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Book ChapterDOI

A Concept Map Approach to Supporting Diagnostic and Remedial Learning Activities

01 Jan 2014-Vol. 27, pp 565-574
TL;DR: The development of an Intelligent Diagnostic and Remedial learning system which aims to diagnose the exact concept the student is deficient in and which improves the performance of the learners for whom they are intended is proposed.
Abstract: Due to rapid advancement in the field of computer communication there has been a lot of research in development of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). However ITS fails to pinpoint the exact concept the student is deficient in. We propose the development of an Intelligent Diagnostic and Remedial learning system which aims to diagnose the exact concept the student is deficient in. The proposed system composed of three modules is derived from David Ausubel’s theory of meaningful learning which consists of three learning elements. The system is implemented in mobile environment using Android Emulator. Finally an experiment was conducted with a set of 60 students majoring in computer science. Experimental results clearly show that the system improves the performance of the learners for whom they are intended.
Topics: Meaningful learning (60%), Intelligent tutoring system (59%), M-learning (54%), Concept map (53%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: From the experimental results, it is found that OPCOMITS has contributed to the academic success of students using it and students have exhibited much better learning than those who have used a conventional e‐learning system.
Abstract: Concept map model is a method that creates domain model by identifying the relationship between concepts in course contents. This study presents an adaptive intelligent web based learning system called OPCOMITS (Object Oriented Programming Tutor using Concept Map Model). OPCOMITS has a free domain model which can be regulated by an expert for any course. It uses concept map model to regulate the topic hierarchy, to measure the student's knowledge about a topic and to stimulate learning. By employing a concept map model, it structures the course and provides an environment in which the lecturer can arrange the chapters, topics, concepts and the prerequisite relationships between the concepts. Thus, it offers an adaptive and effective learning environment by measuring the level of student's knowledge about a topic, offering reinforcing feedback, diagnosing students' weaknesses and directing them to related chapter topic in the domain for revisions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach an experiment has been conducted on Computer Programming department in Object Oriented Programming course. From the experimental results, it is found that OPCOMITS has contributed to the academic success of students using it and students have exhibited much better learning than those who have used a conventional e-learning system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ; View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/cae; DOI 10.1002/cae.21740

11 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2015-
TL;DR: This study proposes automated construction of concept maps using Direct Hashing and Pruning algorithm which was tested with a set of students enrolled in an introductory Java course in some undergraduate colleges in Kolkata and was found to diagnose their learning problems satisfactorily.
Abstract: It has been observed that the growth of communication technologies has led to increased use of computer networks in dissemination of education. An important application area in this perspective where there has been a lot of research is Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). ITS aid the process of learning and evaluation of attainments without human intervention. However ITS are unable to pin point the exact area in a lesson plan where the student is deficient in. In this context, several researchers have used concept maps to perform this identification. However it is time consuming for the educators to construct a concept map of learning manually. Several data mining algorithms have thus been used by the researchers to generate association rules which are used for automated concept map construction. This study proposes automated construction of concept maps using Direct Hashing and Pruning algorithm. The proposed approach was tested with a set of students enrolled in an introductory Java course in some undergraduate colleges in Kolkata and was found to diagnose their learning problems satisfactorily.

7 citations


Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: A Weighted Concept Map based approach is proposed to provide remedialLearning guidance to the learners by generating automated Concept Map and assigning weights to the concepts based on their importance for computation of best remedial learning path.
Abstract: During the last two decades it has been observed that there has been substantial advancement in the domain of E-Learning systems. This may be attributed to development in the field on networking and communication. However most of these systems lack face to face interaction between the learner and the tutor and hence are unable to pinpoint the learner deficiencies. In this context, several researchers have used Concept Maps for identifying student learning barriers. However a major drawback of Concept Map approach is that all concepts are given equal degree of importance from the learner point of view. In this work a Weighted Concept Map based approach is proposed to provide remedial learning guidance to the learners. The system works by generating automated Concept Map and assigning weights to the concepts based on their importance for computation of best remedial learning path. The approach has been tested with a set of middle school students for identifying their learning deficiencies in science courses and the results found to be satisfactory.

