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A 'conceptual models' approach to organisational resilience

TL;DR: Gibson and Tarrant as discussed by the authors discuss the range of interdependant factors needed to manage organisational resilience and demonstrate that effective resilience is built upon a range of different strategies that enhance both hard and soft organisational capabilities.
Abstract: Gibson and Tarrant discuss the range of inter-dependant factors needed to manage organisational resilience Over the last few years there has been considerable interest in the idea of resilience across all areas of society Like any new area or field this has produced a vast array of definitions, processes, management systems and measurement tools which together have clouded the concept of resilience Many of us have forgotten that ultimately resilience is not just about ‘bouncing back from adversity’ but is more broadly concerned with adaptive capacity and how we better understand and address uncertainty in our internal and external environments The basis of organisational resilience is a fundamental understanding and treatment of risk, particularly non-routine or disruption related risk This paper presents a number of conceptual models of organisational resilience that we have developed to demonstrate the range of inter-dependant factors that need to be considered in the management of such risk These conceptual models illustrate that effective resilience is built upon a range of different strategies that enhance both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ organisational capabilities They emphasise the concept that there is no quick fix, no single process, management system or software application that will create resilience
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of resilience literature in its widest context and later its application at an organisational level context is provided in this article, where the origins of the concept are reported and consequently, the various fields of research are analysed.
Abstract: In an ever-more interconnected world (social, technological and environmental), no organisation can retain a competitive position and survive disruptions as an independent entity. This article provides a review of resilience literature in its widest context and later its application at an organisational level context. The origins of the concept are reported and consequently, the various fields of research are analysed. The concept is shown to remain essentially constant regardless of its field of enquiry and has much to inform the fields of organisation theory, strategy and operations management. This article identifies a number of areas for advancing resilience research, in particular: the relationship between human and organisational resilience; understanding interfaces between organisational and infrastructural resilience.

943 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study proposes a theoretical model to understand how BT can influence operational supply chain transparency (OSTC) and ST among actors engaged in disaster relief operations and shows how BT-enabled ST can further improve collaboration (CO) among actors engage in disaster Relief operations and enhance supply chain resilience (SCR).
Abstract: There has been tremendous interest in blockchain technology (BT) (also known as distributed ledger technology) around the globe and across sectors. Following significant success in the financial sector, other sectors, such as humanitarian sector, have started deploying BT at various levels. Although the use of BT in the humanitarian sector is in its infancy, donors and government agencies are increasingly calling for building BT-enabled swift-trust and more collaborative relationships among various humanitarian actors in order to improve the transparency and traceability of disaster relief materials, information exchanges and flow of funds in disaster relief supply chains. Our study, which is informed by organizational information processing theory and relational view, proposes a theoretical model to understand how BT can influence operational supply chain transparency (OSTC) and swift-trust (ST) among actors engaged in disaster relief operations. Our model also shows how BT-enabled ST can further improve collaboration (CO) among actors engaged in disaster relief operations and enhance supply chain resilience. We formulated and tested six research hypotheses, using data gathered from international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with the help of the Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) database. We received 256 usable responses using a pre-tested survey based instrument designed for key informants. Our results confirm that our six hypotheses were supported. Our study offers significant and valid contributions to the literature on swift-trust, collaboration and supply chain resilience and BT/distributed ledger technology. We have also noted limitations of our study and have offered future research directions.

276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose that dynamic capabilities provide a mechanism that enables tourism organizations to respond to disruptive environmental changes through a process of routine transformation, resource allocation, and utilization, and the resulting theoretical framework takes a processual view to show how an organization's existing operational routines transform into new ones that are resilient to disruptive events.
Abstract: The importance of resilience for tourism organizations facing crises and disasters is indisputable. Yet little is known about how these organizations become resilient. This paper proposes that dynamic capabilities provide a mechanism that enables tourism organizations to respond to disruptive environmental changes through a process of routine transformation, resource allocation, and utilization. The resulting theoretical framework takes a processual view to show how an organization's existing operational routines transform into new ones that are resilient to disruptive events, enabled by dynamic capabilities and slack resources. The paper outlines six research propositions and suggests methods for future empirical research.

126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a practical and holistic resilience framework for improving the resilience of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) taking into account the external agents is described. But, their implementation is still incipient and detailed prescriptions for their implementation are lacking, and some frameworks are only limited to describing the activities performed within the boundaries of the CI, neglecting the role of external agents.

106 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, a literature review about organizational resilience is presented, with the goal of identifying how organizational resilience are conceptualized and assessed, and how to assess organizational resilience in terms of attributes or characteristics that contribute to developing resilient organizations.
Abstract: We present a literature review about organizational resilience, with the goal of identifying how organizational resilience is conceptualized and assessed The two research questions that drive the review are: (1) how is organizational resilience conceptualized? and (2) how is organizational resilience assessed? We answer the first question by analysing organizational resilience definitions and the attributes or characteristics that contribute to develop resilient organizations We answer the second question by reviewing articles that focus on tools or methods to measure organizational resilience Although there are three different ways to define organizational resilience, we found common ideas in the definitions We also found that organizational resilience is considered a property, ability or capability that can be improved over time However, we did not find consensus about the elements that contribute to improving the level of organizational resilience and how to assess it Based on the results of the review, we propose a conceptualization of organizational resilience that integrates the three views found in the literature We also propose a four-level Maturity Model for Organizational Resilience – MMOR Using this model, the organization can be in one of the following levels based on its ability and capacity to handle disruptive events: fragile, robust, resilient or antifragile

