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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7554/ELIFE.65939

A confinable home and rescue gene drive for population modification

05 Mar 2021-eLife (eLife Sciences Publications Limited)-Vol. 10
Abstract: Homing-based gene drives, engineered using CRISPR/Cas9, have been proposed to spread desirable genes throughout populations. However, invasion of such drives can be hindered by the accumulation of resistant alleles. To limit this obstacle, we engineer a confinable population modification home-and-rescue (HomeR) drive in Drosophila targeting an essential gene. In our experiments, resistant alleles that disrupt the target gene function were recessive lethal and therefore disadvantaged. We demonstrate that HomeR can achieve an increase in frequency in population cage experiments, but that fitness costs due to the Cas9 insertion limit drive efficacy. Finally, we conduct mathematical modeling comparing HomeR to contemporary gene drive architectures for population modification over wide ranges of fitness costs, transmission rates, and release regimens. HomeR could potentially be adapted to other species, as a means for safe, confinable, modification of wild populations.

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Topics: Gene drive (63%), Population (56%)
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41576-021-00386-0
Ethan Bier1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Gene drives are selfish genetic elements that are transmitted to progeny at super-Mendelian (>50%) frequencies. Recently developed CRISPR-Cas9-based gene-drive systems are highly efficient in laboratory settings, offering the potential to reduce the prevalence of vector-borne diseases, crop pests and non-native invasive species. However, concerns have been raised regarding the potential unintended impacts of gene-drive systems. This Review summarizes the phenomenal progress in this field, focusing on optimal design features for full-drive elements (drives with linked Cas9 and guide RNA components) that either suppress target mosquito populations or modify them to prevent pathogen transmission, allelic drives for updating genetic elements, mitigating strategies including trans-complementing split-drives and genetic neutralizing elements, and the adaptation of drive technology to other organisms. These scientific advances, combined with ethical and social considerations, will facilitate the transparent and responsible advancement of these technologies towards field implementation.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41467-021-24654-Z
Guan-Hong Wang1, Guan-Hong Wang2, Stephanie Gamez2, Robyn R. Raban2  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Mosquito-borne diseases, such as dengue and malaria, pose significant global health burdens. Unfortunately, current control methods based on insecticides and environmental maintenance have fallen short of eliminating the disease burden. Scalable, deployable, genetic-based solutions are sought to reduce the transmission risk of these diseases. Pathogen-blocking Wolbachia bacteria, or genome engineering-based mosquito control strategies including gene drives have been developed to address these problems, both requiring the release of modified mosquitoes into the environment. Here, we review the latest developments, notable similarities, and critical distinctions between these promising technologies and discuss their future applications for mosquito-borne disease control.

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Topics: Mosquito control (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/07388551.2021.1933891
Yann Devos1, John D. Mumford2, Michael B. Bonsall3, Ana M Camargo1  +5 moreInstitutions (6)
Abstract: Potential future application of engineered gene drives (GDs), which bias their own inheritance and can spread genetic modifications in wild target populations, has sparked both enthusiasm and concern. Engineered GDs in insects could potentially be used to address long-standing challenges in control of disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species, or help to rescue endangered species, and thus provide important public benefits. However, there are concerns that the deliberate environmental release of GD modified insects may pose different or new harms to animal and human health and the wider environment, and raise novel challenges for risk assessment. Risk assessors, risk managers, developers, potential applicants and other stakeholders at many levels are currently discussing whether there is a need to develop new or additional risk assessment guidance for the environmental release of GD modified organisms, including insects. Developing new or additional guidance that is useful and practical is a challenge, especially at an international level, as risk assessors, risk managers and many other stakeholders have different, often contrasting, opinions and perspectives toward the environmental release of GD modified organisms, and on the adequacy of current risk assessment frameworks for such organisms. Here, we offer recommendations to overcome some of the challenges associated with the potential future development of new or additional risk assessment guidance for GD modified insects and provide considerations on areas where further risk assessment guidance may be required.

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Topics: Risk assessment (56%), Gene drive (53%), Precautionary principle (50%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOTECHADV.2021.107807
Abstract: The ability to engineer gene drives (genetic elements that bias their own inheritance) has sparked enthusiasm and concerns. Engineered gene drives could potentially be used to address long-standing challenges in the control of insect disease vectors, agricultural pests and invasive species, or help to rescue endangered species. However, risk concerns and uncertainty associated with potential environmental release of gene drive modified insects (GDMIs) have led some stakeholders to call for a global moratorium on such releases or the application of other strict precautionary measures to mitigate perceived risk assessment and risk management challenges. Instead, we provide recommendations that may help to improve the relevance of risk assessment and risk management frameworks for environmental releases of GDMIs. These recommendations include: (1) developing additional and more practical risk assessment guidance to ensure appropriate levels of safety; (2) making policy goals and regulatory decision-making criteria operational for use in risk assessment so that what constitutes harm is clearly defined; (3) ensuring a more dynamic interplay between risk assessment and risk management to manage uncertainty through closely interlinked pre-release modelling and post-release monitoring; (4) considering potential risks against potential benefits, and comparing them with those of alternative actions to account for a wider (management) context; and (5) implementing a modular, phased approach to authorisations for incremental acceptance and management of risks and uncertainty. Along with providing stakeholder engagement opportunities in the risk analysis process, the recommendations proposed may enable risk managers to make choices that are more proportionate and adaptive to potential risks, uncertainty and benefits of GDMI applications, and socially robust.