6 citations


24 Jun 2017-
Abstract: Yuetong Lin received the Ph.D. degree in Systems and Industrial Engineering from the University of Arizona, Tucson, in 2005. He was with Indiana State University from 2005 to 2016, where he became associate professor of Electronics and Computer Engineering Technology, and the program coordinator for Computer Engineering Technology. He joined Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide in September 2016 as an associate professor in the Department of Engineering and Technology.

4 citations


Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2016-
TL;DR: This study proposes a method of collaboration for construction of Concept Map of learning among a set of ‘n’ learners divided into ‘k’ groups using Short Message Services (SMS) to evaluate this collaborative learning system.
Abstract: The growth of communication technologies in the last two decades has led to development of web based learning systems for a variety of applications. The efficiency of such learning systems has often been enhanced by the use of collaboration tools and techniques. This study proposes a method of collaboration for construction of Concept Map of learning among a set of ‘n’ learners divided into ‘k’ groups using Short Message Services (SMS). This concept map is used as a sequence for construction of learning system. The functional modules of the architecture of this system are derived from the ‘Extended’ theory of Meaningful learning proposed by David Ausubel. Two approaches have been used for evaluating this collaborative learning system. Firstly, paired t-test was conducted on student marks before and after collaboration to find the degree of significance between these. Secondly, efficiency of the collaboration process is computed using a set of Collaborative Efficiency Indexes (CEI) derived from a set of proposed metrics.

2 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1988-
TL;DR: This book discusses the development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Electronic Troubleshooting, the design of Instructional Design environments, and other topics related to knowledge acquisition and representation.
Abstract: Contents: Maj. K.R. Rose, Foreword: What the Army Expects from Intelligent Training Systems. J. Psotka, L.D. Massey, S.A. Mutter, Introduction. Section I:Knowledge Acquisition. W.B. Johnson, Developing Expert System Knowledge Bases in Technical Training Environments. B. Means, S.P. Gott, Cognitive Task Analysis as a Basis for Tutor Development: Articulating Abstract Knowledge Representations. Y.J. Tenney, L.C. Kurland, The Development of Troubleshooting Expertise in Radar Mechanics. D. Kieras, What Mental Model Should be Taught: Choosing Instructional Content for Complex Engineered Systems. Section II:Intelligent Instructional Design. L.C. Kurland, Y.J. Tenney, Issues in Developing an Intelligent Tutor for a Real-World Domain: Training Radar Mechanics. P.L. Pirolli, J.G. Greeno, The Problem Space of Instructional Design. D.M. Russell, T.P. Moran, D.S. Jordan, The Instructional-Design Environment. S.A. MacMillan, D. Emme, M. Berkowitz, Instructional Planners: Lessons Learned. D.C. Wilkins, W.J. Clancey, B.G. Buchanan, Using and Evaluating Differential Modeling in Intelligent Tutoring and Apprentice Learning Systems. Section III:Knowledge Representation. F. Ritter, W. Feurzeig, Teaching Real-Time Tactical Thinking. T. Govindaraj, Intelligent Computer Aids for Fault Diagnosis Training of Expert Operators of Large Dynamic Systems. D.M. Russell, IDE: The Interpreter. J.R. Frederiksen, B.Y. White, A. Collins, G. Eggan, Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Electronic Troubleshooting. L.D. Massey, J. de Bruin, B. Roberts, A Training System for Radar Maintenance. Section IV:Intelligent Tutoring Architectures. J.G. Bonar, R. Cunningham, Bridge: Tutoring the Programming Process. W. Feurzeig, F. Ritter, Understanding Reflective Problem Solving. D. Frye, D.C. Littman, E. Soloway, The Next Wave of Problems in ITS: Confronting the "User Issues" of Interface Design and System Evaluation. D.M. Towne, A. Munro, The Intelligent Maintenance Training System.

314 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2003-Computer Education
Abstract: With the recent rapid progress of computer technology, researchers have attempted to adopt artificial intelligence and use computer networks to develop computer-aided instruction systems. Meanwhile, researchers have also attempted to develop more effective programs to test and enhance the learning performance of students. However, conventional testing systems simply give students a score, and do not give them the opportunity to learn how to improve their learning performance. Students would benefit more if the test results could be analyzed and hence advice could be provided accordingly. This study proposes a conceptual map model, which provides learning suggestions by analyzing the subject materials and test results. A testing and diagnostic system is also implemented on computer networks based on the novel approach. Experimental results have demonstrated that the novel approach benefits students and deserves further investigation.