98 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that the strategy formation process is seriously limited, and that the process needs to be viewed from a wider perspective so that the variety of ways in which strategies actually take shape can be considered.
Abstract: How do strategies form in organizations? Research into the question is necessarily shaped by the underlying conception of the term. Since strategy has almost inevitably been conceived in terms of what the leaders of an organization ‘plan’ to do in the future, strategy formation has, not surprisingly, tended to be treated as an analytic process for establishing long-range goals and action plans for an organization; that is, as one of formulation followed by implementation. As important as this emphasis may be, we would argue that it is seriously limited, that the process needs to be viewed from a wider perspective so that the variety of ways in which strategies actually take shape can be considered.

4,414 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of resilience literature in its widest context and later its application at an organisational level context is provided in this article, where the origins of the concept are reported and consequently, the various fields of research are analysed.
Abstract: In an ever-more interconnected world (social, technological and environmental), no organisation can retain a competitive position and survive disruptions as an independent entity. This article provides a review of resilience literature in its widest context and later its application at an organisational level context. The origins of the concept are reported and consequently, the various fields of research are analysed. The concept is shown to remain essentially constant regardless of its field of enquiry and has much to inform the fields of organisation theory, strategy and operations management. This article identifies a number of areas for advancing resilience research, in particular: the relationship between human and organisational resilience; understanding interfaces between organisational and infrastructural resilience.

943 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A design protocol is presented that involves the following steps: identifying system function and boundaries, establishing requirements, selecting appropriate technologies, developing a system design, evaluating anticipated performance, and devising a practical means for system deployment.
Abstract: Pursuit of sustainable development requires a systems approach to the design of industrial product and service systems. Although many business enterprises have adopted sustainability goals, the actual development of sustainable systems remains challenging because of the broad range of economic, environmental and social factors that need to be considered across the system life cycle. Traditional systems engineering practices try to anticipate and resist disruptions but may be vulnerable to unforeseen factors. An alternative is to design systems with inherent "resilience" bytaking advantage of fundamental properties such as diversity, efficiency, adaptability, and cohesion. Previous work on sustainable design has focused largely upon ecological efficiency improvements. For example, companies have found that reducing material and energy intensity and converting wastes into valuable secondary products creates value for shareholders as well as for society at large. To encourage broader systems thinking, a design protocol is presented that involves the following steps: identifying system function and boundaries, establishing requirements, selecting appropriate technologies, developing a system design, evaluating anticipated performance, and devising a practical means for system deployment. The approach encourages explicit consideration of resilience in both engineered systems and the larger systems in which they are embedded.

618 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study proposes a theoretical model to understand how BT can influence operational supply chain transparency (OSTC) and ST among actors engaged in disaster relief operations and shows how BT-enabled ST can further improve collaboration (CO) among actors engage in disaster Relief operations and enhance supply chain resilience (SCR).
Abstract: There has been tremendous interest in blockchain technology (BT) (also known as distributed ledger technology) around the globe and across sectors. Following significant success in the financial sector, other sectors, such as humanitarian sector, have started deploying BT at various levels. Although the use of BT in the humanitarian sector is in its infancy, donors and government agencies are increasingly calling for building BT-enabled swift-trust and more collaborative relationships among various humanitarian actors in order to improve the transparency and traceability of disaster relief materials, information exchanges and flow of funds in disaster relief supply chains. Our study, which is informed by organizational information processing theory and relational view, proposes a theoretical model to understand how BT can influence operational supply chain transparency (OSTC) and swift-trust (ST) among actors engaged in disaster relief operations. Our model also shows how BT-enabled ST can further improve collaboration (CO) among actors engaged in disaster relief operations and enhance supply chain resilience. We formulated and tested six research hypotheses, using data gathered from international non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with the help of the Coordinator for Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) database. We received 256 usable responses using a pre-tested survey based instrument designed for key informants. Our results confirm that our six hypotheses were supported. Our study offers significant and valid contributions to the literature on swift-trust, collaboration and supply chain resilience and BT/distributed ledger technology. We have also noted limitations of our study and have offered future research directions.

276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of case studies available in the literature suggests that the capacity of resilience of traditional societies and the concurrent degree of cultural change rely on four factors, namely: the nature of the hazard, the pre-disaster socio-cultural context and capacity of resilient of the community, the geographical setting, and the rehabilitation policy set up by the authorities.
Abstract: Purpose – This article sets out to address the response of traditional societies in facing natural hazards through the lens of the concept of resilience.Design/methodology/approach – This paper considers that resilient societies are those able to overcome the damage caused by the occurrence of natural hazards, either through maintaining their pre‐disaster social fabric, or through accepting marginal or larger change in order to survive. The discussion is based on a review of the corpus of case studies available in the literature.Findings – The present article suggests that the capacity of resilience of traditional societies and the concurrent degree of cultural change rely on four factors, namely: the nature of the hazard, the pre‐disaster socio‐cultural context and capacity of resilience of the community, the geographical setting, and the rehabilitation policy set up by the authorities. These factors significantly vary in time and space, from one disaster to another.Practical implications – It is importa...

227 citations