characteristics of the crane, the dimensions of equipments and riggings, and the ground bearing pressure, is presented.
Abstract: Lifting capacity charts are tabulated and provided to operators and practitioners by mobile crane manufacturers. These charts are structured based on predetermined crane configurations, which consist of boom/jib length, lifting radius, main boom angle to ground, and jib angle to ground or its offset to its main boom centerline. It is a tedious job that lifting planners select cranes for construction projects based on a large number of lifting capacity charts. This paper presents a newly developed algorithm for selecting mobile cranes on construction sites, which takes into account the lifting capacity, the geometrical characteristics of the crane, the dimensions of equipments and riggings, and the ground bearing pressure. The algorithm is incorporated into a three-dimensional 3D computer-aided system that integrates crane selection module, crane modeling module, 3D-simulation module, 3D computer-aided design modeling module, rigging calculation module, and data management module. At last, a case is represented in order to demonstrate the use of the developed algorithm and to illustrate its essential features.
TL;DR: A powerful and flexible auction protocol-based simulation model designed to facilitate heavy lift plan development, designed to solve the Winner Determination Problem (WDP) based on combinatorial optimizations by maximizing the social welfare of the entire system.
Abstract: In modular industrial construction, prefabricated modules are usually lifted with mobile cranes. Development of reliable heavy lift plans using conventional planning tools, however, remains a challenging and time-consuming task. This article presents an Auction-based Simulation for Industrial Crane Operations (ASICO)—a powerful and flexible auction protocol-based simulation model designed to facilitate heavy lift plan development. Employing this powerful approach enables lift planners to select the best types of cranes, to schedule multiple heavy lifts while satisfying system constraints, and to determine proper configurations, crane locations, and pick-points. Specifically, AISCO reads data from a comprehensive database to allocate cranes, with appropriate configurations and locations, to modules (known as agents). ASICO then holds a number of regular auctions (e.g., every working day), where agents bid for various combinations of resources (e.g., cranes, space). In this system, an auctioneer is designed to solve the Winner Determination Problem (WDP) based on combinatorial optimizations by maximizing the social welfare of the entire system. ASICO also provides suitable scheduling data for a 4D (3D plus time) animation tool to demonstrate the lifting process throughout the entire construction phase. Implementation of this system on a real case study was found to improve the cost, schedule, and safety of the project.
04 May 2010
TL;DR: In this article, a simulation-based approach is employed to produce a heavy lifting planning system for mobile cranes, which assists the project manager and lift engineer in decisions regarding the selection of mobile crane and their locations and configurations for different lifts.
Abstract: Heavy lifting in industrial construction involves the installation of prefabricated modules and equipment weighing up to 1000 tons. Placing a prefabricated module requires a specific crane with a minimum capacity and specific configurations and riggings. Site construction process should follow a certain sequence. If the required cranes are not available or the predecessor modules or structures are not built yet, the module has to be stored in a storage area. Prior to lifting a module, several supporting tasks must take place including adjusting the location, configuration, and rigging of the crane and preparing the ground beneath the crane. Therefore, planning multiple heavy lifts is a complex process. However, it has a significant impact on the cost, schedule and safety of the project. This study employs a simulation-based approach to produce a heavy lifting planning system for mobile cranes. This system assists the project manager and lift engineer in decisions regarding the selection of mobile cranes and their locations and configurations for different lifts. It also produces a schedule that reduces the total cost and enhances the schedule of the project. This system is under implementation on an industrial plant in the province of Alberta, Canada.
TL;DR: A comprehensive framework for creating the 4D animation of a multi mobile crane lift process that has enough flexibility to simulate multi-mobile crane movements with various types of mobile cranes, multiple kinds of movements, and various site conditions is proposed.
Abstract: Developing heavy-lift studies is a vital task in heavy congested industrial projects such as modular projects where it is necessary to lift modules with mobile cranes. However, preparing these lift studies can be time-consuming. Hence, automating this process is a great step in saving time, and reducing the percentage of errors, having the practitioner focus on lift planning rather than tedious tasks. A significant step in the pre-construction and construction phase of an industrial project is creating the 4D animation of lift processes. Such an animation develops a better understanding of the process and streamlines finding the best path for the mobile crane movements to avoid collisions. Such a 4D lift animation (i.e., simulation) can be a mandate when the lifting process is performed in a congested construction site involving more than one crane. This research study aims to propose a comprehensive framework for creating the 4D animation of a multi mobile crane lift process. The proposed approach can connect to a comprehensive model, in Building Information Modeling (BIM) terminologies, or can auto-generate the simplified CAD model containing the lifting objects (i.e., modules in modular construction) and obstructions by interacting with a central database. It can also auto-generate the 3D model of cranes in the set and pick positions. Then, the lift animation can be developed quickly in an automated manner by employing a customized Application Programming Interface (API). The developed API generates the lift animation of the cranes based on the defined timeline and lifting path by reading the required data (e.g., site information, modules information, cranes information, object models, and lift sequences) from the database. The proposed framework is validated by applying in a portion of a real modular industrial project in Alberta, Canada. The results show that the developed system has enough flexibility to simulate multi-mobile crane movements with various types of mobile cranes, multiple kinds of movements, and various site conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the work done toward developing a computerized heavy lift planning system (HELPS) for planning crane lifts, which is based on a survey of the industry and identifies the developments necessary to improve the planning process.
Abstract: This paper presents the work done toward developing a computerized heavy lift planning system (HELPS) for planning crane lifts. Initially, a survey of the industry was carried out to define the heavy lift planning process and identify the developments necessary to improve the process. This survey identified eight tasks in the lift planning process. Based on these tasks, a logicalframework representing the planning process was developed. The scope of the current work was limited to developing a tool for planning three of these tasks. A visualization environment-Walkthru-was selected to implement the heavy lift planning system. Although Walkthru provided many of the features required for the system, critical functions had to be added. The developmental work for this study focused on (1) developing a shell that could control the visualization environment and related files to provide seamless access to the library of cranes and (2) providing features to perform critical lift planning functions. The resulting prototype system was tested on sample lifts, and all the functions worked as designed.
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The Automated Lift Planning System (ALPS) software contains a wide range of features enabling the user to select the appropriate crane for a lift, design a rigging assembly to interface with the load, simulate the lift in three dimensions, and automatically determine all relevant safety parameters and potential interferences with surrounding structures or components.
Abstract: This paper describes the Automated Lift Planning System (ALPS) software developed by Bechtel Corporation. The software was developed to assist the construction engineer with planning and visualizing heavy crane lift plans. The software is the most recent addition to Bechtel Corporation's set of construction simulation and visualization tools. ALPS contains a wide range of features enabling the user to select the appropriate crane for a lift, design a rigging assembly to interface with the load, simulate the lift in three dimensions (in the context of a 3D project model), and automatically determine all relevant safety parameters and potential interferences with surrounding structures or components.