203 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2005-Computer Education
TL;DR: A mobile authoring tool that is developed and is called Mobile Author, which can be used by human instructors either from a computer or a mobile phone to create their own Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and to distribute them to their students.
Abstract: One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is Education. In the fast pace of modern life, students and instructors would appreciate using constructively some spare time that they may have, in order to work on lessons at any place, even when away from offices, classrooms and labs where computers are usually located. In this paper, we describe a mobile authoring tool that we have developed and is called Mobile Author. Mobile Author can be used by human instructors either from a computer or a mobile phone to create their own Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) and to distribute them to their students. After the ITSs have been created, students can also use any computer or mobile phone to have access to theory and tests. The tutoring systems can assess the students performance, inform the databases that record the students progress and provide advice adapted to the needs of individual students. Finally, instructors can monitor their students progress and communicate with their students during the course. The mobile features of both the authoring tool itself and the resulting ITSs from it have been evaluated by instructors and students, respectively. The results of the evaluation showed that mobile features are indeed considered useful.

198 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Examples from three domains are used to describe how concept maps can be used to organize content based on the knowledge of domain experts, creating an environment that is easy to navigate for learners.
Abstract: Concept maps, as we define them, are graphical tools for organizing and representing relationships between concepts indicated by a connecting line linking two concepts. Words on the line, referred to as linking words or linking phrases, specify the relationship between the two concepts. Concepts and propositions are usually organized hierarchically, from most general, most inclusive to most specific. It is best to construct concept maps with reference to some particular question we seek to answer, which we have called a focus question. The concept map may pertain to some situation or event that we are trying to understand through the organization of knowledge in the form of a concept map, thus providing the context for the concept map. In this paper we briefly present the origins and theoretical foundations of concept maps, explain how concept maps are constructed, and then show how the integration of concept maps with technology in software such as CmapTools facilitates the implementation of concept map-based learning environments that support our New Model for Education. Last, examples from three domains are used to describe how concept maps can be used to organize content based on the knowledge of domain experts, creating an environment that is easy to navigate for learners. ORIGIN OF CONCEPT MAPS Concept maps were developed in 1972 in the course of Novak’s research program at Cornell University where he sought to follow and understand changes in children’s knowledge of science (Novak & Musonda, 1991). During the course of this study the researchers interviewed many children, and they found it difficult to identify specific changes in the children’s understanding of science concepts by examination of interview transcripts. This program was based on the learning psychology of David Ausubel (1963; 1968; Ausubel et al., 1978). The fundamental idea in Ausubel’s cognitive psychology is that learning takes place by the assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional frameworks held by the learner. This knowledge structure as held by a learner is also referred to as the individual’s cognitive structure. Out of the necessity to find a better way to represent children’s conceptual understanding emerged the idea of representing children’s knowledge in the form of a concept map. Thus was born a new tool not only for use in research, but also for many other uses. Figure 1 shows a concept map that illustrates the key features of concept map.

178 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study proposed to apply the algorithm of Apriori for Concept Map to develop an intelligent concept diagnostic system (ICDS), which provides teachers with constructed concept maps of learners rapidly, and enables teachers to diagnose the learning barriers and misconception of learners instantly.
Abstract: The concept map proposed by Novak is a good tool to portray knowledge structure and to diagnose students' misconception in education. However, most of the learning concept maps have to be constructed through the suggestions of experts or scholars in related realm. It is really a complicated and time-consuming knowledge acquisition process. The study proposed to apply the algorithm of Apriori for Concept Map to develop an intelligent concept diagnostic system (ICDS). It provides teachers with constructed concept maps of learners rapidly, and enables teachers to diagnose the learning barriers and misconception of learners instantly. The best Remedial-Instruction Path (RIP) can be reached through the algorithm of RIP suggested in this study. Furthermore, RIP can be designed to provide remedial learning to learners. Moreover, by using statistical method, the study analyzed 245 students' data to investigate whether the learning performance of learners can be significantly enhanced after they have been guided by the RIP.

98 citations


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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20171
20162
20153