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Topics: Risk analysis (72%), Risk management (67%), Risk assessment (61%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1089/CRISPR.2021.0032
Nikolay P. Kandul1, Esther J. Belikoff1, Junru Liu1, Anna Buchman1  +6 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Oct 2021-
Abstract: Originally from Asia, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is a global pest of economically important soft-skinned fruits. Also commonly known as spotted wing drosophila, it is largely controlled through r...

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Topics: Drosophila suzukii (77%), Drosophila (51%)

1 Citations


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72 results found


Open accessJournal Article
01 Jan 2014-MSOR connections
Abstract: Copyright (©) 1999–2012 R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a translation approved by the R Core Team.

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Topics: R Programming Language (78%)

229,202 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.1318
Daniel G. Gibson1, Lei Young1, Ray-Yuan Chuang1, J. Craig Venter1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 May 2009-Nature Methods
Abstract: We describe an isothermal, single-reaction method for assembling multiple overlapping DNA molecules by the concerted action of a 5' exonuclease, a DNA polymerase and a DNA ligase. First we recessed DNA fragments, yielding single-stranded DNA overhangs that specifically annealed, and then covalently joined them. This assembly method can be used to seamlessly construct synthetic and natural genes, genetic pathways and entire genomes, and could be a useful molecular engineering tool.

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Topics: In vitro recombination (65%), DNA clamp (65%), Polymerase cycling assembly (65%) ... read more

6,548 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKY379
Enis Afgan1, Dannon Baker1, Bérénice Batut2, Marius van den Beek3  +16 moreInstitutions (8)
Abstract: Galaxy (homepage: https://galaxyproject.org, main public server: https://usegalaxy.org) is a web-based scientific analysis platform used by tens of thousands of scientists across the world to analyze large biomedical datasets such as those found in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and imaging. Started in 2005, Galaxy continues to focus on three key challenges of data-driven biomedical science: making analyses accessible to all researchers, ensuring analyses are completely reproducible, and making it simple to communicate analyses so that they can be reused and extended. During the last two years, the Galaxy team and the open-source community around Galaxy have made substantial improvements to Galaxy's core framework, user interface, tools, and training materials. Framework and user interface improvements now enable Galaxy to be used for analyzing tens of thousands of datasets, and >5500 tools are now available from the Galaxy ToolShed. The Galaxy community has led an effort to create numerous high-quality tutorials focused on common types of genomic analyses. The Galaxy developer and user communities continue to grow and be integral to Galaxy's development. The number of Galaxy public servers, developers contributing to the Galaxy framework and its tools, and users of the main Galaxy server have all increased substantially.

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Topics: Galaxy (52%)

1,507 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE10811
09 Feb 2012-Nature
Abstract: A major challenge of biology is understanding the relationship between molecular genetic variation and variation in quantitative traits, including fitness. This relationship determines our ability to predict phenotypes from genotypes and to understand how evolutionary forces shape variation within and between species. Previous efforts to dissect the genotype-phenotype map were based on incomplete genotypic information. Here, we describe the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), a community resource for analysis of population genomics and quantitative traits. The DGRP consists of fully sequenced inbred lines derived from a natural population. Population genomic analyses reveal reduced polymorphism in centromeric autosomal regions and the X chromosome, evidence for positive and negative selection, and rapid evolution of the X chromosome. Many variants in novel genes, most at low frequency, are associated with quantitative traits and explain a large fraction of the phenotypic variance. The DGRP facilitates genotype-phenotype mapping using the power of Drosophila genetics.

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Topics: Population (55%), Quantitative trait locus (54%), Molecular Genetic Variation (54%) ... read more

1,379 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1534/GENETICS.166.4.1775
01 Apr 2004-Genetics
Abstract: The phiC31 integrase functions efficiently in vitro and in Escherichia coli, yeast, and mammalian cells, mediating unidirectional site-specific recombination between its attB and attP recognition sites. Here we show that this site-specific integration system also functions efficiently in Drosophila melanogaster in cultured cells and in embryos. Intramolecular recombination in S2 cells on transfected plasmid DNA carrying the attB and attP recognition sites occurred at a frequency of 47%. In addition, several endogenous pseudo attP sites were identified in the fly genome that were recognized by the integrase and used as substrates for integration in S2 cells. Two lines of Drosophila were created by integrating an attP site into the genome with a P element. phiC31 integrase injected into embryos as mRNA functioned to promote integration of an attB-containing plasmid into the attP site, resulting in up to 55% of fertile adults producing transgenic offspring. A total of 100% of these progeny carried a precise integration event at the genomic attP site. These experiments demonstrate the potential for precise genetic engineering of the Drosophila genome with the phiC31 integrase system and will likely benefit research in Drosophila and other insects.

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Topics: Integrase (60%), Schneider 2 cells (54%), P element (51%)

1,008 Citations